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Islamic Terms and Expressions

- A -
Aalam:
The most learned.
Adat Vaghtieh:
Women whose Hayz has a certain timing and duration.
Adate Mahaneh:
Monthly habit of woman. Hayz.
Adel
More Adil (just)
Adil:
Just. A man who is predominantly just.
Aghrab is that:
This phrase means that the Fatwa is there unless there is statement contrary to that.
Aghva is that:
The strong view is this. Fatwa is there and it should be observed.
Ahd:
Vow. Making it obligatory upon oneself to do or refrain from doing an act for the pleasure of Allah. It has special formula (Seighah), please refer to Article 2745.
Ahkam Khamseh:
Five Rulings, which are considered of Wujub (incumbency or necessity), Hormah (being forbidden), Istihbab (Desirability), Kerahat (repugnance and aversion), and Ibahah (general permission for common use).
Ahlul Ketab:
People of the Book. Non-Muslim who is a follower of a prophet who has divine Book, such as Jews and Christians.
Ahvat:
Compatible with precaution
Aini, Wajeb
Wajeb Aini
Ajaneb:
Aliens
Ajeer:
Hired person. A person who is entitled to get wage according to contract for what he/she has done.
Ajez:
Unable. Helpless.
Ajza va Sharayet:
Parts and conditions. Anything which totality of a whole cannot realize without it. An essential part of a whole. Anything which changes quality or position of another thing if it is not there. Anything which is a required condition of another thing. For example, failure to perform Ruku and Sujood makes the whole Namaz invalid; but failure to perform Taharat and presence of heart makes the correctness or perfection of Namaz defective, but the origin of Namaz is there, although it is not fully correct or complete.
Aktefa be Zarorat:
Do it up to a limit which is solely necessary and no more than that.
Alate-Lahv:
Instruments used for unpermissible enjoyment and entertainment such as Tar (a kind of musical instrument), drum and the like.
Amal be Ihtiyat:
Acting according to precaution. Action of Mukallaf in a way that he/she is certain that he/she has performed his/her religious duty.
Amdan:
Intentionally. Performing some act knowingly.
Amil:
Agent and doer:
1. One who acts according to Joaleh contract;
2. One who is responsible for collecting, accounting, and distribution and other issues of Zakat;
3. Hired (Ajeer).
Amin:
Impotent man.
Amre be Maroof:
Enjoining good. Encouraging people to do rules and traditions, which are approved by Shariah.
Amvaleh Mohtarameh:
Respectful properties according to Islamic rules.
Apostate
Mortade
Appling comphor
Hunut.
Appreciation of market price
Irtefae Ghimat Soghi, or Irteghaie Ghimate Soghi
Approval
Tasdigh
Aqd Bea’a:
Purchase and sale contract.
Aqd Dayem:
Permanent marriage.
Aqd Gher Dayem:
Temporary marriage.
Aqd:
Knot. Contract of marriage. Link.
Araqe Janb az Haraam:
Sweating after illegal intercourse or masturbation.
Araz Az Vatan:
Decision to leave the home forever.
Arbabe Khums:
Those who are entitled to get Khums. Owners of Khums.
Arbahi Makaseb:
Proceeds of business or working. Any earnings from occupation or activity.
Arieh:
Giving ones property to others for temporary use and without getting any consideration.
Arkane-Din
Osoole-Din
Asbabe Imaleh:
Instruments of giving an enema.
Assi:
Violator of divine rules.
Assli, Wajeb
Wajeb Assli
Atgha:
More Pious
Awdaj-e Arbaeh:
Four main arteries (jugular artery, food pipe, jugular vein, and wind pipe) of animals.
Awlaa:
Better. Preferable. More suitable.
Awraa:
More pious.
Ayal :
Wife.
Ayat,
Namaz Namaze Ayat.
Ayedat:
Proceeds. Earnings.
Azhar:
Brighter. Clearer. As a terms used for rulings, it refers to existence of Fatwa and Muqalled
(follower of Mujtahid) should observe it.
Azl:
Dismissal.
1. Discharge of semen out of womb to avoid pregnancy;
2. Dismissal of Wakil or agent from execution of will or dismissal of wrong doing Mutewalli by Shariah judge.

- B -
Ba’eed:
Too far. Improbable. Not compatible with Fatwa.
Badal Az Ghusl:
Instead of Ghusl. If there is no water, the duty of a Mukallaf is to perform Tayammum, which is instead of Ghusl.
Badal Az Wudhu:
Instead of Wudhu. If there is no water, the duty of a Mukallaf person is to perform Tayammum, which is instead of Wudhu.
Bahimeh:
Quadrupeds (beasts of burden).
Baligh:
Mature. A person who has reached the age of Bulugh.
Barat:
Promissory notes. Papers signed debtors as an indication of their debt, which is used in customary business as valid commercial documents.
Bast:
Spreading. Interpreting. Making wider.
Baya Methl-be-Methl:
Purchase and sale of two similar things, such as wheat with wheat.
Be Nahabe Motearef:
In a customary way.
Bedat:
Innovation. Imposing personal taste and view in divine rulings.
Belade Kabireh:
Metropolitans. Big cities.
Bera’ate Zammeh:
In cases of doubt, Mukallaf should act in a way to be sure that he/she has done his/her duty.
Breaking fast Iftar
Bulugh:
Maturity. Appearance of one of the signs of maturity in a human being. Reaching to the age of Taklif.

