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Ayatullah al-Uzma Sayyid Ali Khamenei
"Right from the assassination attempt on my life, I had a feeling that Allah had chosen me for a great task for which I had prepared . At the time I did not know the nature of the task. However, I had no doubt that I would be ready to shoulder a great weight in His way for the sake of the revolution and in the service of you, Oh people.
1. Birth and Lineage His Eminence Ayatullah al-'Udhma al-Haj as-Sayyid 'Ali al-Husaini al-Khamenei (May Allah prolong his life) was born in 1939 in the Holy City of Mashhad, Iran, in a respected scholarly family. His father, Ayatullah al-Haj as-Sayyid Jawad, was amongst Mashhad's erudite 'ulama (clerics). For years on end, he used to lead Fajr (morning) prayers at the Gawharshad mosque and dhuhr (midday) and 'Isha (evening) prayers at the Bazaar-e-Mashhad mosque. He was a well-known preacher. His mother was the daughter of Sayyid Hashim Najafabadi (Mir Damadi), one of the well-known 'ulama of Mashhad. She was a chaste and honourable woman, who had knowledge of religious injunctions. She had very high moral principles.
2. His Childhood Ayatullah al-'Udhma Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei lived his childhood under the care of his father, who was a loving parent and committed to bringing up his children in the best way. He spared no efforts in teaching them. Those years were very hard on Sayyid Khamenei because of poverty. He said, " I can recall that sometimes we had nothing to eat. At dinner time, my mother used to take the money which my grandmother gave me and my brothers and sisters, to buy milk and raisins for us to eat with bread."
3. His Education and Studies At the age of five, Ayatullah al-Udhma Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei and his elder brother Sayyid Muhammad were sent to Maktabkhaneh (Qur'anic classes). Then they were enrolled into a religious primary school by the name of 'Dar ut Ta'lim e Diyanati'. After he finished the primary school course, he attended evening classes in a state school, without the knowledge of his father, and obtained a certificate. He then enrolled in a secondary school for two years where he obtained a certificate. As for religious studies, he studied Arabic grammar at the religious school. He read some of the books from "Jami' al-Muqaddamat", which are Arabic syntax books, under the supervision of his father.
At the age of fourteen he joined the Sulaiman Khan school to study religious sciences. After completion of the study of Arabic grammar and the preliminary religious sciences he studied some of the Intermediate religious stuides (Sutuh) till the end of Lum'ah (concise but comprehensive text of Fiqh). Subsequently he joined the Nuwwab Religious Seminary to complete his Sutuh level of studies at the young age of sixteen.
This led to his attending Bahthil Kharij (graduation classes) under the supervision of Ayatullah al-'Udhma Sayyid Milani. Ayatullah al-'Udhma Khamenei in addition to Fiqh and Usul also learnt and taught Islamic Philosophy, Rijal (Biography of Narrators of Holy Traditions), Diraya (Science of Comprehension of Traditions), Astronomy and Tafsir (Quranic Exegesis). He studied under eminent scholars and jurisprudents like Ayatullah Mirza Javad Agha Tehrani, Ayatullah Hakim, Imam Khomeini, Ayatullah al-'Udhma Burujardi and 'Allamah Tabatabai. Ayatullah al-'Udhma Khamenei spent most of his student days in Mashhad. In 1947 he also visited the Holy City of Najaf where he studied for two years. In 1958 he migrated to Qom where he studied for six years.
4. Teaching Career His Eminence Ayatullah al-'Udhma Sayyid Khamenei started teaching early in his student days. Whatever he learnt with his God-given ingenuity and great devotion, he taught with complete mastery. He expalins, "I started teaching right after I graduated from the primary school, during the time of my religious studies at the Islamic seminary. I supervised the learning of two elderly students, who were reading the book "Sarf -e-Mir". Up to 1958, at which time I started living in Mashhad, I used to teach Arabic syntax and grammar, figures of speech, principles of jurisprudence and jurisprudence. In Qom I also combined study with teaching. After my return from Qom to Mashad in 1964, teaching was one of my main occupations.
During these years, and until 1977, I supervised students at the level of advanced sutuh, teaching Makasib (an advanced profound text of Fiqh) of Sheikh Ansari in jurisprudence and Kifayah in usul (an advanced profound text on principles of Jurisprudence) and 'Aqaid (beliefs)." Ayatullah al-'Udhma Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei obtained a licence for ijtihad (deduction of legal judgements) from his teacher, Ayatullah al-'Udhma Hairi in 1974, after attending bahth ul-kharij for more than fifteen years. Throughout his political career after the victory of the revolution, as testified by his colleagues who pursued academic discussions with him, he never abandoned his research and teaching. He would manange his time skillfully to engage in study and research especially in the field of Fiqh.
5. His Struggle from 1962 Onwards
A great part of his life has been dedicated to struggle, either through his writings, speeches, or taking up arms, especially when the late Imam inaugurated his Islamic Revolution in 1963. A detailed description of his struggles would require several volumes. However, a brief outline follows. Responding to the call of Imam Khomeini (May his soul rest in peace) in 1962, the centre of religious learning, seat of knowledge and heart of jihad in Qom assumed an invigorated role. With courage and zeal, 'ulama and students alike took it upon themselves to disseminate the messages of the Imam and other religious authorities to every corner of Iran. Their instructions and calls were printed and circulated widely through the support and help of all popular forces.
This new found vigour and zeal spread to the other centres of theology in the country, especially the Islamic seminary of Mashhad. Ayatullah al-'Udhma Sayyid Khamenei (May Allah prolong his life) played a decisive role in this awakening. Alongside his activities in Qom, he strengthened his bond with the 'ulama and students of Mashhad. Counting on the activities and support of the 'ulama of Khurasan, he succeeded in mobilising theology students in a better way. His fiery sermons exposing the treachery of the regime and widespsread activism against the oppressive Pahlavi rule led to his arrest and imposition of harsh treatment. He was forced to do menial work, kept in solitary confinement, insulted and severely humiliated, threatened with death and subjected to other tortures in jail. After his release from detention, Ayatullah al-'Udhma Khamenei decided to settle in Mashhad instead of going back to Tehran or Qom.
He took up teaching as his prime concern. He gave classes in Qura'nic commentary, specially tailored for theology students, and other classes for university students and youth. He used these classes as a platform to disseminate revolutionary ideas, a rallying point for revolutionaries, and a centre for awakening. These classes turned into an axis of popular sentiments and Islamic dissent. These activities in the fields of knowledge, teaching, jihad and service of the people contributed to Ayatullah al-'Udhma Khamenei's becoming, with time, a focus of jihad in Mashhad. People came to see him from far flung places in Iran.
He in turn had contacts with the people in all areas. Ayatullah al-'Udhma Khamenei thus, commanded the respect of the Iranian people for his integrity, morality and courage. Invitations from many bodies and institutions in Iranian towns and cities such as Isfahan, Kirman, Yazd and Tehran were raining down on him to come and give lectures and talks. He spared no efforts to make use of all occasions to disseminate Islamic revolutionary ideas, tell the truth about the regime's practices, and encourage people to adhto the path of jihad and revolution. Besides his lectures, the books he either wrote or translated gave life to revolutionary ideas and fervour.
Books like the Treaty of Imam Hasan (peace be upon him) The Future is This Religion's, and The Role of Muslims in India's Awakening played a great role in educating the youth and grooming them for revolution. After the departure of Ayatullah al-'Udhma Burujardi in 1970, Ayatullah al-'Udhma Sayyid Khamenei embarked on the task of promoting Imam Khomeini as a Marj'a, (religious authority); he thought the time was right for such a move; the years 1968 to 1971 witnessed the building of peaceful revolutionary culture.
The youth were still taking their first steps in the realm of revolutionary Islam.The 'ulama became their most deadly weapon. The latter did not miss the opportunity of spreading pristine Islamic knowledge and sciences amongst the youth, using every available medium, be it the pulpit of the mosque, private classes, free and open discussion sessions, or publishing books and leaflets. Sayyid Khamenei calls this period the " years of clandestine activities."
As he was keen on educating revolutionary cadres, enlisting the support of trusted elements, and establishing contacts with activists, he accepted an offer to combine teaching with the task of leading prayers, i.e. being the Imam of the congregation. Capitalising on the strength the Islamic movement had achieved , it was thought fit and timely to create organised Islamic cells, headed by the 'ulama and those well-versed in jurisprudence and politics instead of ordinary people or politicians. The first of these cells was set up, headed by the late Imam Khomeini and supervised by revolutionary ulema in Mashad.
The Mujahidin 'Ulama League was born; its emergence was a prelude to the founding of the Islamic Republican Party after the revolution. The activities of the League were responsible for mobilising and organising millions of people in marches and demonstrations during the period 1977 to 1978. Sayyid Khamenei's role in establishing the League was pivotal. It is worth noting that the Savak prevented him from leaving the country for ten years from 1965. His exile lasted till 1978, the year when the masses took the upper hand so much so that matters went out of the hands of the regime. Availing himself of the turmoil into which the ruling establishment was thrown, Sayyid Khamenei returned to Mashhad to continue his jihad with a vengeance.
6. During and After the Revolution
1. Membership of the Revolution Command Council Besides the leader, the Revolution Command Council played a major role in administering the revolution and eventually rendering it triumphant.
2. Member of Imam Khomeini's Reception Committee
3. Representative of Imam Khomeini in the Revolutionary Council in the Defence Ministry
4. Commander of Revolutionary Guards
5. Imam of Tehran Friday (Juma'h) Prayer
6. Member of the Islamic Consultative Council in the first term.
7. Imam Khomeini's counsel in Supreme Defence Council
8. President of the Republic for two consecutive terms
7. His Leadership After the sad demise of the founder of the Islamic Revolution, the Council of Experts on 4th June 1989 unanimously elected him to the Leadesrhip post of the Islamic Revolution and the Muslim Ummah. During his wise leadership he has succeeded in discharging his responsibilities in the best manner and steers the revolution on the same pristine path trodden by the late Imam Khomeini. It is no wonder for he is one of the disciples of the Imam. We pray he continues his firm but wise leadership till the reappearance of the Awaited Saviour of mankind, the Original Leader of the Global Islamic Revolution, the Holy Imam al-Mahdi (May Allah Hasten His Glad Reappearance)
Useful link regarding Ayatullah al-Uzma Khamnaee

