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Hillah and Dissemination of Shī段sm in Seventh-Century Iran

By: Rasul Jafarian
The third phase of the influence of Iraqī Shī訴sm on Iran relates to the influence of the school of Hillah on Iranian Shīī scholars during the eighth/fourteenth century. The city of Hillah was founded by Sayf al-Dawlah Hamdanī and with the support he extended to academic pursuits and scholars, it rapidly grew into an academic centre. The Shīī concerns of this dynasty made this city a centre of attraction for Shīī scholars and it gradually grew into a centre of the Shī疎h. For this reason this city has been one of the main centres of the Shī疎h from the sixth/twelfth to the ninth/fifteenth century and at times its position overshadowed even Najaf and other Shīī centres. During the said period scholars belonging to this city were many and two of their most outstanding thinkers were Muhaqqiq Hillī (676/1277) and 羨llamah Hillī (d. 726/1325).[1] The illustrious Tawus family belonged to Hillah and it was here that Radī al-Dīn 羨li ibn Tawus was born in 589/1193. He later went to Baghdad, although he returned to Hillah in the years 643/1245 and 663/1264. Before them was Ibn Idrīs Hillī (d. 598/1201), whose book al-Sara段r acquired a prominent position despite the criticism which has been directed towards him. He had been critical of Shaykh Tusī in fiqh and tafsīr.[2] Other famous families such as those of Al Bitrīq and Al Saīd (to this family belonged Muhaqqiq Hillī) resided in this city. The prevalent academic language of the city was Arabic and its population was mainly Arab. Nevertheless, the literary links between Arabic and Persian, which were the result of frequent visits of Iranians to the city, led to close links between this city and Persian speakers and Iranian towns. For instance, Safī al-Dīn Muhammad ibn TaqTaqī, the author of al-Fakhrī, whose family had been residing in Hillah for centuries, travelled to Iran and married an Iranian woman and he cites Persian verses in his book.[3] A perusal of Ibn Fuwatī痴 book Majma al-Adab shows that there were many bilingual poets in this period who wrote poetry in Arabic as well as Persian.[4]

羨llamah Hillī in Iran
The fall of the 羨bbasid caliphate occurred during this period and the Mongol Ilkhanids ruled over Muslims. Gradually they embraced Islam and among them Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah embraced Shī訴sm. When he wanted to become more familiar with the Shīī creed, the fame of 羨llamah Hillī was such that his name was proposed to the king who invited him to Sultaniyyah.
羨llamah Hillī was fated to establish a close relationship with Iran. We know that the concept of 選ran acquired currency in literary, historical, and political literature in the era of the Ilkhanids. The 羨llamah痴 relations were established with Iran due to the religious sentiments of Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah and his conversion to Shī訴sm. The 羨llamah lived for some time in Iran and stayed for a period at the king痴 court and wrote books in his name and in the defense of Shī訴sm. In a brief treatise entitled Bayan al-Haqayiq that Rashīd al-Dīn Fadl Allah wrote in the year 709/1309 concerning ziyarah in a reply to a question posed by 羨llamah Hillī, he mentions 羨llamah Hillī with the words 荘mawlana al-mu疎zzam malik al-hukama wa al-Mashayikh, yaganeh wa dastur-e Iran.鋳[5] The term dastur here is in the sense of an important personality whose word is considered authoritative. The 羨llamah痴 presence in Iran was after the time when Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah developed a keen interest in a debate between Islamic creeds, and the 羨llamah was invited as a Shīī scholar to participate in these debates. Following Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah痴 interest in Shī訴sm, the station of the 羨llamah and his son rose and the 羨llamah remained for a period in the Sultan痴 court. Elsewhere we have given a description of 羨llamah Hillī痴 presence in these debates and the 羨llamah writings on the issues of kalam and their dedication to the Sultan.[6] That which is significant for the present study is the presence of the 羨llamah in Iran and his journeys to various Iranian towns. To be certain, the 羨llamah was in Iran in the year 709/1309. Moreover, that which can be gathered from the treatise of Rashīd al-Dīn is that the 羨llamah gave an ijazah to Taj al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Mawla Zayn al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Qadī 羨bd al-Wahid Razī in the RAbu al-Thanī of this year.[7]
