AT THE AGE OF OTHMAN
Abu Hurayra became very sincere for the family of Abul-Aass and all the Umayyads when Othman became the caliph. He adjoined Marwan bin al-Hakam and flattered the family of Abu Ma'eet, therefore he became an important person especially after the blockade of Othman's house during the revolution against him because that Abu Hurayra was with him in the house. Hence he obtained bloom after fading and fame after obscurity.
1. A proverb. Omayma was his mother's name. This speech of the caliph was the worst of abuse.
2. P.p. 104, Egypt edition.
3. Vol. 4, p.p. 90.
He got an opportunity during that sedition to slip into Othman's house and did the family of Abul-Aass and the other Umayyads a favor that had a great impression upon them and their assistants and it strengthened their state later on. So they wiped the dust of obscurity from him and praised him to be well-known. Although they knew that he did not slip into the house of the caliph to be among the blockaded ones until the caliph ordered his companions to be quiet and to stop fighting.
The caliph did that just to spare his and his companions' blood. Abu Hurayra knew well that the rebellious people did not want but Othman and Marwan. That encouraged him to be among the blockaded ones.
Anyhow the man seized the opportunity, his deal gained much, and his goods (traditions) sold well. Henceforth the Umayyads and their supporters listened to his traditions carefully and tried their best to spread them. At the same time, he told of traditions according to their wishes.
For example, he narrated that the prophet Muhammad (s) had said: "Every prophet had a bosom friend and mine is Othman."
He also said 2: "I heard the prophet (s) saying: "Othman is modest so the angels become modest in front of him."
He also said that Prophet Muhammad (s) had said: "Every prophet has a mate in Paradise. My mate in Paradise is Othman." 3
Abu Hurayra also narrated that the prophet had said: "Gabriel came and said to me: Allah orders you to marry Othman with Um
1. All the intelligent people agreed that this tradition was untrue, but Abu Hurayra's friend acquitted him from falseness by blaming Iss-haq bun Najee' al-Balti, who was one of the series of the narrators of this tradition. Ath-Thahabi mentioned the tradition in his book Mizan al-I'tidal confirming that it was untrue.
2. Ibn Katheer in his book al-Bidaya wn-Nihaya, vol. 7, p.p. 203.
3. This tradition was false inanimously. But Abu Hurayra's friend turned the blame to Othman bin Khalid bin Abdullah bin al-Waleed bin Othman bin Affan who was one of the series of the narrators of this tradition. Ath-Thahabi denied this tradition in his book Mizan al-I'tidal.
Kulthoom (the prophet's step-daughter) with a dowry same as to that of Ruqayya (the prophet's other step-daughter)." 1
Abu Hurayra said: "Once I entered the house of Ruqayya, the daughter of the prophet (s) and wife of Othman. She had a comb in her hand. She said: "The prophet was here and just left a moment ago. I combed his hair. He said to me: "How do you think of Abu Abdullah (Othman)?" I said: "He is good." He said: "Grace him, because he is the most similar to me in morals among my companions."
He might change the tradition as he did with the prophet's saying: "There will be a sedition and disagreement after me." They said: "What do you order us to do then?" He (s) said, pointing to Imam Ali: "Keep to the emir and his companions."
But Abu Hurayra preferred to flatter the family of Abul-Aass, Abu Ma'eet and Abu Sufyan, therefore he turned this tradition to Othman 2 and in return for that they rewarded him for his favor.
1. Ibn Munda mentioned this tradition and said that it was odd and it was narrated by Othman bin Khalid al-Othmani only. Ibn Hajar al-Assqalani in his book al-Issaba, vol. 4, (Um Kulthum's biography) said that it was odd and was not narrated except by Othman bin Khalid al-Othmani.
2. For this reason, al-Hakim in his book al-Mustadrak , vol. 3, p.p. 99 mentioned this tradition under the subject of (Othman's virtues).
But the truth was that it must be mentioned in Ali's virtues , like the prophet's saying: (There will be a separation and disagreement among people, so this and his companions will be on the side of rightness. He pointed to Ali). It was mentioned by at-Tabarani in his book Kanzul-Ommal, narrated by Ka'b bin Ajra, tradition no. 2635, vol. 6. And the prophet's saying: (There will be a sedition after me ( after my death), so keep to Ali bin Abu Talib, because he was the first who believed in me (in Islam) and he will be the first to shake hands with me in the Day of Resurrection. He is the great varacions and he is the distinguisher of this nation). It was mention bu Abu Ahmed, Ibn Munda and others, narrated by Abu Layla al-Ghifari. It was also mentioned by Ibn Abdul-Birr in his Isstee'ab, ibn Hajar in his Issaba and by others in (Abu Layla's biography). And the prophet's saying to Ammar bin Yasir : (O Ammar, if you see Ali going through a valley and the rest of people going through another valley, follow Ali and leave people because he neither leads you to.
