Martyrdom of Hijr bin Adi al-Kindi and his Companions
He was known as Hijr al-Khayr, His Kunya was Abu Abd al-Rahman b. Adi, b. al-Harith b. Amru b. Hijr, He was given the nickname (i.e., laqab) of Akil al-Mirar. He was the king of the Kindis. It was said that he was the son of Adi b. Mu'awiya b. Jubla b. Adi b. Rabi'a b. Mu'awiya al-Akramin. He belonged to Kinda.1
Hijr was notable companion from the companions of Ali nd his son Al-Hasan, peace be on them. He was a lord from the lords of the Muslims in Kufa.
Hijr nd his brother Hani b. Adi came to the Prophet, may Allah bless Him and his family. In his book al-Isti'ab, b. Abd al-Bisr al-Maliki sadi: "Hijr was among the excellent Companions, and his age
1. (The tribe of ) Kinda belong to the banu of Kahlan. Their homeland was the Yemen. Then many of their leaders moved to Iraq. Kahlan and Himyar were the two sons of Saba. Saba was the name which brought both tribes together. It was said: "The Arabs regarded the houses with glory and honor after the house of Hashim b. Abd Manaf as four houses. They were the house of Qays al-Fazazi, (the house of) the Darimiyyin, (the house of) banu Shayban, and the house of the Yemen, who belonged to the banu of al-Harith b. Ka'b." As for Kinda, they are not regarded as some of the peole of the houses. Rather they were kings. Among them was al-Malik al-Dilil (ie, Umru' al-Qays). The had authority in the Yemen and al-HIjaz. The glory of Kinda lasted during the time of Islam. Some of the Kindis took part in the conquests and the revolts; some of them were governors; some of them were judges such as Husayn b. Hasan al-Hijri; some of them were poets such as Ja'far b. Affan al-Makfuf, the poet of the Shi'a. Hani b. al-Ja'ad b. Adi, the nephew of Hijr, was among the noble figures in Kufa, Ja'far b. al-Ash'ath and his son al-Abbas b. Ja'far were among the Shi'a of Imam Abu Al-Hasan (ie, Musa, b. Ja'far) and his son al-Rida, peace be on them. As for al-Ash'ath b. Qays al-Kindi, he was the greatest of all the hypocrites in Kufa. He became Muslim, then he renounced Islam after the Prophet. Then he became Muslim, and Abu Bakr accepted his Islam. Abu Bakr married Him his sister who was the mother of Mohammed b. al-Ash'ath. Imam Al-Hasan married al-Ash'ath's daughter whom Mu'awiya provoked to give Al-Hasan poison to drink.
was less than their old ones." In his book Asad al-Ghaba fi Tamyiz al-Sahaba,' b. al-Athir has mentioned Him with words similar to these ones. In his book al-Mustadrak, al-Hakim has described Him as: "the monk of the Companions of Mohammed, may Allah bless Him and his family."
Hijr worshipped (Allah) to the extent that when he made ritual impurity, he performed the ritual ablution; when he performed the ritual ablution, he prayed. He performed one thousand rak'as a day. His religious piety was apparent, and his supplication was accepted.1 He was among the chosen reliable figures. He preferred the hereafter to the life in this world to the extent that he subjected his life to killing refusing to renounce his Imam. He had a high social position.
Hijr was in the army that conquered Sham (Syria), and in the army that conquered Qadisiya (a city in Iraq). He took part in the Battle of the Camel headed by Ali. He was the commander of Kinda at the Battle of Siffin, and the commander of the left wing of the army at the Battle of al-Nahrwan. He was the brave man who defeated al-Dahhak b. Qays in the western part of Tadmur. It was he who said: "We are the children of war and appropriate for it. We start it and end it. We have known it (ie, war) and it has known us."
Hijr was the first patient martyr in Islam.
Mu'awiya b. Abu Sufyan killed Hijr and six of is companions at Marj Athra, twelve mile far from Damascus in the year 51 A.H. Up till now, Hijr's grave is apparent and famous. There is a firm dome on it. Old marks can be seen on the dome that is beside a wide mosque. Hijr's companions who were killed with him are in his shrine. We will mention them one by one.
Zyyad b. Abih demolished Hijr's house in Kufa.
1. In his book al-Isaba fi Tamyiz al-shahaba, b. al-Athir said: "Major ritual impurity hit Him (ie, Hijr) while he was a prisoner. So he said to the guard: Give me my water to pure myself with it. 'I am afraid that you will die of thirst, so Mu'awiya will kill me, said the guard. He (ie, b. la Athir) said Hijr prayed to Allah (for rain). His companions said to His: Ask Allah to save us. So he said: O Allah save us."
The Cause of his Killing
Hijr opposed al-Mughira b. Shu'ba and Zyyad b. Abih when they cursed Ali peace be on Him. In this connection he said to them: "I testify that whom you dispraise is worthier of the outstanding merit, and whom you praise is worthier of dispraise." When Hijr said openly these words of his, most people agreed with Him on that and said: "By Allah, Hijr has said the truth and kept his words."