The 羨llamah was also in Iran in the year 712/1312, for his book al-Alfayn was finished in the city of Jurjan in the Ramadan of 712/1312.[8] The 羨llamah also issued an ijazah in Waramīn for Qutb al-Dīn Razī, an outstanding Shī疎h philosopher and scholar, in the Sha礎an of 713/1313.[9] From certain isnad it appears that the 羨llamah was for a time in Qum, where he heard hadīth. The said isnad is mentioned in the book 羨walī al-La誕lī of Ibn Abu Jumhur. There the isnad given, from the 羨llamah upwards, is as follows: 荘Qala haddathanī al-Shaykh al-羨llamah al-fahhamah, ustadh al-爽lama, Jamal al-Dīn Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn al-MuTahhar, qala, ruwītu 疎n Mawlana Sharaf al-Dīn Ishaq ibn Mahmud al-Yamanī bi-Qum, 疎n khalihī Mawlana 選mad al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Fathan al-Qummī, 疎n al-Shaykh Sadr al-Dīn al-Sawī.鋳[10] Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah established a mobile madrasah, named Madrasah Sayyarah, consisting of the 羨llamah and many scholars of that era, and they would move about from place to place in the company of the Sultan.[11]
During the lifetime of 羨llamah Hillī and his son, Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn,[12] (682-771/1283-1369), a number of Iranians came to him for learning, and besides studies under him they would engage in making copies of his books which were transferred to Iran. Here we will mention some of the pupils of 羨llamah Hillī and Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn.
1. Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn Balku ibn 羨li Awī. He possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah and his son, dated 705/1305. He has written a manuscript of the Nahj al-Balaghah in 732/1331 at Isfahan.[13]
2. Jamal al-Dīn Iskandar Istarabadī, pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn.[14]
3. Taj al-Dīn Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Hasan Sarabeshnawī Kashanī, one of the pupils of 羨llamah Hillī. In an ijazah that he wrote for his son in the year 763/1361 on the back of a manuscript of the 羨llamah痴 book al-Qawa訴d, he mentions himself as being a pupil of the 羨llamah.[15]
4. Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Baha al-Dīn Sarabeshnawī, a pupil of 羨llamah Hillī, who possessed an ijazah from him dated Jamadī al-Awwal 715/1315.[16]
5. Husayn ibn Ibrahīm ibn Yahya Istarabadī. He possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah dated Safar 708/1308.[17]
6. Sharaf Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li Tusī, one of the pupils of 羨llamah Hillī, who possessed an ijazah from him dated Dhu al-Hijjah 704/1305 and written on a manuscript of the Irshad al-Adhhan.[18]
7. Hamzah ibn Hamzah ibn Muhammad 羨lawī Husaynī. Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn wrote his book Tahsīl al-Najat on doctrine (uSul al-dīn) in the year 736/1335 for him. The following remark is mentioned in the book about the place of his residence: 荘Hamzah ibn Hamzah al-羨lawī al-mutawattin bi qaryati Sharīfabad min nahiyati Jast min a僧ali Qum,鋳 showing that he was a resident of Sharīfabad, in the vicinity of Qum.[19]
8. Sayyid Haydar Amulī, the famous Shīī mystic and philosopher. According to what he has mentioned in his own exegesis, al-Muhīt al-a想am, having studied at Amul he proceeded to Khurasan, and then to Istarabad and Isfahan, and thereafter, after spending twenty years in Amul he set out for hajj and ultimately settled down in Najaf. He possessed two ijazahs from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn dated 759/1357 and 761/1359.[20] At Najaf he also had Iranian disciples including NaSīr al-Dīn 羨li ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li, who had been born at Kashan and settled down at Hillah and was buried at Najaf.[21]
9. Fakhr al-Dīn Haydar ibn 羨li ibn Muhammad Bayhaqī. Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn wrote his al-Risalah al-Fakhriyyah in his name.[22]
10. Taj al-Dīn Abu Saīd ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad Kashī. A pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn, he had studied the 羨llamah痴 Tabsirat al-Muta疎llimīn under him and was given by him an ijazah dated Rabu al-Thanī 759/1358.[23]
11. 羨li ibn Muhammad ibn Rashīd Awī, a pupil of the 羨llamah, he possessed an ijazah from him dated Rajab 705/Dec. 1305-Jan. 1306.