AT THE AGE OF ALI
Abu Hurayra's voice died down during the reign of Imam Ali (s). He was wrapped in obscurity again and was about to return to his first condition. He turned away from Imam Ali and did not try
a bad fate nor takes you away from right guidance). It was mentioned by ad-Daylami in his book Kanzul-Ommal, vol. 6, p.p. 155, tradition no. 259, narrated by Ammar and Abu Ayyub. And also the prophet's saying: (O Abu Rafi', there will be after my death a group of people fighting Ali. The duty will be to fight them). It was mentioned by at-Tabarani in Kanzul-Ommal, vol. 6, tradition no. 2589, narrated by Muhammed bin Obaydillah bin Abu Rafi', from his father, from his grandfather. There are many traditions like that but we cannot mention them all here. It is enough fo us the prophet's saying: ( There is someone of you will fight for the interpretation of Qur'an as I fought for its revelation. People looked up to that, among them were Abu Bakr and Omar. Abu Bakr said: is it me? The prophet said: No. Omar said is it me ? The prophet said: No. But he is the mender of the shoes). It was mentioned by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 122 saying that it was true tradition according to al-Bukhari and Muslim. It was also mentioned by al-Thahabi in his Talkheess and by Na'eem in his book Hilyatu-Awliya', vol. 1, p.p. 33, narrated by Abu Sa'eed and by Abu in his book Hilyatul-Awliya vol. 1, p.p. 67, in (Ali's biography), and Abu Ya'la in his Sunan, and Sa'eed bin bin Mansour in his Kanz vol. 6, p.p. 155, tradition no. 2585. The tradition talking about the necessity of fighting the perfidious people (battle of the Camel) and the outlaws (battle of Siffen) and the apostates ( the Khawarijites) were certified and each confirming the other. The prophetic tradition talking about the sedition after his death were current and they were of the signs of the prophecy of Muhammed (s. They were clear in urging to follow Imam Ali. The tradition mentioned by al-Hakim and narrated by Abu Hurayra was one of them. What confirmed that was that prophet (s) hadn't called anyone with Amir except Ali at all. And here is the Prophet (s) saying to Anass ( The first who enters from this door is amirulmu'mineen (commander of the believers) and the master of guardians....) It was mentioned by al-Isfahani in his book Hilyatul-Awliya', vol. 1, (Ali's biography). The prophet (s) ordered his companions to call Ali with amirul-mu'mineeb when saluting him. This was certified by many traditions narrated by the Prophet's progeny (s).
to assist him. In fact his destination was the laps of Imam Ali's enemies.
Once Mu'awiya sent Abu Hurayra and an-Nu'man bin Basheer-they were in Damascus-to Imam Ali asking him to send the killers of Othman to Mu'awiya in order to punish them for killing Othman. Mu'awiya wanted by doing so that when they come back to Damascus, they would excuse him and blame Imam Ali, although he knew that imam Ali would not send the killers of Othman to him. So he wanted to make Abu Hurayra and an-Nu'man as evidence in front of people of Damascus to show them that Mu'awiya had an excuse to fight Imam Ali.
Mu'awiya said to Abu Hurayra and an-Nu'man: "Go to Ali and ask him to send us the killers of Othman for he has sheltered them. If he did, there would be no war between him and us. If he refused, you would be witnesses against him. Then you come in front of people and tell them of that". They went to Imam Ali. Abu Hurayra said to him: "O Abu Hassan1 , Allah has given you a virtue and honor in Islam, for you are Prophet Muhammad's cousin. Your cousin (Mu'awiya) has sent us to you asking you for something to calm down this war and to end the enmity between you that is to send him the killers of his cousin Othman to kill them and may Allah reconcile you. Hence the nation will be safe from sedition and disagreement". Then an-Nu'man said something like that. Imam Ali said to them: "Let not talk about that. O Nu'man, tell me about you. Are you the best of your people (Ansar) 2 in guidance?" He said: "No." Imam Ali said: "All of your people have followed me except three or four deviants of them. Are you one of the deviants?" An-Nu'man said: "Verily I came to be with you and to keep to you, but Mu'awiya asked me to tell you that. I hoped that it would be a cause for me to meet you and I hoped that Allah may reconcile you. If you see other than that, I will be with you and won't leave you".
1. One of Imam Ali's surname.
2. (helpers). The people of Medina who believe and assissted the prophet ans his companions when they migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Historians said that Imam Ali did not talk with Abu Hurayra a word. He left to Damascus and told Mu'awiya about what happened. Mu'awiya ordered him to tell people about that. He did and did many things else that satisfied Mu'awiya.
An-Nu'man lived with Imam Ali and then fled to Damascus and told its people about what happened…to the end of this incident. 1
When it became serious and the war began, the terror entered Abu Hurayra's heart to make his legs tremble. At the beginning of that sedition he didn't think that Ali would win the war, so he cowered to the ground and began to wet-blanket the others in order not to help Imam Ali by telling untrue prophetic traditions secretly. One of his traditions then was that he said: "I heard the Prophet (s) saying: "There will be a sedition; the sitting is better than the standing and the standing is better than the walking and the walking is better than the running. Any one finds a shelter, let him resort to it". 2
Abu Hurayra still as he was until the Kharijites rebelled against Imam Ali and Mu'awiya became stronger. He occupied Egypt and killed its wali, who was appointed by Imam Ali. He began to ravage and make raids against the state of Imam Ali. He
1. This incident was mentioned by Ibrahim bin Hilal ath-Thaqafi in his book al-Gharat and by Ibn Abu-Hadeed in his book Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 1, p.p. 213. Let him who want to know the details refer to, to see Mu'awiya's intentions and an-Nu'man's malfunction in this incident. Imam Ali turned away from Abu Hurayra and didn't talk to him because he saw that Abu Hurayra was very mean that he flattered Mu'awaiya and sold hid faith to Mu'awiya for a short worldly life. Imam Ali knew what Mu'awiya aim was by sending these two men, so he didn't answer them, neither positively ot negatively. In fact he turned away from their demand and talked with an-Nu'man about something else. It showed his compact policy.