Ayatullah AL-Uzma Wahid Khurasani
Ayatullah Shaykl Husain Wahid Khurasani was born in 1921 in the holy city of Mashhad. Having finished the literature lessons, he learned the Sotouh stage from the late Ayatullah Haj Shaykh Muhammad Nahawandi, then he attended the lectures of the Kharij stage of the late Ayatullah Mirza Mehdi Isfahani and Ayatullah Ashtiyani. He also learned rational sciences, philosophy, and theology from the late Mirza Abul Qasim Ilahi and Agha Mirza Mehdi Ashtiyani.
Then he migrated to Najaf Ashraf to complete his studies; that took place when he was 27 years old. There he attended the lectures of the late Ayatullah Uzma Agha Mirza Abdul Hadi Shirazi, and Ayatullah Uzma Hakim, but the main of his knowledge he has took from Ayatullah Uzma Haj Sayyid Abul Qasim Khou'i, and he later became one of his prominent students.
In 1378 A.H. (1958 A.D.), and after teaching the Sotouh stage for many years, Ayatullah Wahid Khurasani began teaching Fiqh and Usoul of the Kharij stage in Najaf which lasted for about twelve years. When he returned to Iran, in 1936, he took up residence in Mashhad and worked in teaching. After a year from that he migrated to the holy city of Qom. He is now teaching Fiqh and Usoul of the Kharij stage in the Hawzah. He is one of the Grand Marja of the Shi'ites in the world.

Seyyid Dildar Ali
He is popularly known as Ghufran Ma'ab, was the son of Seyyid Muhammad Muin bin Seyyid Abdul Hadi. It would seem that his family, like many other Seyyid families, left Nishapur (Iran) because of the Mongol invasion and settled in India. He was born in 1166 AH. He completed his early studies in India, and in 1193 AH travelled to Iraq for further studies. Among his tutors in Iraq were great Fuqaha like Shaikh Ja'far Kashiful Ghita, and Wahid Behbehani. Later, he went to Mashhad (Iran) for further studies.
Seyyid Dildar Ali, while in India, was of Akhbari persuasion, but he changed to Usuli school after his intensive studies in Iraq. Upon his return to Lucknow, he became a Marja' in India, his fatwas being regarded as final by the Shia populace.
His magnum opus in Theology (Ilm­ul­Kalam) is known as "Imadul­Islam" which he wrote in Arabic, in refutation of anti­shia arguments by Fakhr­ud­Din Razi. His detailed work in FIQH is 'MUNTAHAL AFKAR'. His sons were also pious, dedicated scholars and teachers.
Seyyid Dildar Ali died in the night of 19th Rajab 1235 (2nd May 1820), and was buried in Lucknow.

Mufti Mohammad Abbas
He was son of Seyyid Ali Akbar Jazaeri Shushtari, was born at the end of Rabi­ul­Awwal 1224 AH. (15th May 1809). As a child, he was gifted and precocious, having composed an Urdu MATHNAVI on Shia doctrines at the age of 12. More than 150 of his books have been published but a large number still remain in manuscript form. He never visited Arabia, yet Arab scholars were impressed by his Arabic prose and poetry.
His deep understanding of FIQH prompted Sultanul Ulama, Seyyid Mohammad, son of Ghufran Ma'ab, to appoint him the MUFTI of Lucknow. Mufti Mohammad Abbas compiled a guide book for the Qadhis and Mufties of AWADH and the principles laid down by him were followed by the judiciary.
He had six sons, one of them Mufti Seyyid Ahmad Ali (died in 1969) was also a Faqih of repute. He was the principle of Nazmia Arabic College, Lucknow.
Mufti Mohammad Abbas died on 25th Rajab 1306 (27th March 1889) at Lucknow.

Seyyid Hamid Husain
He was son of Mufti Muhammad Quli, was born in Meerut, India, on 5th Muharaam 1246 (27th June, 1830). He studied Arabic literature with Mufti Mohammad Abbas, and Sayyidul Ulama Seyyid Husain (the youngest son of Ghufran Ma'ab) trained him in FIQH and Usool.
Seyyid Hamid Husain acquired his knowledge of the Islamic sciences in India, and although he visited many scholars during his pilgrimage to Arabia and Iraq, his main interest lay in collecting books and manuscripts for doctrinal and historical research. Ulama of Iran and Iraq have paid glowing tributes to him in their evaluation of his copious contributions, particularly the encyclopaedic work on Imamah, called 'ABAQATUL ANWAR'.
Ayatullah Seyyid Muhsin Amili in his 'A'AYANU SSHIA' says: " A man of his eloquence, proficiency in Traditions, Islamic history and Theology is not to be found during his time. In fact, neither before nor after. If we said that a scholar of his status has not appeared after the era of MUFEED and MURTADHA, it would not be an exaggeration…"
His work on FIQH includes "AL­DHARAE" which is a commentary on 'SHARAE', 'ZAINUL WASAIL', 'AL­SHARIAH AL­GHARRA', 'AL­NAJM AL­THAQIB' and others.

Seyyid Najmul Hasan
He was popularly known as Najmul Millat. He was the son of Seyyid Akbar Husain of Amroha. Seyyid was born on 6th Dhul Hijja 1279 (25th May 1863). He was a favourite disciple and son­in­law of Mufti Muhammad Abbas. He studied all the higher faculties, including Fiqh and Usool in India, under the tutelage of Abul Hasan Abbu Sahib and Mufti Muhammad Abbas. Himself a Faqih of the first rank, he trained several Ulama like Seyyid Sibte Hasan, Seyyid Adeel Akhtar and Hafiz Kitayat Husain. He will ever be remembered for his services to the Shias of Tibet, Burma, Africa, and countries in the West, rendered through the missionaries trained in his Madrassah Nazmiah, Lucknow.
He died on 17th Safar 1351 AH (18th April 1938).

Aga Buzurg Tehrani
Muhammad Muhsin bin Ali bin Muhammad Reza bin Muhsin bin Ali Akbar (1876- 1970 A.D/1293-1389 A.H.), the famous Shi'ite jurist and bibliographer was born in Tehran. His father and grand-father were also the religious scholars of this city. Aga Buzurg started his primary religious education in Dangi Seminary and continued in Pamnar Seminary and then in the Farhriyeh (Marwi) Seminary.
In (1897 A.D./1315 A.H.) he left for Najaf (Iraq) for pursuing higher education and from this date till (1910 A.D. / 1329 A.H.) he studied under many great scholars of this city. In (1912 A.D./1329 A.H.) he left for Kazmain and started extensive research to compile the Shi'ite bibliography encyclopaedia i-e Ad. Dhariyyah ila Tasaneef al-Shia. In (1935 A.D./1354 A.H) he returned to Najaf to publish Ad-Dhariyyah and for this purpose he established a printing press known as As-Sa'adah press but the Imperial Government of Iraq created obstacles in his works by raising various excuses.
Aga Buzurg travelled extensively to compile this encyclopaedia. Aga Buzurg obtained permissions from the traditionists of the various Islamic schools of thoughts to quote Hadith. His important works are as follows:
1 - Ad-Dhariyyah ila Tasaneef al-Shia.
2 - Tabaqat Elam ush-Shia.
3 - Masfal Maqal fi Masnafi-i Ilm ar-Rijal
4 - Al-Mashiqah
5 - Hadiyah tar Razi ila Mujaddid al-Shirazi
6 - An-Naqd al-Taif fi Nafi al-Tahrif an-al Quran al-Sharif.
7 - Tauzeeh ar-Rashad fi Tarikh Hasr al-Ijtihad.
8 - Tafneed Qoul al-Awwam Ba Qadam al-Kalam.
9 - Zial Al-Mashiqah.
10 - Zia al Mafazat fi Tariq Mashaiq al Ijazat.
11 - Ijazat al-Riqayah wa Warasah fil Quran al-Akhirah al Salasa.
12 - Hayat ash-Shaykh al Tousi.
13 - Mustadrak Kashf az-Zunoon or Zail Kashf az-Zunoon.