12. Sadr al-Dīn Abu Ibrahīm Muhammad ibn Ishaq Dashtakī. He possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah dated 15 Jamadī al-Awwal 724/1324 written on a manuscript of the Qawa訴d.[24]
13. Rukn al-Dīn Muhammad ibn 羨li ibn Muhammad Jurjanī Istarabadī, a resident of Hillah and translator of Khwajah Nasīr al-Dīn Tusī痴 book al-Fusul al-Nasīriyyah from Persian into Arabic. He was a pupil of 羨llamah Hillī and commentator of one his works.[25]
14. Muhammad ibn Muhammad Isfandyarī Amulī, one of the pupils of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn who possessed an ijazah from him dated 745/1344.[26]
15. Qutb al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad Razī. He possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah written in the year 713/1313 at Waramīn, near Ray.[27]
16. Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Hilal Awī. He possessed an ijazah from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn dated 705/1305.[28]
17. Taj al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn 羨bd al-Wahid Razī. A pupil of the 羨llamah, he possessed an ijazah from him dated 709/1309.[29]
18. Badr al-Dīn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Tabarī, a pupil of 羨llamah Hillī.[30]
19. Nizam al-Dīn Mahmud Amulī, a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn.[31]
20. Diya al-Dīn Harun ibn Hasan ibn 羨li Tabarī, he possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah dated 17 Rajab 701/1302.[32]
21. Zayn al-Dīn ibn 羨li ibn Husayn Istarabadī, a pupil of Radī al-Dīn 羨li ibn Yusuf, brother of 羨llamah Hillī, who also possessed an ijazah from him and copied some of 羨llamah Hillī痴 works.[33]
22. Husayn ibn Ardashīr ibn Muhammad Tabarī, a pupil of Najīb al-Dīn Yahya ibn Ahmad ibn Saīd Hillī. He also possessed an ijazah from him dated 677/1278.[34]
At present there exist a large number of manuscripts of the works of the 羨llamah on fiqh and kalam pertaining to the eighth/fourteenth and ninth/fifteenth centuries which were either written in Iran or by Iranians residing in Iraq. Many of these persons were either pupils of 羨llamah Hillī or had become familiar with his thought through Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn. Hasan ibn Hamzah Najafī wrote a manuscript of 羨llamah痴 Irshad al-Adhhan in the year 837/1433. He has written an ijazah on the back of the same manuscript indicating that his teacher was Zayn al-Dīn 羨li ibn Hasan Istarabadī, a pupil of Hasan ibn Diya al-Dīn A喪aj, who was a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn, who in turn was a pupil of his father, 羨llamah Hillī.[35]
Here we will mention some of these manuscripts.
1. Irshad al-Adhhan: There is a manuscript of it in the hand of Hasan ibn Husayn Sabzawarī dated 718/1318.[36] Another manuscript, in the hand of Burhan al-Dīn Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Mahmud al-Faqīru Qummī, is dated 730/1329, parts of which are in Persian.[37] Other manuscripts of this work are as follows:
1. by Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn 羨li Tabarī, dated 736.[38]
2. by Majd al-Dīn ibn Sharaf al-Dīn ibn Mughīth al-Dīn Isfahanī, dated 772.[39]
3. by Husayn ibn Hasan ibn Husayn Hajī Asadabadī, dated 799, written at Istarabad.[40]
4. by Saīd ibn Ja素ar ibn Rustam Jurjanī, dated Jamadī al-Thanī 772; it exists at the Khawansarī Library at Najaf.[41]
2. Tahrīr Al-Ahkam al-Shar訴yyah: Its manuscripts are as follows:
5. by Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn Yahya Farahanī, dated 23 RAbu al-Awwal 759.
6. by Husayn (or Hasan) ibn 羨li ibn Muhammad Istarabadī, dated 28 Sha礎an 726.
7. by Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Hasan Sarabeshnawī, written at Bab al-Wardah, Kashan, and dated 22 Jamadī al-Awwal 735.
8. by Muhammad ibn 羨li, dated 24 Safar 737, and acquired in Rajab 762 by Muhammad ibn Ni僧at Allah 羨qdaī.