C--

- D -
Da’avi:
Seeking justice.
Daemeh (Da’ima):
Permanent wife.
Daily prayers :
Namaz Yomieh.
Defa’a:
Defense. Pushing the enemy back. Resistance against enemies.
Difference of process of perfect and defective:
Tafavot Ghaymate Sahih va Mayooh
Discerning child
Momaez.
Diyeh:
A certain amount of property, which is given according to Shariah estimation as the compensation for Muslim blood or making someone disabled. Blood money.
Do not fail to observe Ihtiyat:
Any case which there is not a Fatwa by Faghih on it is considered an obligatory precaution case, and if there is no Fatwa on the issue at hand, it is only an emphasis according to a good level of precaution.
Dobor:
From behind.

- E -
Ehtelam:
Discharge of semen while sleeping; a sign of Bulugh (maturity).
Eid Azha (Ghorban):
The tenth of Zillhajjeh and one of the two great Islamic celebrations.
Eid Fitr:
The first day of Shawwal month and one of the two great Islamic celebrations.
Ejareh (Lease):
A kind of contract according to which proceeds of a property or work of one side is given to the other side in consideration of payment and in a certain period.
Establish :
Ihdath
Executor of will :
Wasi.

- F -
Fagher(Fakir):
Poor. Needy. One who is not able to provide his own and his family’s annual expenses and cannot pay his daily expenses out of any source.
Fajr:
Dawn.
Fajre Awwal, Fajre Dowwom:
First and second dawns. Just before Adhan of dawn, a column of whiteness rises toward east which is called the first sawn and when it spreads, it is called second dawn (Fajr) and the prime time for Subh prayers.
Fajre Kazeb:
False dawn, which is another name for the first dawn.
Fajre Sadegh:
True dawn, which is another name for the second dawn (Fajr).
Farj:
Private parts.
Farz:
Obligatory issue. Something which must be done or performed as an obligation.
Fatwa:
Ruling of Mujtahid in Shariah issues.
Fazleh:
Excrement of animals.
Feeble-minded:
Safeeh.
Fi Sabilellah:
Doing something good for the pleasure of Allah, which is beneficial to all Muslims like building a mosque, bridge, road.
Fitr:
The first day of Shawwal and one of great Islamic celebrations.
Fitreyh:
Zakat of Fitreh.
Fitri,
Nortade Mortade Fitri
Five Rulings :
Ahkam Khamseh
Fogha’a:
Beer.
Following :
Taqleed
Forada:
Prayers offered individually.
Four main arteries :
Awdaj-e Arbaeh
Four Tasbihat :
Tasbihat Arba’ah
Fully Competent :
Mujtahid Mujtahid ...

-G -
Ghisas:
A kind of punishment, which is suitable for crime. For example, if one intentionally kills another person, he condemned to death.
Ghiyam Motassel be Ruku:
A rising by the person who is offering prayers just before Ruku which is an essential part of Namaz.
Ghiyam:
Standing. Rising. Offering prayers.
Ghobol:
Front (referring to private parts).
Ghofaiyleh :
Namaz Ghofaiyleh.
Gholate:
A group of Muslims who make exaggerations about Hazrat Ali Amir Almomenin (AS).
Ghorbat :
Ghasde Ghorbat
Ghorooh:
Boils. Abscess.
Ghusl Irtemasi:
Immersing in water in one time with Niyyat of Ghusl.
Ghusl Jabireh:
A kind of Ghusl which is performed with Jabireh in body and it should be necessarily a Tartibi one.
Ghusl Mustahab:
Recommendatory Ghusl. A kind of Ghusl which becomes suitable in certain times and nights or prayers and pilgrimages such as Ghusl Jom’a and Ghusl Ziyarat.
Ghusl Tartibi:
Immersing head and neck first and then right side and then left side in water, with Niyyat of Ghusl.
Ghusl:
Washing. Washing body in a particular from. It has two types: 1. Tartibi and 2. Irtemasi.
Ghusle Wajeb:
Obligatory washing, which has several types:
1. Ghusl Jenabat;
2. Ghusl Hayz;
3. Ghusl Nefas;
4. Ghusl Istihaza;
5. Ghusl Masse Mayyit;
6. Ghusl Mayyit;
7. Ghusl Nazr va Ghasam.
Gift :
Hebeh.
Guardianship :
Welayat.

- H -
Hadath Akbar:
Any act, which make Ghusl necessary for Namaz such as Ihteham and Jama’a.
Hadath Asghar:
Any reason which makes Wuzu necessary and they are seven cases:
1. Urinating;
2. Discharge of faeces;
3. Passing wind;
4. Full sleeping,
5. Intoxicating things which destroy reasoning;
6. Istihaza;
7. Causes of Ghusl.
Hadde Tarakhus:
A distance from a location so that the voice of Mo’azen is not heard and walls of the residence are not seen.
Hadm:
Destroy.
Hadyeh:
Present. Gift.
Hajj Niyabati:
Pilgrimage of Mecca on behalf of someone else and performing “Manaseke Hajj”.
Hajj:
Pilgrimage to “House of Allah” (in Mecca) and performance of a set of rituals, which are called collectively “Manaseke Hajj”.
Hakim Sharia:
A Mujtahid who has given a Fatwa according to Shariah rules.
Haraam:
Forbidden. Any act which should not be done according to Shariah rules.
Haraj:
Hardship.
Hawalah:
Referring a creditor to a third party to receive his/her money.
Hayne-Orooz Shak:
When doubts occur.
Hayz:
A woman in menstruation (monthly period).
Hayz:
Women’s monthly period.
Hazar:
The place of presence (Vatan).
Hebeh :
Gift
Heir:
Wareth.
Hesseh:
Share.
Hired
Person Ajeer
Hunut:
Applying camphor on the body of the dead, including forehead, both palms, both knees, and both toes.