2. It was mentioned by Ahmed bin Hanbal in his Musnad, vol. 2, p.p. 282. It was untrue, because Allah says: ( And if two parties of the believers quarrel, make peace between them; but if one of them act wrongfully towards tht other, fight that which acts wrongfully until it returns to Allah's command..) 49:9.
sent Bissr bin Arta'a with an army of three thousand soldiers to Hijaz and Yemen ravaging and spoiling there. They killed, burnt and tore people savagely. They profaned the laws of Allah. They disgraced the honor of women and captured boys and girls of the Muslims there to blacken the face of history.
After all those atrocities, Bissr extorted homage to Mu'awiya from all people of Hijaz and Yemen. 1 Then Abu Hurayra spread what was hidden in his heart to Bissr bin Arta'a. Bissr found that he was sincere to Mu'awiya and loyal in taking homage to Mu'awiya from people. Bissr appointed Abu Hurayra as wali of Medina when he left after ordering people to obey him. He led people in prayers and thought he was the real wali until Jariya bin Qudama as-Sa'di came to Medina with two thousand knights sent by Imam Ali. Abu Hurayra was leading people in offering prayer. He fled. Jariya said: 2 "If I found Abu Sannour 3, I would kill him."
While Jariya was in Hijaz, he knew that Imam Ali was martyred. He took homage to Imam Hassan bin Ali bin Abu Talib (s) and went back to Kufa. Abu Hurayra came back to Medina leading prayers 4 and became stronger until Mu'awiya dominated.
AT THE AGE OF MU'AWIYA
Abu Hurayra lived the best days of his life during the reign of Mu'awiya. Mu'awiya realized many of this man's hopes, so he told traditions as Mu'awiya liked. He told people incredible traditions about the virtues of Mu'awiya and some others.
Fabricated traditions exceeded the limits in the state of Mu'awiya according to what his media wanted and his policies
1. Refer to Sharh an-Nahj al-Hammedi, vol. 1, p.p. 116-121 for details. All the historians, who wrote about the incidents of the year forty of hijra, mentioned this event committed by Mu'awiya. It is famous like battle of Harra and at-Taff of his son Yazeed.
2. Mentionedby Ibrahim bin Hilal ath-Thaqafi in his book al-Gharat and Ibn Abul-Hadeed in his book Sharh Nahjul-Balagha, vol. 1, p.p. 128.
3. In Arabic (sannour) means cat. Jariya meant Abu Hurayra.
4. Mentioned by Ibnul-Atheer in his book at-Tareekh al-Kamil, vol. 3, p.p. 153.
needed to spite the Hashimites. The state of Mu'awiya had many liars fabricating prophetic traditions as the Prophet (s) had warned of. They were advanced in inventing traditions according to what they were inspired with by the rulers. The first of them was Abu Hurayra. He told people of abominable traditions talking about the virtues of Mu'awiya. One of those traditions was mentioned by Ibn Assakir in two ways, Ibn Adiy in two ways, Muhammad bin Aa'ith in a fifth way, Muhammad bin Abd as-Samarqandi in a sixth way, Muhammad bin Mubarak as-Souri in a seventh way and al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi in an eighth way that Abu Hurayra had said: "I heard the Prophet (s) saying: "Allah has entrusted three men with His inspiration; me, Gabriel and Mu'awiya!"
And another mentioned by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi that Abu Hurayra said: "The prophet (s) gave Mu'awiya an arrow and said to him: "Take this arrow until you meet me in Paradise!"
Another mentioned by Abul-Abbas al-Waleed bin Ahmad az-Zouzani in his book Shajaratul-Aql, in two ways that Abu Hurayra had said: "I heard the Prophet (s) saying: "There will be a dome of white pearl with four doors for Abu Bakr. The wind of mercy flows through it. Its outside is Allah's pardon and its inside is Allah's contentment. Whenever he longs for Allah, a shutter opens to look at Allah through it."
Another mentioned by Ibn Habban that Abu Hurayra had said: "When the Prophet (s) came out from the cave towards Medina, Abu Bakr held his stirrup. He said: O Abu Bakr, may I tell you good news? In the Day of Resurrection, Allah appears to the creatures in general and appears to you privately!"
And what was mentioned by Ibn Habban that Abu Hurayra said: "While Gabriel was with the Prophet, Abu Bakr passed by them. Gabriel said: It is Abu Bakr. The Prophet said: O Gabriel, do you know him? Gabriel said: He is in the heaven more famous than him on the earth. The angels call him the discerner of Quraysh. He is your minister in your life and the caliph after your death."
Another tradition mentioned by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi that Abu Hurayra said: "Prophet Muhammad (s) said: The angels rejoiced at the birth of Abu Bakr. Allah looked at the Garden of Eden and said: I swear by My glory and loftiness that I will not enter anyone into it except who loved this newborn baby."
And another one mentioned by Ibn Adiy that Abu Hurayra said: "I heard the Prophet saying: When I ascended the heaven, in each sky I passed by I found that it was written; Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah, Abu Bakr is…" 1
Abul-Faraj ibn aj-Jawzi mentioned a tradition that Abu Hurayra had said: "The prophet told me that Paradise and Hell once prided. The Hell said to the Paradise: I am better than you for I have the Pharaohs, the tyrants, the kings and their progenies. Allah inspired to Paradise to say: I am better than you because Allah had adorned me for Abu Bakr."
And another mentioned by al-Khateeb that Abu Hurayra had said: "One day the Prophet got out leaning on Ali bin Abu Talib. They met Abu Bakr and Omar. The Prophet said to Ali: Do you love these two men? Ali said: yes, I do. The Prophet said to Ali: Love them in order to enter Paradise!"