Ibn Uqdah
Abul Abbas Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Saeed Hamadani (863-944A.D./ 249-332 A.H.) was the famous Shi'ite traditionist. Uqdah was the nickname of his father who was a paper manufacturer and teacher in Kufah. Ibn Uqdah followed Zaydi school and was very famous in memorizing traditions and he memorized one hundred thousand traditions and knew the text and authority of more than three hundred thousand traditions from the Holy Ahlebayt (A.S.).
He is very famous among the Shi'ites regarding the authority of the traditions. A major part of the fundamentals of the Shi'ites has been narrated by him and he is quoted extensively in the four authentic hadith compilations of the Shi'ites. Among the Sunni scholars authority on traditions like Abu Ali Hafez have praised him but some other Sunni scholars has criticized and rebuked him.
Ibn Uqdah as a authority of the traditions is well known among the Shi'ites and the adaption of traditions in the books regarding the authority of the traditions by him is also highly regarded. Te famous traditionists of Shi'ite, Sunni and Zaydi schools are included among the narrators of traditions from him like Muhammad bin Yaqub Kulaini, Abul Hasan Dar Qatni, Abul Qasim Tibrani, Abul Faraj Isfahani and others. His printed works are still extant.

Ibn A'Tham Kufi
Abu Muhammad Ahmad bin Ali famous as Ibn A'tham Kufi (demise 926 A.D./314 A.H.) is one of the famous Shi'ite traditionist, poet and historian. There is no exact information about his birth place, There is differences regarding his name and lineage. Yaqut considers him as a Shi'ite historian but the traditionists consider his traditions as weak and says that he himself has seen the book written by Ibn A'tham. But Shushtary considers him to belong to Shafaee school and regards him as reliable among the preceding scholars.
The works of Ibn A'tham mentioned in the history books are as follows:
1 - Al-Futuh: This book is also famous with the titles "Tarikh-i Futuh" and "Futuhat al-Shaam This book is considered as one of the most important document of the history of early Islam. In this book the author has named the famous historians and traditionists as its sources.
2 - Kitab Tarikh: This book according to Yaqut is the apendix of his first book Al-Futuh.

Ibn Shahr Aashub
Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Ali bin Shahr Aashub bin Ali Nasr bin Abul Jaush Mazandirani, nicknamed Rashid al-Din and Azzedine (1096-1192 A.D. / 489-588 A.H.) was a well-Known Shi'ite exegetist, traditionist, scholar and jurist, It is said that he and his father were the inhabitants of Sari and is confirned that he belonged to Mazandiran but it is not sure whether he was born in Sari. He persued education since his childhood and at the age of 8 years he memorized the whole Quran.
Ibn Shahr Aashub attended the classes of very famous scholars like Ahmad Ghazzali, Jarallah Zamikhshari, Abu Ali Tabarsi, Abul Hasan Baihaqi, Fareed khurasani, Khatib Khwarizmi, Qutbuddin Rawandi, The famous students and transmitters of Ibn Shahr Aashub were Ibn Idris Hilli, Ibn Batriq Hilli, Ibn Ab0i Ta'i Halabi and Ibn Zuhrah Halabi. His works manifest his expertise in the fields of Quranic sciences, traditions and Rijal. Ibn Shahr Aashub was also a poet of great repute. He passed away in Aleppo and was buried in Jabal al-Jowshan near the place famous as Mashhad al-Husain (A.S.). But Affandi wrongly states that he passed away in "Mashhad Ganj Afroz" near the Barfuroosh village (Babul) and his grave is the pilgrimage center of the people.

Syed Bin Taoos
Razi al-Din Abul-Qasim Ali bin Musa bin Jafar, famous as Syed bin Taoos (1193-1266 A.D./589-664 A.D.) the well knoun Shi'ite jurist, traditionist, historian and scholar was born in Hilla (Iraq). He spent his childhood and young age in his birth place and obtained education there. Then he left for Baghdad and stayed there for about 15 years and returned back to his birth place. He lived for sometime in Najaf, Karbala, Samarra and Kazmain and during the Mongol rule he returned back to Baghdad.
Ibn Taoos is considered as one of the most prominent jurist and traditionist among the Shi'ites, His literary prominence lies in his extensive works in the field of tradition and history. He is well known for quoting supplications, ethical and theological traditions as well as for his very pious life. Ibn Taoos studied under many great scholars and obtained permissions from most of them to narrate traditions.
Ibn Taoos was a hard working scholar and has left behmd multifarious works in theology, ethics, juris prudence and traditions. Most of his works has been reprinted many times and some of them have been rendered into Persian, Some of his works are as follows:
1 - Ijaza-i Syed bin Taoos.
3 - Al-Tara'if fi Marifah Mazahib at Tawaif.
4 - Muhasibah-tun Nafs.
5 - Misbah ash-Shariyah.
6 - Al-Luhuf Ala Qutilat Taffuf.
7 - Mahj al-Dawat wa Minhaj al-Ibadat.
8 - Faraj al-Mahmum fi Tarikh Ulama an-Nujum

Ibn Alqami
Majd al-Din Abu Taleb Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Abu Taleb bin Alqami (1195-1258A.D./591-656 A.H.) was the last Abbasid minister. Some of the historians consider him to be Iranian from the city of Qum. He was an astute and learned politician and was an ardent follower of the Shi'ite school. During his youth he learned grammar and literature from Ibn Ayub Emeed ar-Ru'asa, a famous Shi'ite scholar.
Ibn Alqami was an able administrator and far-sighted statesman. Shi'ite historians have mentioned him as a pious and distinguished person. Ibn Alqami was a well-known scholar of his period. He was a good poet and master in Arabic prose. He was also expert calligraphist and always encouraged the scholars. He maintained a library which contained ten thousand precious and exquisite books.He developed close friendship and company with Ibn Ta'oos, the outstanding Shi'ite scholar, During the episode of Baghdad when Ibn Abil Hadeed, the famous exegetist of Nahjul Balagha and his brother Muwaffaq al-Din were imprisoned by the Mongols and there was possibility of their decimation Ibn Alqami with great difficutty saved their lives.
Majd al-Din Abu Taleb Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Abu Taleb bin Alqami (1195-1258A.D./591-656 A.H.) was the last Abbasid minister. Some of the historians consider him to be Iranian from the city of Qum. He was an astute and learned politician and was an ardent follower of the Shi'ite school. During his youth he learned grammar and literature from Ibn Ayub Emeed ar-Ru'asa, a famous Shi'ite scholar.
Ibn Alqami was an able administrator and far-sighted statesman. Shi'ite historians have mentioned him as a pious and distinguished person. Ibn Alqami was a well-known scholar of his period. He was a good poet and master in Arabic prose. He was also expert calligraphist and always encouraged the scholars. He maintained a library which contained ten thousand precious and exquisite books.He developed close friendship and company with Ibn Ta'oos, the outstanding Shi'ite scholar, During the episode of Baghdad when Ibn Abil Hadeed, the famous exegetist of Nahjul Balagha and his brother Muwaffaq al-Din were imprisoned by the Mongols and there was possibility of their decimation Ibn Alqami with great difficutty saved their lives.

Ibn Maisam
Kamal al-Din Maisum bin Ali bin Maisum Bahrani, the famous Shi'ite traditionist, jurist and theologian of the thirteenth century A.D./ seventh century Hijrah was nicknamed Muffed al-Din. He was the contemporary of khaja Naseeruddin Tousi and it is mentioned that Khaja Naseeruddin Tousi studied jurisprudence under him and Ibn Maisum in theology was the student of Khaja Naseeruddin Tousi. Ibn Maisum was well-known and outstanding theologian and even his commentary on the Nahjul Balagha is based on theological and philosophical methods.
Ibn Maisum was the most distinguished personality of his period and praised as the philosopher, researcher and expert jurist, erudite traditionist and theologian. Tarihi considers his depth in jurisprudence equal to Khaja Naseeruddin Tousi's knowledge in theology.
About thirty books have been ascribed to him. His printed works are as follows:
1 - Misbah as-Salikin (The grand commentary of Nahjul Balagha).
2 - Ikhtiyar Misbah as-Salikin (The summary of the grand commentary of Nahjul Balagha)
3 - Sharh al-Ma'iat kalima-tal Nahjul Balagha.
4 - Quwaid al-Maram fi Ilm al-Kalam or Al-Qawaid al-Ilahiyeh fi al-Kalam wal Hikmah.

Ibn Babawayh
Muhammad bin Ali bin Husain bin Musa bin Babawayh Qummi nicknamed Shaykh Sadook (917-919 A.D. / 305-381 A.H.) was a prominent Shi'ite traditionist and jurist. Shaykh Tousi in his chains of Al-Istibsar has nicknamed him as Imad al-Din. About his date and place of birth there is no exact information. Ibn Babawayh was brought up in a learned family in Qum and in his youth got education under famous teachers of the city. Ibn Babawayh during an unknown date left Qum for Ray which was the capital of the Buwahids and settled in that city. In 963 A.D./ 352 A.H.) with the permission of Rukn ad-Dawlah the governor of Ray, he left for the holy city of Mashhad to perform the pilgrimage of the holy shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.).
Main charaeteristic of Ibn Babawayh is that he by stressing on traditions explains and proves theological arguments and his jurisprudence is also based on traditions. He considers analogy and deduction as not permissible.
Ibn Babawayh travelled extensively to collect the traditions. He met many masters of traditions and he has left behind many works in tradition. His nickname "Sadook" was due to his authencity in narrating the traditions. The first person who nicknamed Ibn Babawayh as "Sadook" was Ibn Idris.
Ibn Babawayh was a voluminous writer. He himself mentions that he is the author of more than 245 books. His works which are printed are as follows: Al-Iteqadat, Al-Amali, Al-Tawhid, Thawab al-Amaal wa Uqab al-Amaal, Al-Khisal and few other manwscripts which are present in the libraries of Iran and outside Iran. About 200 books ascribed to him are mentioned in Rijal-i Najashi and the catalogues of Tousi and Ibn Shahr Aashub.