- I -
Ialan:
Make aware. Declare.
Ibn-Sabil:
A traveler who cannot afford his food and accommodations while in travel ad is left helpless.
Iddah
Claiming. Seeking justice.
Ieghaa:
An act, which can be undertaken unilaterally and it is not subject to the other side’s approval, like divorce which is not subject to approval of wife from Shariah point of view.
Ifdha:
Ifza
Iftar:
Breaking fast.
Ifza (Ifdha):
Opening. State of a woman that her urinary and menstrual tract or her menstrual passage and rectum, or all three of them have become one.
Ighamahe Maroof:
Performing a tradition, which is valid from Shariah point of view.
Ihdath
Establish. Build.
Ihraz
Achieving. Getting. Proving and getting to know.
Ihtiyat:
Precaution. Prudence. Points that their observance makes one sure about perfection of an issue.
Ihya-e Zamin:
Changes in land through cultivation or building constructions and the like so that a useless land is put to use.
Ikhfa
Concealing. Hiding.
Ikhfat
Reciting slowly (in low voice)
Ikhtelat ba Ajaneb:
Proper behavior and treatment with aliens (Ajaneb).
Ilzam:
To force.
Imam Jama’at:
Congregational prayer leader who is followed by others.
Imam:
Leader. Pontiff.
Immate:
Osoole-Mazhab
Immersing in water:
Irtemas
Imrare-Ma’ash:
To earn one’s livelihood.
Imsak:
Avoiding. Self-restraint.
Integhal (Intiqal):
Transfer. Change location. Changing the position of a Najis thing in a way that it is no longer the original substance, like transfer of human blood to a mosquito.
Istifae Hagh:
Obtaining the rights (Article 2367).
Intention:
Niyyat.
Invalidating
causes Mobtalat
Inzal:
Discharge of semen.
Irtefae Ghimate Soghi:
Appreciation of market price for goods and properties.
Irtemas:
Immersing in water (for performing Ghusl). To put in water (for the purpose of performing Wudhu).
Irth:
The estate of a deceased person, which is left for the heirs.
Ishkal
Mahaleh Ishkal
Ishkal, a matter of:
If an action is done and it does not remove the obligation and it cannot be considered as sufficient, then it is a matter of Ishkal (problematique).
Istealam:
Asking about something. Seeking awareness.
Isterbah:
Requesting for interests and seeking profits.
Istibra:
Trying to remove Nejasat and dirt. This is used in three cases:
1. Istibra from excrement;
2. Istibra from semen, which means urinating after the discharge of semen, so that no part of it remains in the urinary tract;
3. Istibra of an animal which is used to eat Nejasat and confining it so that it can not eat human Nejasat and return to its natural habit.
Istifta:
Requesting for Fatwa (ruling). Asking and obtaining the advice or opinion of a Mujatahid about religious (Shariah) rulings of an issue.
Istihaha:
Transformation. If the nature of a Najis thing is changed in a way that it turns to Pak, Istihaha has occurred. Such as a Najis piece of wood which is burnt and turned to ash or a dog which is drown into a salt lake and turned to salt. These are part of Mutaharat, compared to cases which the nature of a thing is not changed, like making flour out of Najis wheat.
Istihaza:
A general title for types of bloods, which are seen by women. If it is much, it is called Istihaza Khatira; and if it is little, it is called Istihaza Qalila; and if it is in a medium level, it is called Istihaza Mutawassita.
Istila:
Domination. Superiority. Victory.
Istimna:
Masturbation. Manipulate one’s own genitals for discharge of semen.
Istita’at:
Affording. The ability to perform Hajj rituals from the physical, financial and transportation points of view.
Izn
Permission. Approval.
Izterar:
Helplessness. Urgency. Being inevitable.

- J -
Ja’el:
The person who makes the contract of Jaaleh.
Jabireh:
Medicine. Cover or cloth, which is placed over a wound or broken part of body.
Jahel:
Ignorant and unaware of the issue. One who does not know the rulings of Shariah in an issue.
Jahele Ghaser:
An ignorant or unaware person who is not in a position to get divine rulings and he/she is aware of his/her position.
Jahele Moghasser:
An ignorant or unaware person who has had a chance to learn the divine ruling but he/she has neglected to do so.
Jahr:
Loud voice. To recite something aloud.
Jallal:
An animal, which is accustomed to eat Nejasat.
Jama’a:
Sexual intercourse.
Jarh, Jorooh :
Wound.
Jari:
Springs forth from the earth and then flows, like the water of a spring or a Qanat (underground water canal).
Joaleh:
A contract according to which, one declares that he/she will pay a certain reward to whoever performs a certain job such as finding a lost person. The person who declares it is Jael and the person who does the job is Amil (agent).
Jonob:
A person who has entered the state of Ihtelam or has had intercourse with someone.

- K -
Kaffaie, Wajeb:
Wajebe Kaffaie
Kaffara Jaam:
Three kinds of Kaffara together (giving food to 60 poor people, 60 days of fasting and setting a slave free).
Kaffara:
Compensation.
Kafil:
A person who undertakes personal surety.
Kafir:
One who does not believe in oneness of Allah and prophethood or both, in other words:
1. A person who believes Allah has companions;
2. A person who denies existence of Allah;
3. One who doubts about above points;
4. One who denies prophethood of the Holy Prophet of Islam (AS);
5. One who denies necessity of religion and his denial leads to denial of Allah and the Holy Prophet (AS).
Kafire Harbi:
A Kafir who is fighting with Muslims.
Kafire Zimmi:
A person from “the People of the Book (Ahllo Ketab)” who is living under protection of Islamic government provided that he observers certain conditions.
Kaifiat:
Quality. Method of performing.
Kashfe Khalaf:
Disclosure of violation.
Kathira, Istihaza
Istihaza
Kathirul Shak:
A person who doubts too much.
Kefalat:
Personal surety.
Khiyar:
Option. Option to cancel a transaction, which are 11 cases and in each of them, parties may invalidate the transaction.
Khoof :
Namaze Khoof.
Kurr Water:
certain amount of water which its dimension and quality are described in Article 19.