Another one mentioned by al-Khateeb in his book History of Baghdad and by Ibn Shahin in his Sunan in two ways that Abu Hurayra said: "I heard the prophet (s) saying: "There are in the lower heaven eighty thousand angels asking Allah to forgive whoever loves Abu Bakr and Omar and in the second heaven there are eighty thousand angels cursing whoever hates Abu Bakr and Omar."
Another one mentioned by al-Khateeb that Abu Hurayra said: "I heard the prophet (s) saying: Allah has seventy thousand angels in the heaven cursing whoever abuses Abu Bakr and Omar."
All these traditions are untrue. All of those who mentioned them declared unanimously that they were null.
As-Sayouti arranged all the fabricated traditions according to their series of narrators and texts in his book al-La'ali al-Massnou'a. But they always defended Abu Hurayra by blaming the others who narrated from Abu Hurayra according to their point of
1. Also mentioned by al-Khateeb in his book History of Baghdad, vol. 5, p.p. 445.
view that every Muslim saw the Prophet or narrated from him was infallible!
They did the same with all what Abu Hurayra's imagination had invented, like his saying: "I heard the Prophet (s) saying: This is Gabriel telling me, from Allah, that whoever loves Abu Bakr and Omar is a pious believer and whoever hates them is a rogue hypocrite." 1
Abu Hurayra said: "The Prophet (s) said: Allah had created me of His light and created Abu Bakr of my light and created Omar of the light of Abu Bakr and created my nation of Omar's light. Omar is the lamp of people in Paradise." 2
He also said: "I heard the prophet saying: Abu Bakr and Omar are the best of the first and the last Muslims." 3
And his saying: "The prophet said: My companions are like the stars. Whoever imitates some of them will be guided." 4
And his saying: "The prophet (s) said: There was a chapter in the Bible describing me and my companions; Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali… as seed?produce that puts forth its sprout…" 5
1. This tradition was considered to be untrue unanimously. Ath-Thahabi mentioned this tradition in his book Mizan al-I'tidal ( in Ibrahim bin Malik al-Ansari's biography) and said that it was untrue. Every one used nullity to fight the rightness, he, no doubt, would lose.
2. This tradition was considered to be untrue unanimously. Ath-Thahabi mentioned it in his book Mizan al-I'tidal (biography of Ahmed as-Samarqandi), Refer to it to see that it was untrue and that it contradicted the holy Qur'an. And they lost, who wanted to hide the clear rightness by shameful nullity.
3. This like the two previous in nullity. Ath-Thahabi mentioned it in his book Mizan al-I'tidal ( Jeiroun bin Waqid's biography and said it was nully.
4. Ath-Thahab mentioned this tradition in his Mizan (biography of judge, Ja'far bin Abdul-Wahid) and said it was one of Abu Hurayra's affliction.
5. It was mentiioned in ath-Thahabi's Mizan (biography of Muhammad bin Musa bin Atta' ad-Dimyatti) but they always blame the others who narrated from Abu Hurayra! The tradition included a Qur'an verse, 48:29.
And many others that he let his imagination go here and there to invent. Al-Bukhari and Muslim's 1 books of Hadith had many many of the likes.
THE UMAYYADS' FAVORS
You will recognise easily the Umayyads' gifts for this man if you think of his two conditions; one before their state where he was mean and subservient, looking at the lice creeping on his garment 2 and his condition during their reign where they pulled him out of the mud of misery and clothed him with silk. 3 They made him button his cloths with silk and they clothed him with slender flax 4. They built him a palace in al-Aqeeq 5. They surrounded him with their charity and covered him with their gifts. They spread his mention and announced his name. They made him wali on Medina, the town of the prophet (s) 6and married him, during his rule, to Bissra bint Ghazwan bin Jabir bin Wahab al-Maziniya, the sister of the emir Otba bin Ghazwan 7 and he wouldn't dream of that or his imagination
1. Muslim, here, is a name if someone who collected the Hadith book called Sahih.
2. This was taken from Abu Jurayra's saying: I took a garment off my back and spread it between the Prophet and me while I was looking at the lice creeping on it.... It was mentioned by ABu Na'eemin his Hilyatul Awliya', vol. 1, p.p. 381.
3. Ibn Sa'd mentioned in his Tabaqat (Abu Hurayra's biography) from Wahab bin Kaysan, Qatada and al-Mugheera that Abu Hurayra put on silk cloths.
4. Al-Bukhari in his Sahih, vol, 4, p.p. 175, mentioned that Muhammad bin Sireen said: We wereat Abu Hurayra's and he was wearing two slender flax dresses.
5. He died in this place as mentioned by Ibn Hajr in his Issaba, Ibn Qutayba's Ma'arif and Ibn Sa'ad's Tabaqat.
6. Mentioned by Imam Ahmed in his Musnad, vol. 2, p.p. 430, narrated by Muhammed bin Ziyad, Ibn Qutayba in his Ma'arif, narrated by Abu Rafi' and imam Abu Ja'far al-Iskafi in his book Sharh an-Nahj al-Hameedi, vol, 1, p.p. 395, edition of Egypt.
7. He was an ally of the trible of Abd Sham. The caliph Omar (may Allah be please with him) made him leader during the Islamic conquests. He
would ever think of that, because he strove to serve her barefooted just for feed.