Kashif - Al - Ghita
Jafar bin Qizr bin Yahya Janahi Hilli Najafi, Kashif al-Ghita (1743-1812 A.D./1156-1227 A.H.), patriarch of Kashif al-Ghita family is famous as Jafar-i Kabeer and Shaikh Mashaikh, He was a well-known jurist, theologian, researcher, writer, scholar, poet and a sole Marja of the Shi'ites. After compiling the famous work on jurisprudence known as kashif al-Gihta he derived the apellation of kashif al-Gihta. He was born in Najaf and studied primary Islamic sciences under his father and studied advanced jurisprudence and its principles under the famous scholar and jurisconsults of Iraq and became a very famous scholar and jurisconsult and started teaching at the seminaries. In his elasses a great numbers of scholars used to attend who later on became prominent researchers and jurisconsults in the literary and scientific circles of Iran and Iraq.
His specialization and expertise was in jurisprudence and its principles and his many works paritcularly the famous Kashif al-Ghita in these fields demonstrates his mastered skills in deducing Islamic injunctions. He compiled this well known work during his tour of Iran when he had only the book Qawaid written by Allamah Hilli.
After the demise of Bahrul Uloom, Shaykh Jafar Kashif al-Ghita became the sole Marja of the Shi'ites of Iraq, Iran and other parts of the world and his popularity and social and political influence increased immensely so that he become the sole Marja of the Shi'ites of the whole world. Kashif al-Ghita has written many books particularly in the fields of jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, theology and Arabic literature, which are as follows:
1 - Al-Haq -ul-Mubeen fi Tasweeb al Mujtahideen waTaqta'a-tal-Akhbariyeen.
2 - Kashf ul-Ghita and Khaffiyat Mubhamat ash-Shariyya al-Ghara.
3 - Bagiya -tul - Taleb fi Marifah al Maffuz al-Wajib.
4 - At-Tahqeeq wa Tanqir fima Yatallaq bil Maqadir.
5 - Ar - Risalah tus-Saumiyah.
6 - Meshkat al-Masabih.
7 - Risalah fil ibadat al-Ma'liyah.
8 - Ghaya-tul-Murad fi Ahkam al-Jehad.
9 - Minhaj ar-Rashad Laman Arad us-Saddad.

Ibn Barraj
Sad al-Din Abul Qasim Abdul Aziz bin Nahrir bin Abdul Aziz bin Barraj Trablusi famous as Qazi and nicknamed Azz al-Momineen (demise 1088 A.D./ 481 A.H.) was a famous Shi'ite jurisprudent and judge. There is no exact information about his birth but it has been mentioned that he lived for eighty years thus he was born in 400 A.H. Ibn Barraj was born in Egypt and was brought up there but he was a judge for a long time in Tripoli, Syria and became famous as Trablusi. When the shi'ite mention only Qazi they mean Ibn Barraj.
Ibn Barraj is well-knoWn and most reliable Shi'ite scholar and his opinions were regularly cited by the famous Shi'ite jurists like Allamah Hilli, Shaheed-i Awwal, Fazil Miqdad and others. His printed works are as follows: -
1 - Al- Jawahir, which was printed in Tehran with the title Al-Jawameh al-Fiqhiyyah.
2 - Sharh Jamal al-Ilm wa Amal.
3 - Al - Muhazzab.
Some other works are ascribed to him.

Ali Bin Yaqteen
Ali bin Yaqteen (742-798 A.D./124-182 A.H.) was an outstanding Shi'ite traditionist, jurist, and theologian. He was born in Kufah and migrated to Madinah with his father and then moved to Baghdad. He first started his business as a chemist and then entered the Abbasid administrative setup and became an officer under Mahdi, the Abbasid caliph and got close to Harun al-Rashid (d. 809 A.D/ 193 A.H.). He was an ardent Shi'ite but he like his father kept his beliefs in secret. He was in close contact with Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.) (746-799 A.D./128-183 A.H.) and the holy Imam had great confidence in him. Shi'ite writers believes that he remained in the Abbasid administration at the instance of Imam Musa Kazim (A.S.) in order to support the oppressed people and assist the shi'ites. About his beliefs it was reported many times to Harun al-Rashid but he remained safe. Many traditions has been quoted regarding the firn beliefs and piety of Ali bin Yaqteen including a tradition in which Imam Kazim (A.S.) has guaranteed heaven to him. He was a most reliable traditionist and narrated a tradition from Imam Sadiq (A.S.) and many traditions from Imam Kazim (A.S.) Many narrators had quoted traditions from him and many books are ascribed to him. He expired in Baghdad when Imam Kazim (A.S.) was interned in prisons of Harun al-Rashid. Khuzaimah, Yaqoob and Ubaid were the three sons of Yaqteen.and they were the companions of Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.) and quoted traditions from the holy Imams.

Ibn Sikkait
Abu Yusuf Yaqub bin Ishaq (802-858 A.D./ 186-244 A.H.) was a famous Iranian Shi'ite philologist and traditionist. Sikkait was the nickname of his father Ishaq who due to his excessive silence was nicknamed accordingly. Ibn Sikkait was born in Duraq in Khuzestan and later with his family went to Baghdad. He studied under famous scholars of his period like Abu Amru Shaybani, Farra, Ibn A'rabi, Asram and Nasran Khurasani. He soon become one of the famous scholars of his era like Ibn A'rabi and Abul Abbas Thalab and was considered as a distinguished philologist and eloquent orator.
Ibn Sikkait not only had outstanding activity in the fields of syntax and philology and played an important role in collecting and compiling Arabic poetry. He was also an ardent follower of the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet of Islam (S.A.W.A.) and was strictly bounded to his beliefs. In addition of collecting and compiling Arabic poetry he collected and narrated religious traditions also. Dhabi considerd him as avery pious and religious person and he was martyred for his deep love and affection towards Holy Ahlebayt (A.S.). Najashi considers him as the close companion of Imam Muhammad Taqi (A.S.) and Imam Ali-un Naqi (A.S.) and quotes the traditions of Imam Muhammad Taqi (A.S.). narrated by him.
Many students gained vastly from his knowledge. Ibn Sikkait also recited poetry and Dhabi has extolled his poetry. All the sources has mentioned that he was martyred by Mutawakkil, the Abbasid caliph for his deep love for the Holy Ahlebayt (A.S.).
His printed works are as follows:-
1 - Islah al-Mantiq; 2 - Al-Azdad; 3 - Al-Alfaz: 4 - Al Qalb wal Abdal; some other manuscripts and works are also ascribed to him.

Aban Bin Taghlib
Abu Saeed bin Rubah Bakri Jurairi Kindi Rabie Kufi (demise 758 A.D./141 A.H.) was a famous Shi'ite scohlar, Quranic reciter, jurisprudent, exegetist and traditionist. There is no information about his birth place. Aban spent most of his life in the company of Tabiyeen and studied under them. Because of this reason Ibn Habban considers him as the most famous companion of the Tabiyeen in Kufah.
He was also a close companion of Imam Ali bin Husain (A.S.), Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.) and Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S.) and studied various branches of science paricularly hadith from them and attained a prominent position in the school of Imam Sadiq (A.S.). Aban is famous to have quoted extensively from Imam Sadiq (A.S.) and it is reported that he narrated thirty thousand hadith from His Holiness. He is also considered as the most outstanding Quranic reciter and his style of Quranic recitation is very famous among the reciters.
He was considerd master in the Quran, traditions, jurisprudence, literature, syntax and philology. Tousi has reported that once Imam Sadeq (A.S.) appointed him to conduct scholarly discourse against one of the pretender. Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said to him "Sit in the Masjid-un- Nabi and in the religious issues give verdict to the people. I love to have my Shia like Aban bin Taghlib."
Shi'ite Rijal scholars consider his as reliable and the Sunni Rijal scholars like Ahmad bin Hanbal, Yahya bin Moin, Abu Hatam, Nisa'i and Saqet also has confirmed him. The books compiled by Aban are now missing but the books ascribed to him in the catalogues are as follows:
1 - Ma'ani al-Quran
2 - Kitab al-Qira'at
3 - Al-Garib fil-Quran
4 - Al.Fazail
5 - Kitab Siffin