9. Another manuscript of this book bears a note by Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li Amulī and is dated 752. Another manuscript in the hand of Sultan Hasan Husaynī is dated 833 and it was read in the presence of Zayn al-Dīn 羨li ibn Hasan Istarabadī. Another in the hand of 選mad ibn 羨li Jurjanī is dated 12 Safar 860.[42]
3. IstiqSa al-Bahth wa al-Nazar fī Masa段l al-Qada wa al-Qadar: A manuscript of it is in the hand of the Shīī philosopher and mystic, Sayyid Haydar Amulī, a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn.[43]
4. Al-Alfayn: A manuscript of it exists in the hand of Muhammad ibn Ahmad Makhluf Madanī written in 853 in the city of Sarī in the province of Mazandaran.[44].
5. Idah al-Maqasid min Hikmat 羨yn al-Qawa訴d: A manuscript of it in the hand of Ja素ar Istarabadī is dated 707.[45]
6. Tabsirat al-Muta疎llimīn: A manuscript of it bears a note, dated RAbu al-Thanī 759, by Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn, stating that the book had been read to him by Abu Saīd Kashī (mawlana al-a想am afzal al-muhaqqiqīn Sultan al-hukama wa al-mutakallimīn Abu Sa訴d ibn al-imam al-saīd 選mad al-Dīn Yahya ibn al-imam al-saīd Fakhr al-Dīn Ahmad Kashī). There he remarks that he had benefited more from Abu Saīd than the latter had benefited from him (wa kanat al-istifadatu minhu akthara min al-ifadatī lahu).[46]
7. Al-KhulaSah fī 選lm al-Kalam: A manuscript of it is in the hand of 羨li ibn Hasan ibn Radī 羨lawī Husaynī Sarabeshnawī and is dated Dhu al-Hijjah 716 (at the end of the manuscript there is a note by 羨bd al-Malik ibn Ishaq ibn 羨bd al-Malik ibn Fathan Wa訴z Qummī Kashanī, dated Jamadī al-Thanī 804.)[47]
8. Risalah al-Sa租iyyah: A manuscript of it, dated Rabu al-Thanī 764, was written at ArdAbul.[48] Another manuscript in the hand of Jamal al-Dīn 羨li ibn Majd al-Dīn Sadīd ManSurī Istarabadī is dated 865. Another was completed on 22 Ramadan 881 in Isfahan.[49]
9. Ghayat al-Wusul wa Idah al-Subul: A manuscript of it, in the hand of Muhammad ibn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Malik Tabarī and dated RAbu al-Awwal 704 (this date coincides with the lifetime of 羨llamah Hillī), was written at Sultaniyyah.[50]
10. Qawa訴d al-Ahkam fī Ma喪ifat al-Halal wa al-Haram: A manuscript of it by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Husaynī Dashtakī, a pupil of 羨llamah Hillī, was written in the year 703 at the Madrasah Sayyarah and at the end he writes that the copy, made from the original, was completed on Tuesday, 22 RAbu 疎l-Awwal in the year 713 at Sultaniyyah in the Ilkhanid Madrasah, known as Sayyarah. At the end it bears the note: 荘faragha al-mustansikh min al-asl yawm al-thulatha al-thanī wa al-訴shrīn min RAbu al-Awwal sinah 713, bi al-Sultaniyyah, shayyada Allahu arkana dawlati banīha fī al-madrasat al-sharīfah al-Ilkhaniyyah al-musammat bi al-Sayyarah).[51] Another manuscript, written by Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahdī ibn Mukhlis Qummī, is dated 7 Ramadan 718.[52] Another manuscript, dated 7 Safar 728, is in the hand of Husayn ibn Abu al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Kashanī. Another manuscript bearing the date 732 is in the hand of 羨li ibn al-Husayn ibn 羨li ibn Abu al-Majd Khawarazmī. Another in the hand of 羨li ibn Fakhr al-Dīn Abu Talib Tabarī is dated 746 (at the end of the manuscript there is an ijazah in the hand of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn for the scribe, dated 760 and written at Hillah. This is indicative of the presence of Iranian students in the lectures of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn).[53] Another manuscript in the hand of Fadl Allah ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li al-Qummī and dated 814 was written at Najaf. Another, in the hand of Muhammad ibn 羨li ibn Haydar ibn Hasan ibn 羨li ibn Tahir ibn Mansur Muqri Kashanī, is dated Shawwal 849 (an ijazah is written at its end in the hand of Ahmad ibn Muīn ibn Humayun ibn 羨li al-Kashī written at Kashan.[54]) Other manuscripts of this book written by scholars residing in Iran in the ninth/fifteenth century consist of: the manuscript written in 854 by Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Sulayman Tabarī; the manuscript written in 859 by 羨li ibn 羨bd al-羨zīz Istarabadī; the manuscript written in 880 by Muhammad ibn Hasan Isfahanī; the manuscript written by Muīn ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li... ibn Daniyal al-Ruhqī in 898 at Kashan.[55] (There exist more than seventy manuscripts of the Qawa訴d al-Ahkam written until the ninth/fifteenth century, something which is indicative of the large number of Shīīs who used it in different towns.)