Mudharib bin Jiz' said: 1"I was walking at night and there was a man exclaiming (Allahu Akbar-Allah is great). I followed him. I found that he was Abu Hurayra. I said: "What is this?" He said: "I am thanking Allah. I was employed by Bissra bint Ghazwan just for my feed. I led their sumpters when they rode and served them when they got down and now I became her husband. Now I ride and when I get down, she serves me. Before that, when she reached a plain, she got down and said: "I won't leave unless you make me porridge." Now when I reach the same place I say to her: "I won't leave unless you make me porridge." 2
He often said, during his emirate of Medina: "I grew up as an orphan. When I emigrated I was poor. I was employed by Bissra bint Ghazwan jus for feed. I led their sumpters when they rode and served them when they got down and now Allah has married me to her. Thanks to Allah, Who made the religion as basis and made Abu Hurayra imam." 3
Once he said: "I was employed by Bissra bint Ghazwan for my feed. She ordered me to ride erectly and to go barefooted. After that Allah made her my wife. I ordered her to ride erectly and to go barefooted." 4
One day he led people in prayer and when he finished he said loudly: "Praise be to Allah, Who made religion as basis and made
established the town of Basra and became its emir. He conquered many countries and was one of the famous Prophet's companions and one of the heroes. He died during the reign of Omar. But Abu Hurayra got married to his sister after a long time of his death. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in his book al-Issaba mentioned Bissra and Abu Hurayra's story with her. He said that she had employed him at the time of the Prophet, then he got married to her when Marwan entrusted him with the emirate of Medina during the reign of Mu'awiya.
1. Mentioned by Abul-Abbas as-Sarraj in his history and Ibn Hajr in his Issaba (biography of Abu Hurayra).
2. Mentioned by Abu Khuzayma and IbnHajr in his book al-Issaba.
3. Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqat, second part of vol. 4, p.p. 53.
4. Refer to Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqat, second part of vol. 4, p.p. 53.
Abu Hurayra imam after he was an employee for Bissra bint Ghazwan for his feed and a sumpter to ride." 1
One day he ascended the minbar of the Prophet (s) and said: "Praise be to Allah, Who made me eat good food, wear silk cloths and marry me to Bissra bint Ghazwan after I was her employee for my feed. She made me carry her baggage and then I made her carry my baggage."2
THANKING THE FAVORS OF THE UMAYYADS
The Umayyads enslaved Abu Hurayra by their favours. They appropriated his hearing, sight and heart and made him tractable. So he was the media of their policies. He changed according to their tendencies. Sometimes he invented traditions to show their virtues and sometimes he fabricated traditions showing the virtues of the two caliphs; Abu Bakr and Omar according to the wish of Mu'awiya and his oppressive group. For they had political purposes against imam Ali and the Prophet's progeny (s), which would not be realised-as they thought-except by preferring the two caliphs. Hence he advanced in fabricating traditions, which we mentioned some of.
There were many traditions we didn't mention, for example, the tradition about making Abu Bakr emir of hajj in the ninth year of hijra, the year when sura of Bara'a was revealed to the Prophet (s), and the tradition saying that the angels talked with Omar.
The Umayyad policy of subduing the Hashimites required certifying and spreading these two traditions as possible as Mu'awiya and his assistants could. They did by any means they could until all Sunni books of Hadith (Sahih) mentioned them as true traditions.
Abu Hurayra, sometimes, cut off the traditions concerning Imam Ali to distort their meaning, like his saying: "I heard the Prophet saying: The sun hadn't been withheld or returned for
1. Refer to Abu Na'eem's Hilyatul-Awliya', vol. 1, p.p. 379.
2. Refer to Abu Na'eem, Hilyatul-Awliya', vol. 1, p.p. 384.
anyone except for Prophet Usha' bin Noon (Joshua) when he walked towards Jerusalem at night." 1
And his saying: "When the Qur'anic verse (And warn your nearest relations) 26:214, was revealed the prophet stood up and said: O people of Quraysh,…" Abu Hurayra cut off the tradition and didn't mention all the text to distort it according to what the Umayyad policy required. We don't have but to say that there is no power save in Allah!
And his saying: "The Prophet said: My heirs are not to inherit what I have left."
And: "Prophet Muhammad (s) said to his uncle Abu Talib: Say there is no god but Allah…until Allah revealed to the Prophet (Surely you cannot guide whom you love..) 28:56" and many other fabricated traditions. They used to subdue Imam Ali and the family of the Prophet (s).
Imam Abu Ja'far al-Iskafi said: "Mu'awiya had forced some of the Prophet's companions and some of the companions' successors to narrate bad traditions about Ali to defame and disavow him. He gave them bribes for that. So they fabricated what satisfied him. Among them were Abu Hurayra, Amr bin al-Aass, and al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba. Among the successors was Urwa bin az-Zubayr.."
Abu Ja'far al-Iskafi also said2 : "When Abu Hurayra came to Iraq with Mu'awiya in the year of (Jama'a), he came to the mosque of Kufa. When he saw that many people had come to receive him, he knelt on his knees and hit his head with his hand many times and said: "O people of Iraq, you say that I fabricate Allah and His apostle's sayings to be in Hell. I swear by Allah that I heard the Prophet saying: "Every apostle had a sanctum. My sanctum is Medina. Whoever spoils in Medina, will be cursed by Allah, the angels and all the people." I swear by Allah that Ali has spoiled in
1. Al-Khateeb in his book History of Baghdad, vol. 7, p.p. 35, and vol. 9, p.p. 99.
2. Sharh Nahj al-Balagha al-Hameedi, vol. 1, p.p. 358.
3. Ibid, vol. 1, p.p. 359.
it! When Mu'awiya heard him saying that, he endorsed him, rewarded him and made him wali of Medina." 1
Sometimes he invented traditions defending the Umayyad hypocrites, whom Allah and His apostle had cursed to protect the religion and umma from their hypocrisy and ravage. But Abu Hurayra flattered Marwan and Mu'awiya and their assistants by saying: "I heard the Prophet (s) saying: "O Allah, Muhammad is but a human being. He becomes angry like all the human beings. Every believer I have hurt, abused or whipped, You may make that as a cause to forgive him and to bring him closer to You in the Day of Resurrection."