- L -
Laghv:
Useless. Senseless.
Lazim Ihtiyat:
Necessary precaution. A precaution, which is established by Mujtahid according to reason.
Lazim:
Necessary. If a Mujtahid finds out the reasons for obligation of a certain act according to Ayat of Qur’an and traditions and can attribute them to the Holy Shareh, then he makes it “obligatory”. But if its obligation is obtained through other ways, such as reasoning, and it is not attributable to Shareh, then he makes it “necessary”. The same difference should be kept in mind about obligatory and necessary precaution, but in action, there is no distinction for Mughalled, (Muqalled) or followers.
Lazimol Wafa:
It is obligatory to do it.
Lazojat Mahal:
Being slippery and sticky.
Lease:
Ejareh
Limits of Zakat :
Nesabe Zakat.
Loghteh:
Found. A property, which is found and its owner is not known. Refer to Articles 2632-2651.

- M -
Ma’ad:
Osoole-Din
Madd:
A measure, which is roughly equal to 10 Seer (almost 75 grs).
Mahaleh Ishkal Ast:
It is a matter of Ishkal. It is difficult to accept its correctness or perfection (Muqalled or follower may refer to another Mujtahid in such cases).
Mahaleh Ta’amol Ast:
Precaution should be observed (Muqalled may refer to another Mujtahid in such cases).
Mahe Helali:
Lunar month which starts from Moharam and ends in Zillhajjeh, compared to solar month which starts from Farvardin and ends in Esfand.
Mahfooz:
Preserved. Guarded. Protected.
Mahood:
Known. Customary and usual. What is accepted impliedly.
Mahram:
Close relatives. Those who cannot be married with permanently, such as sister, mother, daughter, daughter’s daughter, grand parents, aunts, mother-in-law, her mother, milk sister and daughter, two sisters at one time, son’s wife, step-mother and grand children.
Mahzoor:
Impediment. Set aside. What is avoided.
Mahzoor:
Prohibited.
Majhoolol Malik:
A property, which its owner is not known.
Majrae Tabiea:
Natural course or way of anything.
Makhraje Bowl va Ghayet:
Natural tract of discharging urine and faeces
Makrook:
Unfavorable. Unrecommended. What is not Haraam but it is better not to do it.
Malli’yate Sharea:
What is considered as property by the Holy Shareh such as legal holdings (its rulings are described by the Holy Shareh).
Malol-Ijareh:
What is paid by tenant for leasing.
Mamom:
Follower. A person, who follows congregational prayer leader.
Man’a Kardan:
Avoid. Warn against.
Maooneh:
Expenses or expenditure.
Maraz:
Public display.
Marjooh (Marjoohe Share):
What is not prohibited by Shariah.
Mashegghat:
Hardship. Suffering.
Masoniat:
Immunity.
Mass:
Touching.
Massamman:
Priced. Sold. What is presented for sale.
Masse Mayyit:
Touching dead body.
Massh:
Touching with hand. Touching the porting of hair (head) and over the feet with remaining moisture of washing hands and face, while performing Wuzu.
Matarak:
Estate of a deceased person.
Mavazin Shariyeh:
Shariyeh rules.
Maz Mazeh:
Gargling. Rinse or wash one’s mouth by water.
Mazalem:
Commitments and undertakings, which one owes to persons who are not known. For example, a person is sure that he/she has used some other person’s property without owner’s permission and inflicted a damage to him, and now he/she should pay a certain portion of his/her property to a fully competent Mujtahid to remove “Mazalem”.
Mostatiea:
Able. One who possesses conditions and capabilities of performing Hajj journey.
Motahharat:
Purifiers. Things which make Pak.
Motenajjis:
Anything, which is Pak originally but it turns to Najis because of contact with a Najis thing.
Motewalli:
Guardian. Supervisor.
Motlagh Water (Pure Water):
This is also called pure water and it is a water, which is not mixed with anything and it has five types which are explained in Article 18.
Movassa, Wajeb
Wajebe Movassa
Mozareah:
A contract between land-owner and farmer to get a certain part of agricultural products.
Moztar:
Helpless. Having not other way.
Moztarebah:
A woman whose monthly habit is irregular.
Mujtahid:
Diligent. One who has reached the level of “Ijtehad” in understanding divine rules and has proper scholarly knowledge to extract Islamic rules from the Holy Qur’an and traditions.
Mujtahide Jameol Sharayet:
A fully competent Mujtahid. A Mujtahid who is qualified as Marjaee’at (authority) of Taqleed (following).
Muqallaf:
All Baligh and sane persons.
Mustahab daily prayers
Nawafel Yomieh.
Mustahab Ihtiyat:
Recommendatory precaution. A precaution which is not part of a ruling by Faghih and it is not obligatory to observe it.
Mustahab prayers
Nefleh.
Mustahab:
Recommended. Favored. What is favorable for Shareh but not obligatory. A Shariah ruling which is Thawab (rewarding) to observe but there is no punishment for failure to observe it.
Mut’ah:
Temporary wife.
Mutawassita, Istihaza
Istihaza
Muwallat:
Consecutively. To do some act consecutively.
Muzaf Water (Mixed Water):
Water which is obtained from something, like rose water, or mixed with something like Sherbet.
Mostatiea:
Able. One who possesses conditions and capabilities of performing Hajj journey.
Motahharat:
Purifiers. Things which make Pak.
Motenajjis:
Anything, which is Pak originally but it turns to Najis because of contact with a Najis thing.
Motewalli:
Guardian. Supervisor.
Motlagh Water (Pure Water):
This is also called pure water and it is a water, which is not mixed with anything and it has five types which are explained in Article 18.
Movassa, Wajeb:
Wajebe Movassa
Mozareah:
A contract between land-owner and farmer to get a certain part of agricultural products.
Moztar:
Helpless. Having not other way.
Moztarebah:
A woman whose monthly habit is irregular.
Diligent. One who has reached the level of “Ijtehad” in understanding divine rules and has proper scholarly knowledge to extract Islamic rules from the Holy Qur’an and traditions.
Mujtahide Jameol Sharayet:
A fully competent Mujtahid. A Mujtahid who is qualified as Marjaee’at (authority) of Taqleed (following).
Muqallaf:
All Baligh and sane persons.
Mustahab daily prayers :
Nawafel Yomieh.
Mustahab Ihtiyat:
Recommendatory precaution. A precaution which is not part of a ruling by Faghih and it is not obligatory to observe it.
Mustahab prayers:
Nefleh.
Mustahab:
Recommended. Favored. What is favorable for Shareh but not obligatory. A Shariah ruling which is Thawab (rewarding) to observe but there is no punishment for failure to observe it.
Mut’ah:
Temporary wife.
Mutawassita, Istihaza:
Istihaza
Muwallat:
Consecutively. To do some act consecutively.
Muzaf Water (Mixed Water):
Water which is obtained from something, like rose water, or mixed with something like Sherbet.