Avicenna
Abu Ali Husain bin Abdulah bin Sina, Avicenna (980-1037A.D./ 370-428 A.H.) is considered as the most outstanding peripateticist philosopher and physician of Iran in the Islamic world.
His father was the native of Balkh and during the rule of Nuh bin Mansur Samani (977-997 A.D./ 366-387 A.H.) he went to Bokhara. He joined the government service in an important town named Kharmaisan and married to a woman of his neighbouring village. Avicenna was born there in 980 A.D./ 370 A.H. Avicenna first started learning the Holy Quran and literature and when he was only ten years old he was well versed in the Holy Quran and literature which astonished everybody.
He learne Indian mathematics under Mahmud Massahi, jurisprudence under Ismail Zahed and the philosophy and the introduction to the Aristotle and Ptolemy's logic under Abu Abdullah Husain bin Ibrahim al Tabari Natili Then Avicenna studied the texts and its exegesis of the books regarding the natural sciences and metaphysics which according to his statement "opened the gates of knowledge for him." He was then inclined to medical sciences and started reading the books in this field. In a very short duration he became an outstanding physician such that the distinguished physicians came to learn from him. Avicenna according to his own statement by the age of 18 years studied and mastered all the sciences of his era. He says "During that period I had excellent memory in knowledge but now my knowledge is perfected. Knowledge is the same which I had studied and till now I had not found a new thing".
When he was 22 years old Avicenna lost his father and in 392 A.H he left Bokhara for Gorganaj in the north-west of Khwarizm. Then he after a period he left for Ray, then Qazwin and arrived in Hamedan. After residing in Hamedan he left for Isfahan and was welcomed in the city after undergoing very tiring journey For a long period he stayed in Isfahan. He accompanied A'la al-Dowlah on his trip to Hamedan and became eritically ill and passed away in (1037 A.D. / 428 A.H) at an age of 58 and was buried in the Hamedan city.
Avicenna inspite of his turbulent and eventful life was a most distinguished thinker and prolific writer. In the catalogues 131 books written directly by Avicenna and 111 books ascribed to him are mentioned.
The printed and translated works of Avicenna are as follows:
1 - Ash-Shafa
2 - An-Najat
3 - Al-Isharaat wal Tanbihaat
4 - Kitab al-Insaf
5 - Mantiq al-Mashraqin
6 - Risalah Azhawiyyah fi Amr al Ma'ad
7 - Uyun al-Kikmah.
8 - Tas'a Rasail fil Hikmah wal Tabi'iyat
9 - A.F. Miren from 1889 till 1899 A.D. published some works of Avicenna in French translation titled "The Mystical Epistles of Avicenna", in four parts which were published in Leiden.
10 - Fi Ma'ani Kitab Rhetorica
11 - Risalah fi al-Iksir
12 - Risalah fi Marifah-tun-Nafs al-Natiqa wa Ahwalaha.
13 - Al-Taliqat
14 - Al-Qanum fil Tibb
15 - Al-Nuktu wal Fawaid.
16 - Al-Mabda wal Ma'ad.
Avicenna has also left behind many works in Persian and the most famous among then is the book "Danishnameh A'laee" which is mentioned in Arabic and Persian sources with the titles "Al-Hikmah tul A'laiyyah", "Ar-Risalahtul - A'laiyyah", "Hikmat A'laee" and "Kitab-i A'laee. Avicenna has also written many treatises which has been mentioned by Ibn Abu Asiba'a. The treatises in Persian written by Avicenna are as follows: Risalah Nabs, Meraj Namah, Kanwaz al-Muazzamin, Zafar Namah, I'lal Tasalsul Maujudat.

Ibn Shadhan
Abu Muhammad Fazl bin Shadhan bin Khalil Azdi Nishabouri (demise 874 A.D./260 A.H.) was a famous Shi'ite theologian and jurist. He was a native of Nishabore but his lineage belonged to the Arab tribe of Azd. His father Shadhan bin Khalil was also a renowned Shi'ite traditionist. Ibn Shadhan is considered as the most prominent Shi'ite scholar of Khorasan during the period of Imam Hasan Askari (A.S.). and Kashi has reported Ibn Shadhan's contact with the Holy Imam. The distinct characteristic of his scientific personality is theology and Tousi considers him as the distinguished theologian.Muhaqqiq Hilli considers him among the top Shi'ite jurists.
Ibn Shadhan as a narrator is placed in the chain of transmission of many Shi'ite traditions and Najashi also stresses the reliability of him. In 259 A.H. he became ill and in the beginning of 260 A.H. passed away and his mausoleum is located in Nishabour.
Najashi in Rijal and Tousi in Al-Fihrist has mentioned more than 180 works of him and some of them are related to theology and jurisprudence, which includes.
1 - Isbat ar-Raj'ah
2 - Al-Talaq
3 - Al-Ilal
4 , 5 & 6 Al-Fara'id al-Kabeer, Al-Faraid al-Awsat and Al-Faraid al Saghir.
7 - Masa'il an-Buldan
8 - Yaum wal Lailat.

Husayn b. `Ubayd Allah al-Ghada'iri
Husayn b.Ubayd Allah al-Ghada'iri was a contemporary of al-Shaykh al-Mufid and a teacher of al-Shaykh al-Tusi and al-Najashi, while his son Ahmad al-Ghada'iri was a class-fellow and intimate friend of al-Tusi and al-Najashi). Shaykh al-Ta'ifa, in al-Rijal, mentions his name in the chapter dealing with those that did not directly narrate traditions from the Imams. He writes:
Husayn b. `Ubayd Allah al-Ghada'iri, known as Abu `Abd Allah, has narrated a number of ahadith and was an expert of `ilm al-rijal. He has many works to his credit, which have been mentioned in al-Fihrist. But al-Tusi did not give any list of Abu `Abd Allah's works in his al-Fihrist. This omission on his part may be explained as a matter of forgetfulness only. Al-Najashi, in his work on rijal, writes: Husayn b. `Ubayd Allah b. Ibrahim al-Ghada'iri Abu `Abd Allah is my teacher. May Allah bless his soul. Among his books are:
Kitab kashf al-tamwih wa-l-ghumma, Kitab al-taslim `ala Amir al-Mu'minin bi imrat al-mu'minin, Kitab tadhkir al-`aqil wa tanbih al-ghafil fi fadl al-`ilm, Kitab `adad al-A'imma wa-ma shadhdha `ala al-musannifin min dhalik, Kitab al-bayan `an habwat al-Rahman, Kitab al-nawadir fi l-fiqh, Kitab manasik al-hajj, Kitab mukhtasar manasik al-hajj, Kitab yawm al-Ghadir, Kitab al-radd `ala al-Ghulat wa-l-Mufawwida, Kitab sajdat al-shukr, Kitab mawatin Amir al-Mu'minin, Kitab fi fadl Baghdad, and Kitab fi qawl Amir al-Mu'minin: `Ala ukhbirukum bi khayr hadhihi al-umma.
He permitted us to narrate these books and all his traditions. He died, may Allah bless his soul, in the middle of Safar 411/1020. Al-`Allama al-Hilli in al-Rijal, al-Tafrashi in Naqd al-Rijal, Shaykh `Abbas al-Qummi in Hadiyyat al-ahbab and al-Fawa'id al-Ridawiyya, have added nothing to the accounts given by al-Tusi and al-Najashi.
Al-Dhahabi, in Mizan al-I`tidal, and Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, in Lisan al-Mizan, both make mention of him. Al-Dhahabi makes special mention of his 'lack of insight', by which he actually means to refer to his Shi`i faith. Ibn Hajar also referred to him as a leader of Shi`i `ulama' but without any derogatory remark, and adds that his decrees are more respected and are obeyed more faithfully than those of kings.
Ayatullah al-Khu'i is of the view that it is impossible for a scholar of the stature of al-Tusi that he should refer to something in one of his works regarding his other work in which he actually did not make mention of the subject referred to. Therefore, he argues that most probably in al-Fihrist of al-Shaykh al-Tusi a list of the works of al-Ghada'iri was given but was omitted in its copies that are extant today.
Abu `Abd Allah received instruction under the greatest of `ulama' of his time, a list of whom is given in Qamus al-Rijal. The most eminent among them were Ahmad b. Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. al-Walid al-Qummi, Abu al-Qasim Ja`far b. Muhammad Qulawayh, Harun b. Musa al-Tall`ukbari, al-Shaykh al-Saduq Ibn Babawayh, Abu `Abd Allah Ahmad al-Saymari, and Muhammad b. `Ali al-Ash`ari al-Qummi. Among his pupils we have already mentioned the names of al-Najashi and al-Tusu. Besides them, we may add the name of his celebrated son Ahmad b. al-Husayn al-Ghada'iri.

Ahmad al-Ghada'iri
He attended the classes of his father with al-Najashi and al-Shaykh Tusi. `Inayat Allah Quhpa'i, in Majma` al-Rijal, mentions him as a teacher of al-Najashi and al-Tusi. But he seems to have confused the father with the son. Similarly, many an author of books on Rijal have mistakenly attributed Ahmad b. al-Husayn's work on Rijal to his father. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, in al-Fihrist, refers to two books of Ahmad b. al-Husayn, saying one is on usul and the other is on Rijal.
Al-`Allama Shaykh Aqa Buzurg al-Tihrani, in Musaffa al-maqal fi musannifi al-rijal, is of the view that these two books might have been in addition to two of his known works on rijal, of which one is about authentic `ulama' and the other is about inauthentic or weak narrators of hadith. Sayyid Ahmad b. Tawus (d. 673/1273) has reproduced an entire book of al-Ghada'ri, that is his book al-Du`afa', in his own work, Hall al-ishkal. This copy of the book reached Mulla `Abd Allah al-Shushtari (d. 1021/1612), who in his turn reproduced the book in his work on rijal, and this was the version of al-Ghada'iri's Rijal that is available to us today. It seems strange that these two books were not mentioned by al-Tusi, but were available to Ibn Tawus, and that two of his pupils, al-`Allama al-Hilli and Ibn Dawud also quoted from it.
Aqa Buzurg al-Tihrani, in Musaffa al-maqal fi musannifi al-rijal, says that Ibn Tawus himself had not established its authenticity, but he merely described it as one attributed to Ibn al-Ghada'iri, and his pupils accepted it on his authority. Al-`Allama al-Hilli and Ibn Dawud could also discover Ibn al-Ghada'iri's book on mamduhun. There is no evidence that al-Najashi had these books, but he referred to another work of Ibn al-Ghada'iri, al-Ta'rikh, in his account of Ahmad b. Abi `Abd Allah al-Barqi.
It is just possible that by al-Ta'rikh he meant the same two books. In al-Dhari`a, also, Aqa Buzurg has discussed the authenticity of Kitab al-Du`afa; and concluded that most probably this work was compiled by an anti-Shi`a author in order to malign rijal of the Imamiyya, and it was wrongly attributed to Ibn al-Ghada'iri.However, two points are clear: the son al-Ghada'iri is the author of the often quoted book on rijal, and secondly that the book about inauthentic Shi`i rijal is a spurious one, wrongly attributed to him.