Marwan and his sons tried their best to spread this tradition in many ways until the books of Hadith (Sahih, Sunan and Musnad) mentioned it as true tradition.
The role of Marwan and his sons in raising Abu Hurayra to a high level and preferring him to all the others in memorising, accuracy and piety, had had its effect until nowadays.
They had done many things to satisfy people that Abu Hurayra was trustee and pious.
One of them was that Marwan pretended that he had seated his clerk in a secret place that he wouldn't be seen by any one at all and called for Abu Hurayra to come in. He began to ask him about many things. He asked him too many questions. Abu Hurayra answered with the Prophet's traditions and the clerk, whose name was Zu'ayza'a, was writing down without letting any one feel of him. He wrote down too many traditions. Marwan waited for a year and then called for Abu Hurayra and asked him the same questions.
1. Sufyan ath-Thawri narrated from Abdu-Rahman bin Qassim from Omar bin Abdul-Ghaffar that when Abu Hurayra came to Kufa with Mu'awiya, he sat at the gate of Kinda in the night and people sat around him. One day a young man from Kufa - he might be al-Asbagh bin Nabata - came and said to him: "O Abu Hurayra, I ask you, by Allah, if you had heared the Prophet saying to Ali bin Abu Talib: "O Allah, support whoever supports him and be an enemy of whoever opposes him." Abu Hurayra said: : yes, I had." The young man said " I swear by Allah that you have supported his enemies and opposed his assistants." Then he left.
He answered with the same answers, no word more no word less. Marwan and his clerk spread this lie among the people of Damascus to reach everywhere until al-Hakim mentioned it in his book al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 510.
And that when Marwan wanted to bring his knights and soldiers in order not to let the Hashimites bury Imam Hassan beside his grandfather, Prophet Muhammad's tomb, he preconcerted with Abu Hurayra that the latter would oppose Marwan and blame him hardly in front of people to deceive them and to make them perceive that Abu Hurayra was a veracious man. He didn't fear anyone save Allah and His apostle and that no one could stand against him when he became angry for the sake of Allah and His apostle.
When Abu Hurayra did his opposition, Marwan showed his anger. There was a false argument and untrue rage between them. Abu Hurayra protested strongly against Marwan justifying that he (Abu Hurayra) had a special position to the Prophet 1 which no one of the Prophet's companions or relatives had and that he had an ability of perceiving and memorising from the Prophet by which he surpassed the first Muslims like Omar, Othman, Ali, Talha, az-Zubayr and the others. He let himself go farther in describing his aspects, which imposed for him the highest ranks of the close companions. So the disagreement between them ended and Marwan submitted to the great position of Abu Hurayra in Islam and his high rank of knowledge in Sunna. All that happened in front of people. The plan succeeded and Marwan would use Abu Hurayra as a means to fight Imam Hassan, Imam Hussayn, their father and their sons. It was the most successful propaganda for their policies. (Woe, then, to those who write the book with their hands and then say: This is from Allah, so that they may take for it a small price; therefore woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn). 2:79.
1. In a tradition mentioned by Ibn Sa'd and Ibn Hajr in his Issaba. We shall comment on this tradition in a next chapter of this book.
THE QUANTITY OF HIS TRADITIONS
All those who collected the Hadith agreed unanimously that Abu Hurayra had narrated traditions more than any one else at all. 1 They counted his traditions to find that they were five thousand and three hundred and seventy-four traditions. He had in al-Bukhari's Sahih only four hundred and forty-six traditions. 2
We found that all what was narrated by the four caliphs in comparison with Abu Hurayra's traditions was less than twenty-seven percent. Abu Bakr had narrated one hundred and forty-two traditions. 3 Omar had narrated five hundred and thirty-seven traditions. 4 All what Othman had narrated were one hundred and forty-six traditions. 5 And five hundred and eighty-six traditions
1. Refer to the last line of page 240, vol. 4, of Ibn Hajr's book al-Issaba which included the book al-Issti'ab in the margins.
2. Refer to al-Qastalani's book Irshad as-Sari, vol. 1, p.p. 212, the explanation of the first tradition of Abu Hurayra mentioned by al-Bukhari in his Sahih, you will find that Abu Hurayra had narrated from the Prophet (s) 5374 tradition and that he had in al-Bukhari's Sahih 446 traditions. Ibn Hazm in his book al-Milal wen-Nihal vol. 4, p.p. 138, said tha Abu Hurayra had narrated 5374 traditions.
3. It was mentioned by as-Sayouti in his book Tareekh al-Khulafa' (the history of the caliphs), an-Nawawi in his book at-Tahtheeb. Ibn Hazm in his book al-Milal wen-Nihal, vol. 4, p.p. 137 and ath-Thahabi in his book Mizan al-I'tidal, who said that the true traditions of Abu Bakr were less than twenty.
4. As-Sayouti said in his book Tareekh al-Khulafa' that Omar's traditions were five hundered and thirt-nine. Ibn Hazm mentioned in his book al-Milal wen-Nihal, vol. 4, p.p. 4, 138 the same number and said that the true traditions ot Omar were nearly fifty traditions.
5. Jalaluddin as-Sayouti in his book tareekh al-Khulafa'.
were narrated from Imam Ali1 . So the total is one thousand and four hundred and eleven traditions, which if you compare to Abu Hurayra's traditions you will find the ratio exactly as we said.