- N -
Nabshe-Ghabr:
Exhumation.
Nafeleh:
Mustahab prayers.
Nafsa:
A woman who sees blood of Nifas.
Nahi Az Monkar:
Prohibition of evil acts. Prohibiting and discouraging others from any act which is not favored by the Holy Share.
Namazae Mustahab:
Recommendatory prayers. Any Namaz which is good to offer but not obligatory.
Namaze Ayat:
Two Rak’at obligatory prayers for some special occasions such as earthquake, solar or lunar eclipse.
Namaze Eid:
Two Rak’at special Namaz which is offered on the days of Fitr and Adha Eids.
Namaze Ghasr:
Shortened Namaz. Four Rak’ats prayers which are cut to two Rak’ats during travel.
Namaze Ghofaiyleh:
Two Rak’at special Namaz after Maghrib prayers and before the redness in Maghrib is over.
Namaze Ihtiyat:
A prayer without reciting extra Surah, for compensation of doubtful cases.
Namaze Istisqa:
A special prayer for raining.
Namaze Jamat:
Congregation (Mass) prayer. An obligatory Namaz which is offered by two or more persons following one prayer leader (in Friday prayer, at least 5 people should participate).
Namaze Jomah:
A two Rak’at special prayer in the middle of Friday instead of Zuhr prayer which is offered in Mass and with participation of at least 5 persons.
Namaze Khoof:
Daily prayers of a person who in war and similar situations which is offered in a special and shortened way.
Namaze Mayyit:
Special Namaz, which is offered for the dead body of a Muslim.
Namaze Mossafer:
Shortened Namaz. Four Rak’at prayers which should offered in 2 Rak’at form by a traveler.
Namaze Qadha:
A prayer, which is offered instead of one, which its time has passed.
Namaze Shab:
8 Rak’at Mustahab prayers which is performed through 4 rounds of 2 Rak’at Namaz and in the last part of night.
Namaze Shof:
Two Rak’at Mustahab prayers which is offered after 8 Rak’at night prayers (Namaze Shab) or Nafeleh, and before Namaze Vetr.
Namaze Tawaf:
Two Rak’at special Namaz for Hajj rituals and Omrah which is performed after Tawaf (going round Kabah).
Namaze Vetr:
One Rak’at prayer which is offered after Shaff prayer, and it is considered the last Rak’at of Namaze Shab (night prayers).
Namaze Wajeb:
Obligatory prayers for any Muqallaf and they are as follows:
1- Daily prayers (Yomieh);
2- Ayat prayer;
3- Mayyit prayer;
4- Tawaf prayer;
5- Qadha prayers for parents;
6- Namaz made obligatory by vow and covenant or Ghasam.
Namaze Yomieh:
Daily prayers. Obligatory day and night prayers which are 17 Rak’at totally.
Nari:
Testicle.
Nassieh:
A woman who has forgotten the timings of her monthly habit.
Nawafel Yomieh:
Mustahab daily prayers which are 34 Rak’at totally and 38 Rak’at in Friday.
Nazar be Raibeh:
Instigating others to clash or revolt by looking. Looking suspiciously.
Nazr:
Vow, Refer to art 2716.
Necessary :
Lazim
Necessary Precaution:
Lazim Ihtiyat
Nekah (Nikah):
Marriage.
Nesab:
Limit. Certain limit.
Nesabe Zakat:
A certain limit for each cases of obligatory Zakat.
Night prayers:
Namaze Shab.
Nikah :
Nekah.
Niyyat:
Intention. Decision to perform a religious act with the purpose of getting closer to Allah.
Not Ba’eed:
Fatwa is there, unless there is some other statement contrary to it.
Nubuwwah:
Osoole-Din