Abu al-Hasan al-`Umari
Abu al-Hasan al-`Umari was a descendant of `Umar b. `Ali b. Abi Talib. `Umar was the progeny of the marriage of Amir al-Mu'minin with Umm Habib bint Rabi`a. Al-`Umari is reported to have lived until 443/1051, and is acknowledged as an authority on genealogies of Arab tribes in general and the descendants of the Prophet and Abu Talib in particular. His forefathers were among Shi`i scholars of eminence. He was a contemporary of al-Sharif al-Murtada and al-Sharif al-Radi, whom he knew very well. His father Abu al-Ghana'im was also an expert in the genealogy of the Arabs.
Abu al-Hasan al-`Umari's teacher, besides his father, was Abu al-Hasan Muhammad b. Abi Ja`far, known as al-Shaykh al-Sharaf (d. 435/1042), a descendant of Husayn al-Asghar, son of al-Imam Zayn al-`Abidin `Ali b. al-Husayn, who was also a teacher of al-Murtada and al-Radi. Ahmad b. `Ali Dawudi al-Hasani, known as Ibn `Anbah, (d. 828/1424), author of `Umdat al-talib fi ansab Al Abi Talib, which is considered to be the most authentic book on the genealogical tree of the descendants of the Prophet and Abu Talib, has liberally borrowed material from al-`Umari's works in the field. He acknowledges:
Abu al-Hasan `Ali b. Abi al-Ghana'im Muhammad b. `Ali b. Muhammad represents the culmination of the science of genealogy. His views are accepted as the last word in this field by later scholars. He met all the great experts of this science and compiled in this field al-Mabsut, al-Shafi, al-Mujdi and al-Mushajjar. Abu al-Hasan al-`Umari lived in Basra but shifted to Mosul after 423/1032, where he married and had children. . . .
We narrate the works of Abu al-Hasan al-`Umari on the authority of the Naqib Taj al-Din Muhammad b. Mu`ayya al-Hasani, who narrated them from his teacher, Sayyid `Alam al-Din Murtada b. Sayyid Jalal al-Din `Abd al-Hamid b. al-Sayyid Shams al-Din Fikhar b. Ma`bad al-Musawi, who narrated from his father, Sayyid Jalal al-Din `Abd al-Hamid b. Taqi al-Husayni, who narrated from Ibn Kulthum al-`Abbasi, the genealogist, who quoted from Ja`far b. Hashim b. Abi al-Hasan al-`Umari, who narrated from his grandfather, Abu al-Hasan `Ali b. Muhammad al-`Umari.
The author of `Umdat al-talib was a pupil and son-in-law of Taj al-Din b. Mu`ayya. Sayyid `Ali Khan al- Shirazi (d. 1120/1708), in al-Darajat al-rafi`a fi tabaqat al-Shi`a, acknowledges the greatness of al-`Umari in the field of genealogy, and says that all later scholars and researchers in this field are indebted to him.In Ma`alim al-`ulama' and al-Fawa'id al-Ridawiyya, al-`Umari is said to have been known by the nickname 'Ibn al-Sufi'.

Salar b. `Abd al-`Aziz
One of the most eminent scholars of the fifth/eleventh century is Abu Ya`la Hamza b. `Abd al-`Aziz al-Daylami (d. 448/1056), known as Salar, or Sallar, an eminent pupil of al-Shaykh al-Mufid and al-Sayyid al-Murtada, who himself educated and trained a number of great Shi`i scholars. He is sometimes confused with Abu Ya`la al-Ja`fari, son-in-law of al-Shaykh al-Mufid. Abu Ya`la is a common kunya (patronymic) of all those persons whose name is Hamza, such as Hamza b. al-Qasim (grandson of `Abbas b. `Ali b. Abi Talib), Hamza b. Ya`la al-Ash`ari al-Qummi (a companion of the eighth Imam of the Prophet's Family, al-Imam al-Rida), for Hamza b. `Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle of the Prophet, was called by this kunya.
Shaykh Muntajab al-Din al-Razi (d. 600/1203), in his al-Fihrist, mentions one of his works, al-Marasim al-`Alawiyya fi l-ahkam al-Nabawiyya. Ibn Shahr Ashub (d. 588/1192) refers to his other works, viz. al-Muqni` fi l-madhhab, al-Taqrib fi usul al-fiqh, al-Radd `ala Abi al-Husayn al-Basri's al-Shafi, and Kitab al-tadhkira fi haqiqat al-jawhar wa al-`arad.
Mir Mustafa al-Tafrashi (d. 1021/1612), regarding the book in refutation of Abu al-Husayn al-Basri's al-Shafi, writes in the footnotes of Naqd al-Rijal: Kitab al-radd is written in refutation of Abu al-Husayn al-Basri's al-Shafi, a famous book. The reason for writing this book was that al-Qadi `Abd al-Jabbar al-Mu`tazili al-Hamadani wrote a book in refutation of the Shi`a faith and named it al-Kafi. Afterward al-Sayyid al-Murtada compiled a book, entitled al-Shafi, a refutation of which was written by Abu al-Husayn al-Basri, which found its rejoinder in Salar's book.
Al-`Allama al-Hilli (d. 726/1326) mentions Salar as an intellectual leader of the Shi`a in the fields of fiqh and literature. Hasan b. Dawud, a contemporary of al-`Allama al-Hilli, besides al-Marasim, mentions another of Salar's works, al-Abwab wa l-fusul in fiqh. Shaykh Fakhr al-Din al-Turayhi (d. 1058/1648), in his famous dictionary Majma` al-bahrayn, writes that Salar was from Mazandaran and attended lectures of al-Murtada. He quotes Ibn al-Jinni saying that he met Salar and learned some lessons from him.
`Ali Dawani refutes both these assertions, saying that Daylam was situated near the present Qazwin and Gilan, and has no relation with Mazandaran. He argues that al-Turayhi, being an Arab, was not familiar with the geographical position of Daylam. Al-Turayhi changed the places of Abu al-Fath `Uthman b. al-Jinni and Salar, describing the former as pupil and the latter as teacher, while Salar was a pupil of Ibn al-Jinni (d. 392/1002). Ibn al-Jinni was also a teacher of al-Sayyid al-Murtada and al-Radi, and he died 56 years before the death of Salar.
Al-`Allama Bahr al-`Ulum, in al-Rijal, quotes `Izz al-Din Hasan b. Abi Talib b. Rabib al-Din Abu Muhammad al-Yusufi writing in Kashf al-rumuz, that Salar was a leader of the Shi`a, and mentions that Hasan b. Husayn b. Babawayh, Mufid al-Nishaburi al-Razi, and Shaykh `Abd al-Jabbar al-Muqri al-Razi, all of whom were eminent Imamiyya scholars, were among Salar's well-known pupils.
`Allama Bahr al-`Ulum adds that al-Sayyid al-Murtada, in the beginning of Ajwibat al-masa'il al-Sallariyya, writes that very critical questions, which reveal Salar's insight and expertise in fiqh, were answered by him at the instance of his teacher, al-Shaykh al-Mufid. This compliment paid by al-Murtada to Salar serves as a testimonial of his scholarship.
Salar, a contemporary of al-Tusi and a pupil of al-Mufid and al-Murtada, lefi behind him scores of pupils that were eminent scholars of their times and included both Shi`i and Sunni experts in fiqh, kalam, hadith, nahw (Arabic grammar), and literature. Outstanding among them are: Abu al-Salah al-Halabi, Abu Fath al-Karajiki, Shams al-Islam Hasaka and his son `Ubayd Allah b. al-Hasan (father and grandfather of Shaykh Muntajab al-Din), Mufid al-Nishaburi, Mufid al-Razi, and Abu al-Makarim Fakhir al-Nahwi.
Shaykh `Abbas al-Qummi, with reference to Rawdat, writes that Salar was the first faqih to issue a decree that congregation prayer on Friday was prohibited due to the Occultation of the Twelfth Imam.He also writes on the authority of the same book that Salar died in 448/1056 or 463/1070, and was laid to rest in Khusrow Shah, one of the villages in the province of Tabriz.
`Ali Dawani is hesitant to accept the place of Salar's burial in Khusrow Shah, for this report is based on Tadhkirat al-`ulama' by Mulla Hashri. He argues that the same author claims that the grave of Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi is at Khusrow Shah, while it is situated in the courtyard of the shrine of the Ma`suma of Qum. `Ali Dawani accepts the date of his death as given by al-Safadi, that is 448/1056. He further says that Salar lived till his end at Baghdad, and, therefore, there was no reason to bury him in the suburbs of Tabriz.