As for al-Mughira b. Shu'ba, he knew that high spirits that made Hijr as an excellent companion, as a leader from the the great figures of Ali in Kufa, and as an Arab Emir who inherited the crown from his close grandfathers. al-Mughira had heard with his own ear when the people supported Hijr's summons paying no attention to any force, nor were they afraid of the wrath of the ruler. So he thought that it was better for Him to be slow towards the affairs of Hijir. and to apologize to his advisers who provoked Him to punish Hijr. Then al-Mughira said to his advisers: "I have killed Hijr." How have done that?" asked the advisers." Al-Mughira answered:" An emir will come after me. Hijr will think that the emir is similar to me. Hijr will say to Him similar to what you have heard. So the emir will punish Him immediately, and then will kill Him through an evil way." During his attitude towards Hijr, al-Mughira pretended to be wise. Also he pretended to be wise towards Sa'sa'a b. Sohan during the discord which was created by al-Mustawarad b. Alafa al-Khariji (ie, the Kharijite) in the year 43 A.H. al-Mughira said to Sa'sa'a: "Be careful! I have heard that you spread openly that outstanding merits of Ali. That is because I know all the excellent qualities of Ali. Rather I know them more than you do. However, this ruler (Mu'awiya) has appeared. He has forced us to show the people Ali's defects. We leave many things from what he has ordered us (to mention). We mention the things which we regard as precautionary stimulation (taqiya) to save our lives from these people (ie, the Umayyads)."1
When al-Mughira b. Shu'ba died in the year 50-51 A.H, b.
1. Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol.6, p.108.
Sumayya (ie, Zyyad b. Abih) became governor of Kufa. So the latter wanted to serve his claimed Umyyad lineage through killing Hijr b. Adi to relieve the Umayyads of the greatest of all troublemakers against them. However, he forgot that the blood of HIjr would go on making troubles to the Umayyads throughout their history as long as the people knew these two names (ie, Hijr's name and Mu'awiya's name).
The new governor (ie, Sumayya) elaborated friday sermon to the extent that there was no time for Friday prayers that had a limited time. So Hijr, who always attended their (ie, the Umayyad's) Friday sermon and prayers, said: "the Prayer!" Still Zayyd continue his sermon. Hijr was afraid that the obligatory prayers would escape Him, so he took a handful of stones. Then he rose to perform the prayers and the people rose with Him.
Abu Abd al-Rahman (ie, Hijr b. Adi) who had a high social position, and worshipping ascetic spirit refused to bargain with the Umayyads or flatter them concerning his religion. He thought that there was the rest of the companions of Al-Hasan among the people. He reminded them of Al-Hasan and opposed the Umayyads before them to make them follow his example. In this way he opposed the Umayyads to support the usurped right to authority, and he struggled against them through his tongue to defend his religion, his Imam, and his prayers as he did against them through his sword during the Islamic conquests.
Hijr's crime list, according to the Umayyads' custom, contained: he opposes cursing Ali, peace be on Him. He wants the prayers to be performed at their exact times, and nothing more than that.
Ziyad summoned his obedient servants who sold their consciences for pleasures. Among them were Amr b. Sa'd (who killed al-Husayn, peace be on Him), al-Mudhir b. al-Zubayr, Shimr b. Dhi al-Jawshan al-Amiri, Isma'il and Ishaq (the two sons of Talha b. Abd Allah), Khalid b. Arfata, Shibth b. Rib'i, Hajjar b. Abjard, Amru b. al-Hajjaj, Zajr b. Qays, and the like of these persons who divorced manhood three times. They were seventy men. In his book Tarikh, vol.6, pp.150-1,' al-Tabari counted them one by one. He distinguished Abu Burda b. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari from them, for the latter was the weakest of them with Him (ie,al-Tabari) or he was the strongest of them with Mu'awiya who ordered Him to write:
"In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is what Abu Burda b. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari has testified for Allah the Lord of the worlds. I (ie, Abu Burda) testify that Hijr b. Adi has refused obedience, left the united people (Jam'a), cursed the Caliph summoned (the people to wage) war (against Him), gathered groups of people and summoned them to break the pledge of allegiance, and disbelieved openly in Allah (the Great and Almighty).
Then Zyyad said to the seventy persons; "Confirm this testimony. Indeed, by Allah, I will do my best to cut off the thread (of hope) of this foolish traitor!" Seventy persons from the notables and the children of the houses in Kufa testified this traitorous foolish document. Then Zyyad wrote may letters to Mu'awiya concerning Hijr. So Mu'awiya wrote to Him: "Tie Him (ie, Hijr) up with the iron and send Him to me."
It is necessary for us to remember now the backgrounds of this group of people, who belonged to the houses in Kufa, towards the matter of Al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on them, during the days of his succession to authority. It was they who deserted from the Camp of Maskan, provoked the people at the Camp Mada'ini (against Al-Hasan), and wrote to Mu'awiya to desert Al-Hasan and to hand Him over. Therefore who refused obedience, left the united people, and broke the pledge of allegiance Hijr b. Adi or they?