The Qawa訴d al-Ahkam of 羨llamah Hillī was translated once in 732/1331 in a period of ten months. The translator, Muhammad ibn Muhammad Abu 羨bd Allah, known as Hajī, was apparently a pupil of 羨llamah Hillī himself. A sole manuscript of it, written in 780, exists at Madrasah Khayrat Khan, Mashhad.[56]
11. Kashf al-Murad fī Sharh Tajrīd al-I奏iqad: A manuscript of it by one of the pupils of the 羨llamah was written in the Madrasah Sayyarah. Another manuscript by Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Amulī (d. 753/1352), a pupil of 羨llamah Hillī, was written for his teacher at the Madrasah Sayyarah and finished on Friday, 20 Muharram 713, in the city of Kirmanshah.[57] There are two other manuscripts of this book, one by Muhammad ibn Muhammad Isfandyarī Amulī was written in 745 and was read to Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn, and the other, by Abu Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Turab Waramīnī, was written in 716.[58]
12. Mabadi al-Wusul ila 選lm al-Usul: A manuscript of it in the hand of Harun ibn Hasan ibn 羨li Tabarī is dated Sha礎an 700 (with a note in the 羨llamah痴 hand on it). Another manuscript in the hand of Jamal al-Dīn Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn 羨bd Allah Balku ibn Abu Talib, one of the pupils of the 羨llamah, is dated Ramadan 703 and is accompanied with an ijazah of the author for the scribe, dated 705.[59]
13. Mukhtalaf al-Shī疎h: A manuscript of it in the hand of Ibrahīm ibn Yusuf Istarabadī is dated 702. Another manuscript in the hand of Muhammad ibn Abu Talib Awī is dated 704. One manuscript in the hand of Ja素ar ibn Husayn Istarabadī is dated Ramadan 705.[60] Another one in the hand of Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn Yahya Farahanī is dated 733. Another manuscript in the hand of Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn Badr Razī is dated Shawwal 737.[61]
14. Marasid al-Tadqīq wa Maqasid al-Tahqīq: A manuscript of it in the hand of Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Abu Talib ibn al-Hajj Awī, dated Jamadī al-Awwal 710, was written at Sultaniyyah. It is accompanied by an ijazah from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn (this manuscript was in the possession of Fath Allah ibn Khawajagī Shīrazī Ansarī and was gifted by him to his son Humam al-Dīn Muhammad in 767/1365)[62]
15. Manahij al-Yaqīn: A manuscript of it in the hand of 羨li ibn Hasan Tabarī is dated Sha礎an 724.[63]
16. Minhaj al-Salah fī IkhtiSar al-Misbah: A manuscript of it in the hand of Muhammad ibn 羨li Tabarī is dated Shawwal 733.[64]
17. Minhaj al-Karamah fī Ithbat al-Imamah: A manuscript of it in the hand of Kamal al-Dīn ibn 羨bd Allah ibn Saīd Jurjanī is dated Rajab 878 and bears a gloss written in Arabic and Persian between the lines.[65] (There is a translation of this book related to 8th/14th or 9th/15th century existing at the Farhad Mu奏amad Library and is mentioned in the periodical Nuskhehha-ye khattī, published by Tehran University.[66])
18. fNihayat al-Ihkam fī Ma喪ifat al-Ahkam: A manuscript of it was written at the Madrasah Sultaniyyah.[67]
19. Nahj al-Mustarshidīn: A manuscript of it in the hand of Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Abu Talib ibn al-Hajj Muhammad ibn Hasan Awī is dated 705. Another, in the hand of Jamal al-Dīn Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn Abu 羨bd Allah Balku Awī, is dated 705. Another, in the hand of Ahmad ibn Buzbash Dezfulī, is dated 824.[68]
Notes:
[1] Al-Tehran?, Al-Haqayiq al-Rahinah f? al-Mi誕t al-Thaminah (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-羨rabiyyah, 1975 ), pp. 52-53.