Let any prudent one think of Abu Hurayra, the short period of his being a Muslim, his obscurity, his illiteracy and all what would make him be mean, then think of the four caliphs, their priority in Islam, their attendance during the legislation of the laws of Sharia, their braveries throughout fifty-two years; in twenty-three of them they were at the service of the Prophet (s) and in twenty-nine of them, they governed the umma and mastered the other nations. They conquered the countries of Kasra and Caesar. They built towns and countries, spread Islam, and declared laws of Sharia and Sunna. So how would it be possible for Abu Hurayra, alone, to narrate so many times as much as they had narrated of the Prophet's traditions?
Also Abu Hurayra was not like Aa'isha, although she narrated too much. The Prophet (s) had got married to her ten years before Abu Hurayra became a Muslim. 2 She was in the house where Allah's inspiration was revealed to the Prophet (s) and the place of coming and going of Gabriel and Michael for fourteen years. She died a little before Abu Hurayra's death. 3
What a difference between the two companionships and the two ones' acumen was! As to the companionship it was known. But as to acumen, her acumen competed with her hearing and her heart preceded her ears. She was very acute. Nothing happened to her unless she recited poetry about it. Orwa said that he had not seen
1. As-Sayouti, Tareekh al-Khulafa' (Ali's biography). Ibn Hazm in his book al-Milal wen-Nahl, vol. 4, p.p.137.
2. Ibn Abdil-Birr said in his book al-Isstee'ab that the Prophet (s) had got married to Aa'isha in the tenth year after his Prophecy - three years before hijr - so her marriage was before Abu Hurayra being a Muslim in ten years because he became Muslim inthe seventh year of hijra.
3. She died i fifty-seven of hijra before Abu Hurayra's death in a short time. Abu Hurayra offered the prayer for her - the prayer for the dead - by order of al-Waleed bin Otba bin Abu Sufyan, who was made wali of Medina by his uncle Mu'awiya. He wanted to honor Abu Hurayra by that. Aa'isha was buried in Baqee.
anyone having more knowledge in jurisprudence, medicine, or poetry than Aa'isha. Masrouq said that he had seen some of great companions asking her about religious duties.
She was forced to spread her traditions that she sent her callers to the countries and led that great army to Basra. And in spite of all that, her traditions were two thousand and two hundred and ten. 1 So her traditions were less than a half of Abu Hurayra's traditions.
If you add Aa'isha's traditions to that of Um Salama (the Prophet's wife), who died after the death of Abu Hurayra in a long time, the rest of the Prophet's wives, Imam Hassan, Imam Hussayn, Fatima (the daughter of the Prophet) and the four caliphs, you find that they altogether were less than Abu Hurayra's traditions. This was a terrible thing! Let the prudent think of it.
Besides that, Abu Hurayra pretended that the Prophet (s) had informed him alone of some traditions that he would never reveal to any one. He kept them inside his conscience and buried them in his chest. And as you know that Abu Hurayra had a well-fortified chest and an inscrutable conscience! So he said: "I had kept from the Prophet two vessels. I spread the first, but if I would spread the other, this throat would be cut." 2
He said: "If I told you all what I knew, people would throw potteries at me and say: Abu Hurayra is mad."
He said: "If I told you all what I had in my chest, you would throw dung at me."
He said: "They say that Abu Hurayra told too many traditions. I swear by Allah that if I told you all what I had heard, you would throw dunghill at me and you would never debate with me." 3
He said: "I had memorized from the Prophet (s) some traditions that I didn't tell you of. If I told you of them you would throw stones at me." 1
1. Ibn Hazm's book al-Milal wen-Nihal, vol. 4, p.p. 138.
2. Al-KBukhari's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 24.
3. The three previous tradition were mentioned by Ibn Sa'd in his book, Tabaqat, vol 4, p.p. 57.
He said: "I had memorized from the Prophet (s) five bags of traditions. I told of two of them and if I told of the third, you would throw me with stones." 2
Abu Hurayra was neither the Prophet's heir apparent nor the caliph after him to prefer to the others and tell him secrets and knowledge that he would not tell anyone of his close companions or relatives.
What was the use of telling him those secrets since he was a weak man with meanness that prevented him to say something of those secrets unless he would be thrown with stones, dung and trashes or that his throat would be cut?
Would it not be better for the Prophet to tell those secrets for the caliphs after him, who led people by one will and to whom the nations submitted and the necks of the Arabs and non-Arabs yielded? They were better than Abu Hurayara in doing that. If they had had those secrets, they would spread them throughout the countries like the rays of the sun. Far be it from the Prophet to do something in vain. Would he entrust Abu Hurayra with his secrets to be lost uselessly? And who was Abu Hurayra to be singled out of the first Muslims? (And the foremost are the foremost. These are they who are drawn nigh (to Allah)) 50:10-11.
Abu Hurayra often said: "Abu Hurayra neither keeps secret nor writes down." How did this saying agree with his saying: "I had memorized from the Prophet two vessels. I spread one of them. If I spread the other, this throat would be cut" and the other sayings having the same meaning that he kept secret?
Let us ask those, who research for the divine secrets that the Prophet (s) entrusted Abu Hurayra with and that Abu Hurayra kept secret to preserve himself or to keep his dignity. Were those secrets
1. Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, vol. 3, p.p. 509, ath-Thahabi in his Talkhees. What a dignity Abu Hurayra had! He said .... you would throw at me stones, potteries, dunghill. And when he said about himself..... the comers put their feet on my neck.. and when he talked about his stomach,lice and his other affairs.