Abu al-Salah Al-Halabi
Halab has been a centre of Shi`a learning and activities since the early days of Islam. It is said that one of the wives of al-Imam al-Husayn, while being taken to Dimashq along with other prisoners of Ahl al-Bayt after the tragedy of Karbala', miscarried a child, Mahassan b. al-Husayn, at this place, who was buried there. Yaqut al-Hamawi (d. 626/1229), in Mu`jam al-buldan, wrote that Qal`a-ye Halab was the Palace of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim), where the severed head of Yahya b. Zakariyya was put in a trunk.
He also says that according to a tradition someone saw in a dream that the
grave of Imam `Ali was also beside Bab al-Jinan. He says further that inside Bab al-`Iraq is situated the Mosque of Ghawth (Masjid Ghawth), and there on a stone is an inscription attributed to Amir al-Mu'minin `Ali. Yaqut also refers to the grave of Mahassan b. al-Husayn at Kuh-e Jawshan in the eastern part of the town. He adds that the fuqaha' of Halab issue fatawa according to Shi`i fiqh.
Jalal al-Din al-Balkhi al-Rumi (d. 672/1273), in his Mathnawi, ironically refers to the mourning ceremonies at Halab commemorating the martyrdom of al-Imam al-Husayn, which is indicative of the devotion of the residents of Halab for AhI al-Bayt.Sayf al-Dawla al-Hamdani and the rulers of his family, who professed Shi`i faith, chose Halab as their capital and later the Fatimids ruled the city and its adjoining areas.
All these factors contributed to the development of Halab as a centre of Shi`i scholarship. Halab came into prominence in the world of Shi`i learning because of the family of Abu al-Makarim b. Zuhra, but the first Shi`i scholar of Halab to win fame in the Muslim world was Abu al-Salah Taqi al-Din b. Najm al-Din al-Halabi.
Taqi al-Din b. Najm al-Din al-Halabi (d. 449/1057) was among the most prominent pupils of al-Sayyid al-Murtada and al-Shaykh al-Tusi, and was deputed at Halab as representative of his teacher. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, in his al-Rijal, in the chapter dealing the 'ulama' that did not narrate directly from the Imams, mentions Abu al-Salah's name, saying that he is a reliable scholar and has to his credit many books. Al-Tusi also certified that he had been a pupil of both himself and al-Sayyid al-Murtada.
This testimony by a teacher of the repute of al-Tusi for one of his pupils is a rare thing, for al-Tusi never mentioned any of his pupils among the eminent `ulama' of the post-Occultation period. This honour, if not unprecedented, is rarely won by a scholar in the annals of Shi`i scholarship. Ibn Shahr Ashub, in Ma`alim al-`ulama', mentions the following works of Abu al-Salah: Kitab al-bidaya in fiqh, and a commentary on al-Dhakhira by al-Sayyid al-Murtada.
Al-`Allama al-HilIi (in Khulasat al-aqwal ), Ibn Dawud, and al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-`Amili (in Amal al-`amil) paid tribute to his scholarship. The latter mentions his name as Taqi al-Din, which seems to be his full name, and probably al-Tusi, naming him Taqi, used only the first part of his full name. Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-`Amili refers to another work of Abu al-Salah, Taqrib al-ma`arif. It is worth mentioning that though many scholars of Halab are known as al-Halabi, whenever al-Halabi alone as a title is referred to in the terminology of fuqaha' it is meant to refer to Abu al-Salah only; and whenever al-Halabiyyan is used, it refers to Abu al-Salah and Sayyid Abu al-Makarim b. Zuhra.
The Shafi`i scholar, Nur al-Din al-Halabi (d. 1044/1634), the author of Insan al-`uyun fi sirat al-Amin wa-l-Ma'mun, popularly known as al-Sira al-Halabiyya, is also remembered as al-Halabi. However, the first person who won universal acclaim as al-Halabi and who placed Halab on the map of Islamic learning was Abu al-Salah.

Abu al-Fath al-Karajiki
Another pupil of al-Sayyid al-Murtada and al-Shaykh al-Tusi, who also received instruction under al-Shaykh al-Mufid was Abu al-Fath Muhammad b. `Ali b. `Uthman al-Karajiki (d. 449/1057). Ibn Shahr Ashub, in Ma`alim al-`ulama' gives a list of fourteen books written by him, and al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-`Amili mentions eight of his works. Al-Karajiki is distinguished as a faqih, muhaddith, and mutakallim. `Allama Nuri in Mustadrak, gave a detailed account of his works. A selected list of his works is given below:
Kitab al-salat (in three parts), al-Risala al-Nasiriyya, Kitab al-talqin, Kitab al-minhaj (on manasik al-hajj), Kitab al-mawarith, Kitab al-muqni` wa-l-lajjaj, al-Mansak (on hajj for women), Nahj al-bayan (for ladies), Kitab al-istitraf (fi l-fiqh wa-l-insaf),
al-Ikhtiyar min al-akhbar (summary of Da`a'im al-Islam), Kitab al-radd (refutation of Abu al-Mahasin al-Ma`arri's criticism of al-Sayyid al-Murtada), al-Bustan (in fiqh), Naqd Fardan al-Maruzi; Kitab ghayat al-insaf fi masa'il al-khilaf (concerning differences in fiqh between Abu Salah al-Halabi and al-Sayyid al-Murtada, in this controversy Abu al-Fath defended his teacher's position), Hujjat al-`alim fi hay'at al-`alam, al-Asbab al-sadda `an ma`rifat al-sawab, Damghat al-Nasara (refutation of Abu I-Haytham),
Kitab al-ghaya (concerning the contingency of the world), Riyadat al-`uqul fi muqaddamat al-'usul (incomplete), Kitab al-murshid (a selection of Ghurar aI-fawa'id), Risalat al-akhawayn, Kitab al-ta`ajjub fi l-umma min aghlat al-`amma, al-Istibsar, Kitab Mur`aradat al-addad bi-ttifaq al-a`dad, al-Mas'ala al-Qaysaraniyya, Tanzih al-anbiya', Kitab al-intiqam (in refutation of Ibn Shadhan al-Ash`ari), Kitab al-fadih (astronomy), Nazm al-durar fi mabna al-kawakib wa-l-suwar (astronomy),
Hisab al-Hindi, Ma`din al-jawahir wa-riyadat al-khawatir, Riyad al-hikam, Maw`izat al-`aql li-l-nafs, al-Ta`rif bi-wujub haqq al-walidayn, Adhkar al-ikhwan bi-wujub haqq al-iman, Fadihat al-ikhwan, Tuhfa, al-Risala al-`Alawiyya, Kitab al-jalis (in five volumes containing views on various branches of knowledge), Intifa` al-mu'min bima fi aydi al-salatin, Kitab al-anis (consisting of two thousand pages regarding various sciences and arts), Kitab al-zahid, Kitab al-ta'dib, al-Kifaya fi l-hidaya, al-Majalis (on the art of rhetoric), Kitab al-iqna` `inda ta`adhdhur al-ijma` (`ilm al-kalam), Kitab al-'usul fi madhhab Al al-Rasul, al-Risala al-Hazimiyya, al-Risala al-`Amiriyya, Mukhtasar al-qawl, Mukhtasar tabaqat al-warith, al-Risala al-sufiyya, Idah `an ahkam al-nikah,
Risalat al-tanbih (a critique of Abu al-Hasan al-Basri's views on the Imamate), Nasihat al-Shi`a, Kitab al-bahir, Mas'alat al-`adl fi l-muhakama ila l-`aql, Hidayat al-mustarshid, Kanz al-fawa'id (the most famous work of al-Karajiki), and al-Fihrist. Al-Fihrist of al-Karajiki has been referred by Sayyid Tawus, though the work has not survived to the present day. Kanz al-fawa'id has been published along with seven other treatises of al-Karajiki. This work is so renowned that often al-Karajiki is referred to as Sahib Kanz al-fawa'id. Besides Kanz al-fawa'id, only the following of his books have been published: al-Istibsar, al-Ta`ajjub, Tafdil Amir al-Mu'minin, and al-Ta`rif bi huquq al-walidayn (al-Karajiki's will addressed to his son).
Shaykh `Abd Allah al-Yafi`i, (d. 768/1366) in Mir'at al-jinan, giving the account of the year 449/1057, writes that Abu al-Fath al-Karkhi al-Khimi, a leading Shi`i scholar, author of many books, a grammarian, a lexicographer, an astrologer, a physician, a mutakallim, and one of the outstanding pupils of al-Sharif al-Murtada, died this year.
Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani (d. 852/1448) has also paid him tribute in Lisan al-Mizan, and says that Abu Salah died on the second day of Rabi` al-Akhir, 449/1057. Ibn `Imad al-Hanbali, in Shadharat al-dhahab, mentions the same date of death.
From the list of his books and the accounts of historians it is evident that al-Karajiki was a prolific writer and a scholar of varied interests, who excelled in fiqh, hadith, kalam, grammar, literature, astronomy, and mathematics. He travelled widely but lived most of his life in Egypt at Nazil al-Ramla. He trained and educated many outstanding scholars, particularly in Islamic sciences. Al-Karajiki is probably the first Shi`i scholar of Islamic sciences who while being an authority in fiqh combined his theological scholarship with his expert knowledge of physical sciences and mathematics.