- O -
Obligatory Precaution
Wajib Ihtiyat
Obligatory:
Wajeb.
Odoul:
Adil persons.
Oghoud:
Bilateral contracts; such as purchase and sale contracts, marriage and compromise.
Ojratol-Methl:
Similar wage. If a person has performed a job without fixing its wage, and for the purpose of estimating its value one takes into consideration the wages of other people who perform a similar job, then the figure which is found, is Ojratol-Methl.
Ommal:
Agents.
Omoreh Hasbieh:
Actions such as looking after orphans’ affairs and which require attendance of Adil Muhtahid or his representative.
Omrah:
Pilgrimage of Kabah and performing prescribed rituals which is similar to Hajj in some acts and it has two kinds: Omrahe Tamatou, which takes place before Tamatou Hajj, and Omrahe Mofradeh, which takes place after Hajj Qur’an and Afrat or without Hajj.
Onath and Zokor:
Female and male.
Osoole-Din, Arkane Din:
Basic principles of Islam, which are Tawhid (Oneness of Allah), Nubuwwah (Prophethood of the Holy Prophet), and Ma’ad (Resurrection, Day of Judgement).
Osoole-Mazhab:
Principles of the faith, which are Imamate (The divine successorship of Prophet (SA), by Infallible Imamas (S)), and Adalat (Justice).
Ossrat:
Hardship.
Ourat:
What people have shame to show them. Genitals.
Ourf:
Custom. Common culture of people.
Owners of Khums:
Arbabe Khums
Ozre Sharee:
Religious excuse. Excuse based on Shariah rules.

- P -
Pak, making:
Tathir
Pak:
Clean. Opposite of Najis.
Parts and Conditions
Ajza va Sharayet
Place of residence
Vatan.
Prayers
Namaz.
Precaution
Ihtiyat
Proceeds of business
Arbahi Makaseb
Prohibition of evil acts:
Nahi Az Monkar.
Pure Water
Motlagh
Purifiers
Motahharat.

-Q -
Qadha:
Performing an act, which is not done in its proper time. Judging.
Qaleel Water (under-Kurr):
Water less than Kurr, which does not spring forth from earth.
Qalila, Istihaza
Istihaza
Qunut:
Obeying. Showing courtesy towards Allah. Keeping hands in front of face, turning palms facing the sky and reciting Duas (supplications) and Zikr, in the second Rak’at of Namaz.

- R -
Rafe-Zarorat:
Removal of extraordinary state. Removal of urgency.
Rahn:
Mortgage.
Raibeh:
Doubt.
Rebae Gharzi:
Some additional profits, which are set as a condition in borrowings.
Rebhe Saneh:
Annual earnings of a person.
Reciting:
Ghera’at
Recommendatory Precaution
Mustahab Ihtiyat
Representative
Wakil.
Rezaie:
Related to milk. A boy and a girl who have become milk sister and milk brother because of suckling from a woman, which is described in Article 2543, and they are Mahram permanently.
Riba (Reba):
Earning profits or interests in addition to capital according to conditions mentioned in Articles 2346, 2347 and 2351.
Ruju:
Returning. Going back.
Ruku, Arkan:
Base. Principle. Most fundamental part(s) of prayer. Essential parts (Arkan).
Ruku:
Bending down on knees (genuflexion) which is an essential part of Namaz and it is a sign of respect to Allah, the Almighty.
Running Water:
Jari

- S -
Saae:
A measure equal to about 3 kg.
Safeeh:
Feeble-minded person. One who squander his/her property and gives away his/her property for useless things.
Saghat:
Fallen. Cast off foetus.
Saghireh:
A girl who has reached the age of Bulugh.
Sahhaf:
Binder.
Sajdah Wajeb:
Obligatory Sajdahs. There are 15 Ayas in the Holly Qur’an, which require immediate Sajdah for those who recite or hear them. Four cases are obligatory and 11 cases are recommendatory (Mustahab). The obligatory ones are as follows:
1- 21, 15, Surah Sajdah;
2- 24, 37, Surah Fosallat (Ha mim);
3- 27, last Aya, Surah Najm;
4- 30, last Aya, Surah Alaq.
Recommendatory ones are as follows:
1- 9, last Aya, Surah Araf;
2- 13, Ayat 15, Surah Ra’d;
3- 14, Ayat 49, Surah Nahl;
4- 15, Ayat 107, Surah Osara;
5- 16, Ayat 58, Surah Maryam;
6- 17, Ayat 18, Surah Hajj;
7- 17, Ayat 77, Surah Hajj;
8- 19, Ayat 60, Surah Fourghan;
9-19, Ayat 25, Surah Namal;
10- 23, Ayat 24, Surah Suad;
11- 30, Ayat 21, Surah Inshiqaq.
Sajdatus Sahv:
Sajdah of a praying person for forgotten acts, which is described in Article 1272.
Sajdatus Shokr:
Sajdah for thanking. Putting forehead on the ground for thanking the divine blessings.
Salaf:
Refer to Article 2172.
Saleh Shamsi:
Solar year. One full year which begins from the first estimation of one’s properties until a year after that and it must be always taken as the period of concerned accounts.
Saman:
Price of goods.
Sarat:
Sarat bridge in the Day of Judgement.
Saref Barat:
Exchange of promissory note with cash, which is less than its face value.
Sargin:
Animal excrement.
Sehhat:
Correctness.
Seighah:
Islamic formula for Aqd.
Shahadat:
Testify.
Shahadatain:
Testifying oneness of Allah and prophethood of the Holy Prophet of Islam (AS).
Shahid:
Witness.
Shakhes:
Indicator. Piece of wood or pole, which is used for determining time of Zuhr.
Sharayet Zammeh:
Conditions that should be observed by People of the Book in Islamic territories to enjoy safety of life and property.
Shareh:
Founder of Islamic Shariah. Allah the Almighty, the Holy Prophet (A.S)
Shariah judge:
Hakim Shariah.
Shire Kamel:
Realization of all 9 conditions mentioned in Article 2543 and becoming Mahram.
Shohrat:
To become famous. To be disclosed for all.
Shortened Namaz :
Namaze Ghasr.
Shoyou:
Spreading. Outbreak. To become common.
Similar Wage :
Ojratol-Methl
Solar year:
Saleh Shamsi.
Soleh:
Compromise of parties. Forgoing some property rights for the purpose of compromise and agreement.
Solsan:
Two thirds. Evaporation of 2/3 of boiled grape juice, which renders it Pak.
Soor:
Half consumed food or water.
Sujood, Sajdah (Sujud):
Prostration. Placing one’s forehead, palms, knees and toes on the ground as a sign of respect to Allah, which is an integral part of Namaz.