[2] Al-Bahran?, Lu値u誕t al-Bahrayn (Qum: Mu誕ssasat Al al-Bayt lil-Nashr wa al-Turath, nd ), p. 237.
[3] Yusuf Karkush, op. cit., vol. 2, pp. 78-79.
[4] See for instance, vol. 1, pp. 224, 368, 370, 395.
[5] See 羨bd al-Hujjat Balagh?, Tar?kh Na?n (Tehran: Chapkhaneh Mazahir?, 1368 H.), p. 21, see the facsimile of the first page of the treatise.
[6] Ja素ariya, Rasul, Tar?kh-e Tashayyu dar Iran (Qum: Intisharat-e Ansarian 1375 ), vol. 2, p. 662.
[7] Majlis?, Bihar, vol. 104, p. 142.
[8] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-但z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill? (Qum: Mu疎ssasat Al al-Bayt 1417 ),p.53.
[9] Majlis?, Bihar, vol. 104, p. 138.
[10] Ibid., vol. 104, p. 9.
[11] Majma al-Tawar?kh, ms. in the Kitabkhaneh Mell?-ye Malik, vol. 3, folio 237, cited in Manuchehr Murtadaw?, Masa段l-e 羨sr-e ?lkhanan (Tehran: Intisharat-e Agah, 1370 H. Sh. ), p. 250.
[12] Al-Tehran?, Al-Haqayiq, p. 185.
[13] Ibid., p.185.
[14] Ibid., p. 16.
[15] Ibid., p. 38.
[16] Ibid., p. 49.
[17] Ibid., pp. 54-55.
[18] Ibid., p. 58.
[19] Ibid., p. 65.
[20] Ibid., pp. 66-68.
[21] Ibid., p. 149.
[22] Ibid., p. 70.
[23] Ibid., pp. 86-87.
[24] Ibid., p. 178.
[25] Ibid., p. 194.
[26] Ibid., p. 199.
[27] Ibid., p. 200.
[28] Ibid., p. 208.
[29] Ibid., p. 210.
[30] Ibid., p. 211.
[31] Ibid., p. 214.
[32] Ibid., p. 235.
[33] Ibid., p. 139.
[34] Ibid., p. 55.
[35] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, pp. 37-38.
[36] Ibid., p. 35.
[37] Fihrist-e Nuskhehha-ye Khatt?-ye Kitabkhaneh Majlis, vol. 10, pp. 218-220.
[38] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al- Hill?, p. 35.
[39] Ibid., p. 36.
[40] Ibid., p. 36; Ashkewar?, Fihrist-e Nuskhehha-ye Khatti-ye Kitabkhaneh 繕mum? Ayatullah Mar疎sh?.(Qum: Kitabkhaneh 繕mum?-ye Ayatullah Mar疎sh? 1368 H. SH. ), vol. 17, p. 276
[41] Al-Tehran?, Al-Haqayiq, p. 86.
[42] Ibid., pp. 78-87.
[43] Fihrist-e Nuskhehha-ye Khatt?-ye Kitabkhaneh Majlis, vol. 14, pp. 224-225.
[44] Ibid., vol. 5, pp. 4-8; Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 154.
[45] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 63.
[46] Ibid., pp. 72-73.
[46] Ibid., p. 116.
[47] Fihrist-e Nuskhehha-ye Khatt?-ye Kitabkhaneh Majlis, vol 14, p. 225, no. 6342.
[48] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 130.
[49] Ibid., p. 134.
[50] Ibid., p. 137.
[51] Ashkewar?, op. cit, vol. 11, p. 275, no. 4273; Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 139.
[52] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 141.
[53] Ibid., p. 147.
[54] Ibid., pp. 149-150.
[55] Ibid. p. 158.
[56] Al-Tehran?, Al-Haqayiq, p. 204; Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 163.
[57] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 164.
[58] Ibid., p. 169.
[59] Ibid., pp. 174-175.
[60] Ibid., p. 177.
[61] Ibid., p. 185.
[62] Ibid., p. 192.
[63] Ibid., p. 198.
[64] Ibid., p. 200.
[65] The periodical Nuskhehha-ye khatt? published by Tehran University, vol. 3, p. 160; Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 203.
[66] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 207.
[68] Ibid., pp. 204, 206.

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