Abu al-`Abbas al-Najashi
Ahmad b. `Ali b. Ahmad b. `Abbas b. Muhammad b. `Abd Allah b. Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. `Abd Allah al-Asadi al-Najashi (d. 450/1058) is considered the oldest and most authentic Shi`i scholar of `ilm al-Rijal, whose book Rijal al-Najashi has been the most reliable source of information about Shi`i `ulama'. His kunya is Abu al-`Abbas. He belonged to a family of eminent scholars.
According to his own account he descended from `Adnan. He writes in his Rijal that his seventh ancestor, in upward order, `Abd Allah al-Najashi was the governor of Ahwaz and Fars during the reign of al-Mansur, the `Abbasi caliph. He was among the companions of al-Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq, and compiled the Imam's answers to his queries under the title Risalat `Abd Allah al-Najashi'.
Abu al-`Abbas's father `Ali b. Ahmad lived in Baghdad and received education under al-Shaykh al-Saduq on his arrival there. He was acclaimed as a faqih and muhaddith. `Ali's father Abu Ya`qub Ahmad b. al-`Abbas was also held in respect as a scholar among the people of Baghdad, from whom Harun b. Musa Tall`ukbari and his own son, father of Abu al-`Abbas, received instruction in religious sciences.
Al-Shaykh al-Tusi in his Rijal, under those who do narrate directly from the Imams, says that he was popularly known as Ibn al-Tayalisi; Tall`ukbari received hadith from him in 335/946 and was given permission to narrate them on his authority; his residence was in Baghdad at Darb al-Baqar; al-Najashi's great grandfather, `Abbas b. Muhammad, was a companion and pupil of al-Imam al-Rida, and narrated hadith on the Imam's authority. Al-Tusi mentioned his name in the list of the companions of al-Imam al-Rida, and says that he was from Kufa.
Al-Najashi also, for being an Asadi who originally came from Kufa, was called Ibn al-Kufa in Baghdad. Another kunya of his was Abu al-Hasan. He was born in 372/982 and died at Matirabad in Jumada al-Awwal 450/1058. Al-Najashi frequently travelled to Najaf, to Kufa - which was his birthplace - to Samarra' and probably to Basra, where he attended classes of renowned scholars of his time. Besides these scholars, he received his education formally in Baghdad. At the age of 28 in 400/1009 he visited al-Najaf al-Ashraf, where he heard hadith from al-Husayn b. Ja`far al-Makhzumi, popularly known as Ibn al-Khumri and was awarded an ijaza by him.
During the same year, he got a similar ijaza from Muhammad b. Shadhan al-Qazwini, who had come to visit Baghdad. During his several visits to Kufa, he heard hadith from Ja`far b. Bashir al-Bajali, Hasan b. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Haytham al-`Ijli and Ishaq b. al-Hasan al-Aqra`i.
His teachers included such eminent scholars as al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Ibn `Abdun (Ahmad b. `Abd al-Wahid), Ahmad b. Muhammad b. `Imran, known as Ibn al-Jundi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Musa b. Harun b. Salt al-Ahwazi, Abu al-`Abbas Ahmad b. Nuh b. `Ali b. al-`Abbas b. Nuh al-Sirafi, Husayn b. `Ubayd Allah al-Ghada'iri, `Ali b. Ahmad b. al-Jayyid al-Qummi, Muhammad b. Ja`far Mu'addab, Adib al-Nahwi, Muhammad b. `Uthman Mu`addal al-Nasibi, Abu al-Faraj Muhammad b. `Ali b. Shadhan al-Qazwini, Ahmad b. al-Husayn al-Ghada'iri, Ahmad b. `Ubayd Allah al-Jawhari, al-Hasan b. Ahmad b. Qasim al-Sharif al-`Alawi, `Uthman b. Hatim al-Taghlibi, Muhammad b. `Abd Allah Abu al-Fadl al-Shaybani, Abu Muhammad al-Surani, Abu al-Hasan b. Mahlus al-`Alawi and his own father.
Al-Najashi's main interest was `ilm al-rijal and its allied branches of knowledge. From childhood he took a keen interest in this subject. He not only attended lectures of eminent teachers, but also visited their houses. For instance, he himself narrates in his book on Rijal, under the account of al-Kulayni, that he used to attend the classes of Abu al-Husayn al-Katib al-Kufi at the Mosque of Lu'lu', known as Masjid Naftawayh al-Nahwi. Similarly he recounts his visits to the house of Husayn and Ahmad al-Ghada'iri. Al-Najashi's written work seems to be confined to a few books despite his vast knowledge. He has mentioned his following books in Rijal al-Najashi: Kitab al-Jumu`a, Kitab al-Kufa wa-ma fi-ha min al-athar wa-l-fada'il, Kitab ansab Bani Nasr b. Qu`ayn wa-ayyamuhum wa-ash`aruhum, Kitab mukhtasar al-anwar wa mawadi` al-nujum allati sammatha I- `Arab.
The most important work of al-Najashi is on Rijal; it was not given any name by him but gained fame as Rijal al-Najashi. This book was compiled by him after al-Tusi had compiled his Rijal and al-Fihrist. `Ali Dawani maintains on the basis of contemporary evidence that the task of compiling books on Rijal of the Shi`a was taken up by al-Tusi and al-Najashi after the death of al-Sharif al-Murtada (436/1044) and that al-Najashi's Rijal was completed even later, for it has a mention of al-Tusi's al-Fihrist; most probably it was completed in 448/1056.
Though there is no mention of al-Najashi in al-Fihrist of al-Shaykh al-Tusi, which is a very conspicuous absence, al-Najashi's Rijal is generally acclaimed by most of the authorities in this field as the best Shi`i work in this field to this day, even superior to al-Tusi's Rijal and al-Fihrist. Al-Shahid al-Thani acknowledges that Rijal al-Najashi is superior to all other works with regard to the author's meticulousness and labour in ascertaining the authenticity of early Shi`i rijal.
Shaykh `Abd al-Nabi al-Jaza'iri, in al-Hawi, also prefers the book to that of al-Tusi, and adds that all latter scholars accept the authenticity of al-Najashi's work. `Allama Baqir al-Majlisi, in the Fihrist of Bihar al-anwar, places the book on a par with those of al-Tusi. Abu `Ali al-Ha'iri, Wahid al-Bihbahani and `Allama Bahr al-`Ulum consider al-Najashi as one of the greatest authorities of all time on Rijal, and place his book at the highest place in respect of authenticity.
Ayatullah Burujirdi is of the view that the Shi`a have only two works on Rijal: those of al-Tusi and al-Najashi. Muhammad Wa`iz Zadeh writes that Ayatullah Burujirdi held the view that Rijal al-Najashi was more reliable than al-Fihrist of al-Tusi, for al-Najashi corrected the lapses and inaccuracies found in the work of al-Tusi.
`Allama Bahr al-`Ulum, who considers al-Najashi's book the best in Rijal, bases his assessment on the following six points: Al-Najashi compiled his work after al-Tusi's work was completed, and could remove the latter's lapses. Al-Tusi's varied interests and responsibilities did not leave much time for him to concentrate on the subject of rijal only, while this was al-Najashi's main interest and he had enough time to devote to this work. Al-Najashi's knowledge in history, biography and genealogy was of superior order than that of al-Tusi.
Al-Najashi came from Kufa, which was a centre of narrators of hadith. He was well acquainted with Ahmad b. al-Husayn al-Ghada'iri, the greatest authority on rijal in that period. He had access to various chains of ruwat of hadith and could ascertain a fact in many ways, which al-Tusi could not do. The importance and fame of Rijal al-Najashi eclipsed his other works.
Though small in number, his works in other fields were also held in respect. However, his Rijal paved the way for the latter generations of Shi`i scholars who could rely upon his research in dealing with hadith, fiqh, history, and biography. We do not have any knowledge about the pupils of al-Najashi except one, that is Abu al-Samsam Dhu al-Fiqar b. Muhammad b. Ma`bad al-Hasani al-`Alawi al-Maruzi, through whom Ibn Dawud, an authority on rijal, is related to al-Najashi. When Shaykh Muntajab al-Din al-Razi saw Abu al-Samsam, he was one hundred and fifteen years old.

Abu Ya`la al-Ja`fari
Abu Ya`la al-Ja`fari (d. 463/1071), a contemporary of al-Tusi and al-Najashi, and an eminent pupil of al-Mufid, was also al-Mufid's son-in-law. Al-Najashi gives the following account of him: Abu Ya`la Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Hamza al-Ja`fari, successor of Shaykh Abu `Abd Allah b. Nu`man (al-Mufid), who occupies his teacher's chair and delivers lectures, is a mutakallim, a faqih, and has many books to his credit.
In Rijal al-Najashi it is mentioned that Abu Ya`la died on the 16th of Ramadan 463/1071. As al-Najashi himself expired in 450/1058, the date of Abu Ya`la's death in his book should have been entered by one of al-Najashi's pupils or a scribe. Abu Ya`la's rise to his teacher's post in the presence of scores of eminent scholars among al-Mufid's pupils is astonishing and is indicative of his high status as a scholar. It is most probable that Abu Ya`la did not succeed his teacher soon after his death, for at that time Abu Ya`la's age should have been about thirty and it was improbable that he could occupy al-Mufid's place after a considerable gap of time.
According to Qamus al-rijal, it is written in `Umdat al-talib that Abu Ya`la was a descendant of Ja`far al-Tayyar b. Abi Talib, an elder brother of Amir al-Mu'minin `Ali.In later books of rijal, also Abu Ya`la is mentioned as an eminent faqih who trained a number of outstanding scholars.

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