- T -
Ta’add:
Exceed. Transgression. Being cruel. To go beyond prescribed limits
Ta’ieni, Wajeb:
Wajeb Ta’ieni
Ta’obodi, Wajeb:
Wajeb Ta’abodi
Tabaie, Wajeb :
Wajeb Tabaie
Tabaiyat:
Following. A Najis thing turning to Pak, because some other thing has become Pak; such as turning of a vessel, which has been used for boiling grape juice to Pak, after evaporation of 2/3 of its water.
Tafavot Ghaymate Sahih va Mayoob:
The difference of price between complete and perfect position of an item, with its defective and uncompleted position.
Tafreet:
Negligence. Being careless.
Taghas:
Performing Ghisas. Barter. To take the property of debtor for settlement of his debt.
Taghib:
Following. Keep oneself busy with reciting Qur’an and offering Dua after Namaz.
Taharat Zaheri:
Apparent cleanliness. What is clean according to the view of Holy Sharea, although it is Najis in fact, like the situation of one who enters a Muslim’s house. So far as he/she does not declare anything Najis, They are all considered as Pak.
Taharat:
Being Pak. Spiritual feeling which one gets as a result of Wuzu, Ghusl or Tayammum.
Tahtul-Hanak:
Fold of turban passed under chin.
Tajafi:
To sit half-raised. Partly raised. The position of a follower who has not reached the first Rak’at of mass prayer, while the congregational prayer leader is reciting Tashahhud.
Takbiratul Ihram:
Reciting “Allaho Akbar” with intention of offering Namaz.
Takhiri, Wajeb:
Wajeb Takhiri
Takhlalli:
Discharge of urine and excreta.
Takhlallus from Nozool and Riba:
Becoming free from usury.
Takhmis:
Setting aside the one fifth. Separating the parts, which are considered as Khums. To pay Khums.
Talaf:
Ruined.
Talaq Baen:
Irrevocable divorce. A man, who divorces his wife in this way, cannot return to her without a new Aqd.
Talaq Khoa:
Kind of divorce in which a wife, who is not willing to accept her husband, forgives her Mahr or other property to her husband to divorce her.
Talaq Mobarat:
A kind of divorce which is resulted from hatred of husband and wife towards each other and it takes place after giving some property by wife to husband.
Talaq Rojei:
Revocable divorce, in which a husband may return to her divorced wife in a period
called “Oddah”.
Talaq:
Divorce. Releasing. Dissolving of marriage contract.
Talghih:
To take man’s semen to a woman’s womb by syringe or something like fecundation.
Tamakon:
Affording. Wealth.
Tamaluk be Zeman:
Becoming on owner with guarantee. A person becomes the owner of a borrowed property with the guarantee to pay `his/her dues.
Tanzil Safteh:
Selling promissory notes to less than face value.
Taqleed:
Following the Fatwas of Mujtahid and acting according to his instructions.
Taraawa:
Thinking. Thinking about performance of Namaz.
Tartibi Wuzu
Tasbihat Arba’ah:
The four Tasbihat, which are consisted of Subhanallahi, Wal-hamdu-lillahi, Wa la illaha illallahu, Wallahu Akbar.
Tasbihat of Hazrat Zahra (S):
Reciting 30 times Allaho Akbar, 33 times Alhamdollah, and 33 times Subhanallah.
Tasdigh:
Approval. Testify.
Tashrih:
Dissection of human corps or a dead animal’s body to get medical information and the like.
Tasmieh:
Naming. Uttering the name of Allah.
Tastator:
Covering oneself.
Tathir:
Making Pak.
Tauriyat:
Dissimulation. Speaking in a way not to say lie or right. This is a kind of concealing to avoid telling lie. For example, a person comes to one’s house and asks for the owner.
One of the members of the family believes that the presence of the owner should not be disclosed because of some reasons. He says: “He is not here,” but his intention is that he is not right there standing behind the door.
Tavassooli, Wajeb
Wajeb Tavassooli
Tawafe-Nesa (Tawafunnisa):
The last round of going around the Holy Kabah in Hajj and Omrah, which returns relationship between wife and husband to Halal (lawful).
Tawafunnisa
Tawafe Nesa
Tawhid
Osoole-Din
Tayammum Badal Az Ghusle Mass Mayyit:
Tayammum of a dead body instead of performing Ghusl, in case there is no water.
Tayammum Jabirehie:
Tayammum of a person whose parts of body is covered by medicine or similar things.
Tayammum:
If there is no water, Tayammum becomes obligatory. It is done in seven cases.
Tazkieh:
An animal which is slaughtered according to Shariah rulings.
Temporary wife
Mut’ah
Tohmat:
Blaming unjustly.
Tough:
Necklace.
Towkil:
To give power of attorney. To appoint someone as the representative.
Transformation
Istihaha
Traveler
Ibn-Sabil