2. Abu Na'eem, Hilyatul-Awliya', p.p. 381 (biography of Abu Hurayra).
3. Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqat, vol. 2, p.p. 119.
of the kind of secrets that the Prophet (s) entrusted his guardian Imam Ali with? Did they concern the caliphate and caliphs after him? Were they of another kind? If they were of the first kind, why would Abu Hurayra turn away from them and contradict them completely? His opinion would be like all the other Muslims' opinion for he was just one person among the others. But if those secrets were of another kind, he would not refrain from telling offensive and disgraceful traditions!
Did he not narrate that the Prophet slept and missed the Fajr prayer? And that the Satan came to him to disturb his prayers?
Didn't he narrate that once the Prophet forgot and offered a two section prayer instead of four and when they asked him: Did you forget or restrict the prayer? He answered: I neither forgot nor restricted?
Did he not tell that the Prophet hurt, abused, cursed and whipped innocent people just because he became angry?
Did he not ascribe to the apostles many things that were impossible for them to commit according to the Sharia and reason? He narrated that Prophet Muhammad (s) had said: "We are worthier than Abraham to be in doubt." He also narrated that Prophet Lot's trust in Allah was not certain.
Did he not dare to defame Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, who must be honored? Did he not ascribe to Moses that he had slipped the angel of death and gouged his eye? And that once Prophet Moses ran nakedly in front of the Israelites, who looked at his private parts?
Did he not narrate that Solomon, the son of David, had broken the verdict of his father? And that he refused to say inshallah, so his deed failed?
Did he not ascribe to Allah what could never be accepted neither by the Sharia nor by reason? He said that Hell will not be full, unless Allah puts His leg in it. In his tradition about the Day of Resurrection, he said that Allah comes to people in an image different from that which they know saying to them: "I am your god." They say: "Allah forbid!" Then He comes to them in the image, which they know! They say: "You are our god." Abu Hurayra said that Adam was created in an image like the image of the Beneficent (Allah)! And that Allah had created Adam like His image. He was sixty cubits long and seven cubits wide.
You will find many many of his wonders in the next chapter which cause to cut the throat, so why he told of them easily? In fact he narrated those traditions as if he had done people a favor. He told of superstitions but no one threw at him a stone, dung, or trash as it was clear for any one knew him. But we are afflicted with unjust people and we do not have save Allah to resort to.
We want to draw the prudent researchers' attention that Abu Hurayra said : "No one have narrated traditions from the Prophet (s) more than I have, except Abdullah bin Amr bin al-Aass, because he wrote down but I didn't."
He confessed that Abdullah bin Amr had narrated traditions more than he had. We researched on Abdullah's traditions and we found that they were no more than seven hundred. 2 So they were less than one seventh in comparison with Abu Hurayra's traditions.
The researchers were very confused how to excuse Abu Hurayra in this contradiction. But Ibn Hajar al-Qastalani and sheikh Zakariya al-Ansari found an excuse when they explained this tradition in their books 3 that Abdullah bin Amr bin al-Aass lived in Egypt and those, who went to Egypt, were very few, therefore he narrated a little of his traditions, while Abu Hurayra lived in Medina, which was the destination of Muslims from everywhere, so his traditions were so many.
Abu Hurayra's saying was clear to abort this excuse. He acknowledged that no one had narrated traditions from the Prophet (s) more than he had except Abdullah bin Amr. The man, himself,
1. A tradition narrated by Wahab bin Munbbih from his brother Hummam from Abu Hurayra, mentioned in al-Bukhari's Sahih, vol. 1, p.p. 22.
2. Al-Qastalani's book Irshad as-Sari fee Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p.p. 373.
3. Al-Qastalani's Irshad as-Sari and Zakariya`s Tuhfatul-Bari. They were printed together in twelve volumes. You will find this excuse in vol.1, p.p. 373.
confessed that Abdullah's traditions were more than his so there was no way for the excuse of the two authors.
The great position and respect Abdullah bin Amr had in Egypt were a good cause to let him narrate his many traditions. There was no one else than him in Egypt, whom people knew very well, except some very few companions or travelers. So he was the only expert in the Qur'an, the Sharia and the Sunna that people resorted to. What a difference between his position in Egypt and Abu Hurayra's position in Medina was! For Abdullah had the rank of the veracious jurisprudent and the glory of the conqueror's son in the Egyptians' hearts, where Abu Hurayra, in Medina, was just one of thousands of the Prophet's companions. The delegations visiting Medina went to the famous great companions, whom Abu Hurayra was not one of. Also he was accused of narrating too much many traditions from the Prophet (s). People of Medina often blamed him by saying: "Why didn't the Muhajireen and the Ansar narrate as much as his traditions." His position in Medina would not let him narrate so many traditions. It was unbelievable that his traditions were more than Abdullah's; especially after his confession that Abdullah's traditions were more than his. In addition that Abdullah bin Amr lived long after Abu Hurayra's death. In fact Abu Hurayra confessed of that at the beginning after the Prophet's death, when he was not so excessive in narrating traditions. He became so excessive during the reign of Mu'awiya where there was neither Abu Bakr, Omar, Ali nor any one of the great companions whom Abu Hurayra feared.
1. Muhajireen(emigrants): the first Muslims of mecca who emigrated to Medina.Ansar(helpers and assistants): the people of medina who beleived in the prophet assisted him and his companions.
2. Abu Hurayra died, as it was mentioned in al-Issaba of Ibn hajar, in fifty-seven or fifty-eight of hijra and it was said fifty-nine. Abdullahi died, according to the same reference, in sixty-five or sixty-eight or sixty-nine of hijra. Al-Qaysarani said in his book Rijal-as-sahihayn that he had died in ninety-two. Allah is the most aware.