- U -
Under-Kurr:
Qaleel

- V -
Vadi:
A kind of wetness, which is sometimes seen after discharge of urine.
Vasl be Sokoon:
Omitting the movement of a letter at the end of word and connecting it to the next word.
Vatan:
Home. Place of residence and living.
Vatie:
Violate. Penetrate sexually.
Vazi:
Moisture, which is seen sometimes after discharge of semen.
Vetr
Namaz Vetr

- W -
Wadiyeh:
Property given in trust.
Waghf be HaRak’at:
Making a pause between the last letter of a word and the next word.
Wajeb Aini:
A kind Wajeb which is obligatory for everyone individually, irrespective of others, like Namaz and fast.
Wajeb Assli:
Principal Wajeb, like Namaz.
Wajeb Ta’abodi:
A Wajeb act, which it should be with the intention (Niyyat) of getting closer to Allah.
Wajeb Ta’ieni:
A determined Wajeb, such as prayers, fast and Hajj.
Wajeb Takhiri:
A kind of Wajeb, which has a certain period of obligation between concerned items. Like Kaffarah of fast, which can be chosen out of three alternations:
(1) Setting a slave free;
(2) Sixty days of fasting;
(3) giving enough food to sixty poor persons.
Wajeb Tavassooli:
A Wajeb which does not require intention of Ghorbat (getting closer to Allah) such as repayment of debt or answering Salam and washing clothes and body for the purpose of Namaz.
Wajeb:
Obligatory. Any act which is obligatory and binding according to Sharieh.
Wajebe Kaffaie:
A kind of Wajeb, which is not obligatory to others provided a sufficient number of people do it, such as performing Ghusl and other rituals of Mayyit, which is obligatory to all but if some people do it, then there is no obligation for others.
Wajebe Mashroot:
Conditional Wajeb. A kind Wajeb, which is subject to something, like Hajj, which becomes Wajeb after affording it.
Wajebe Mazigheh:
A kind of Wajeb which has a certain and limited time, like fasting in Ramadhan.
Wajebe Moallagh:
A kind of Wajeb, which is not obligatory at present but should be done in future whenever the condition are met, like obligation of Hajj after affording which is actually Wajeb as soon as the conditions are there but one should wait until Hajj time arrives.
Wajebe Monajjaz:
A kind of Wajeb that which is obligatory at its proper time like fasting is Wajeb in its time and should be observed at the same period.
Wajebe Motallgh:
Absolute Wajeb. A kind of Wajeb is obligatory at all conditions, like Namaz.
Wajebe Movassa:
A kind of Wajeb, which has a vast period of performing it like Zuhr and Asr prayers which can be offered from Zuhr until sunset.
Wajebe Tabaie:
Subordinate Wajeb. This is not originally Wajeb but it has turned to be obligatory because of another Wajeb act, like Ghusl Jenabat, which is not originally Wajeb but it becomes Wajeb because of obligatory prayers.
Wajh:
Face. Reason. Title.
Wajib Ihtiyat:
Obligatory precaution. Something which is part of being prudent, but Faghih has not ruled along with it. In such cases, Muqallid (follower of Mujtahid) may refer to Fatwa (ruling) of another Mujtahid who is in the next level of preference.
Wakil:
Representative. One who has letter of attorney for doing some act on behalf of another person.
Walli (or Ghayem):
Guardian. One who is supervises over another person according to rules of the Holy Shariah such as father and grand father or a fully competent Mujtahid.
Waqif:
Donor of Waqf.
Wareth:
Heir.
Wasi:
Executor of will administrator.
Wasigheh:
Deposited property for surety.
Wassiyat:
Recommend. Making a will to some one for what should be done after one’s death.
Welayat:
Guardianship. Having authority.
Wuzu (Wudhu):
Washing face and hands and touching head and feet for the purpose of Namaz.
Wuzu Irtemasi:
Performing Wuzu by immersing face and hands in water instead of pouring water over one’s face and hands, and making intention of Wuzu while acting like that.
Wuzu Jabireh:
Performing Wuzu where there is a Jabireh.
Wuzu Tartibi:
A kind of Wuzu, which is performed by pouring water over face and hands with intention of Wuzu.

- X -

Y -
Yaieseh:
A woman to has reached menopause.

- Z -
Zaed bar Moaneh:
Beyond expenses.
Zafe Mofrat:
Serious weakness.
Zaher is this:
Fatwa is this, unless there is a statement contrary to it.
Zakat Fitreh:
About 3 kg. of wheat, barley, corn, and the like or their equivalent prices which should be given on the occasion of Eid Fitr to the poor or other uses of Zakat.
Zakat, Nesabe
Nesab Zakat.
Zakat:
Free from pollution. A certain part of one’s property that should be allocated to prescribed cases, if it reaches certain limits. There are nine cases.
Zaman Ghaybat Kobra:
The present time. The period of occultation of the 12th Infallible Imam.
Zamen:
Guarantor. Committed.
Zammi:
Non-Muslim Ahlul Ketab (People of the Book) such as Jews and Christians who enjoy the security of Islamic government subject to observation of Islamic social rules and live in Muslim territories.
Zarorat:
Obligation. Certainty.
Zarory of Din:
What is undoubted by part of religion such as Namaz and fasting.
Zebh Sharie:
Slaughtering Halal animals according to Shariah rules.
Zemmeh:
Commitment for doing some act or paying something.
Zimmi, Kafir
Kafir Zimmi
Zinat:
Ornaments.
Zuhre Sharae:
Middle of the day according to Shariah rules. In this time, the shade of indicator disappears or is decreased to smallest position. It may defer according to different seasons and horizons.

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