Then we have to remember the attitude of these persons themselves during the tragedy of al-Husayn, peace be on Him, at the Battle of Karbala. They were then the swords of the Umayyad tyrants who were reponsible for those painful events whose atrocities have no limit in the history of Arabs and Islam.
The Attitude of the Kufans towards the Event of Hijr
If Hijr had wanted to resist with the weapon, he would have been able to ignite the fire of the revolution that would be strong enough to shake the position of Mu'awiya in Kufa. Mu'awiya understood that when he said after the killing of Hijr: "If Hijr had remained alive, he would have created another war." Also Zyyad understood that when he sent his postman to Mu'awiya and said to Him: "Go quickly to M'awiya and say to Him; "If you need you authority, then save me from Hijr."
However, the Shi'te leader (ie, Hijr), who had taken lessons from the valuable sacrifices of Al-Hasan b. 'Ali (peace be on them) prevented bloodshed, and prevented his people from waging war openly (against Mu'awiya).
Still a group of Hijr's companions clashed with the police of Zyyad at the gates of Kinda. Another group of them clashed with Zyyad's policemen at the door of his house near the cemetery of Kinda. Among the herose of these two events were Abd Allah b. Kh'Alifa al-Ta'i, Umru b. al-Hamaq al-Khaza'i (We will mention them both in the chapters that follow), Abd al-Rahman b. Muhriz al-Tamhi, A'idh b. Hamla al-Timimi, Qays b. Yazid, 'Ubayda b. Amru, Qays b. Shimr, and Umayr b. Yazid al-Kindi, known as (Abu al-Umrrata). They said: "The sword of Abu al-Umrrata was the first sword to be used in Kufa on the day when Hijr (was killed). Qays b. Fhadan al-Kindi went out riding his own donkey walking through the meetings of Kinda to urge them to wage war (against Mu'awiya).
Zyyad dominated the people of Kufa. That was his legal inheritance from his mother Sumayya.1
As for Hijr Himself, he always ordered his people to scabbard their swords and said to them: "Do not fight (against Mu'awiya), for I hate to expose you to destruction. As for me, I will follow some of these ways."
The spies of Zyyad were unable to capture Hijr, for most people protected Him from them.
In this manner Zyyad was unable to bear Hijr and his companions.
1. In his book "Tarikh, vol.6, p.132, al-Tabari said: "From that day he took a compartment."
So he gathered the notables of Kufa and said to them: "O people of Kufa, don't sad! your bodies are with me, and your desires are with Hijr. you are with me while your brothers, your children, and your tribes are with Him. By Allah, this is some of your cheat. By Allah, you should renounce, Hijr: otherwise I will bring a group of people through whom I will reform your deviation and your wry faces." Then he added: "Each man of you should help this group of people against Hijr. Moreover, each man of you should summon his brother, his son, his relatives, and those who obey Him from his tribe, to the extent that you are able to provoge all people against Him (ie, Hijr)."
Then Zyyad ordered to the commander of his police, Saddad b. al-Haythan al-Hil'Ali to capture Hijr. Zyyad knew that his police would be unable to rest Hijr. So he summoned Mohammed b. al-Ash'ath al-Kindi and said to Him:" Abu Maytha by Allah, you should bring me Hijr:; otherwise I will uproot your date palms, demolish your house, and tear you to pieces." Shaddad said to Him: "Give me time to look for Him. Zyyad said: "I will give you three days. you should bring Him: otherwise you must regard yourself as one of the perished!"
I (ie, the author) say: Why was Zyyad full of rage? Was he full of rage for the religion?
Certainly not! For b. Sumayya (ie, Zyyad) was not worthier of religion than the worshipping Companion (ie, Hijr), who performed one thousand ruk'as a day, and who had no crime but that he wanted to forbid (the people) from doing evil deeds, and wanted the ritual prayers to be performed during their fixed times. Or was Zyyad full of rage for the life in this world? Surely not! For he lost his glory in history when he killed Hijr b. Adi.
Zyyad intended to make the Kindis kill each other when he ordered al-Ash'ath al-Kindi to capture Hijr. This was among the evil ways which rulers have used to dominate helpless people.
Hijr knew what Zyyad intended towards the Kindis. So he said: "However, I listen and obey."
The police men went about to arrest the prominent figures who supported Hijr. They arrest nine Kufans and four non-Kufans,according to the narration of al-Mas'udi.
Ibn al-Athir has counted them in this way: "Hijr b. Adi al-Kindi, al-Arqam b. Abd Allah al-Kindi, Shurayk b. Shaddad al-Hadrami, Sayfi b. Fasil al-Shaybani, Qubay'a al-Absi, Karim b. Afiif al-Khath'ami, Asim b. Awf al-Baj'Ali, Warqa b. Sumay al-Baj'Ali, Kaddam b. Hayyan, Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan al-Anzayan, Muhiz b. Shahab al-Timimi, adn Abd Allah, b. Hawba al-Sa'di al-Timimi," Ibn al-Athir said: "These are twelve men. Then Zyyad added two men to them. They were Utba b. al-Akhnas b. Sa'd b. Bakr, and Sa'd b. Nimran al-Hamadani, So they were fourteen men."
At that time the slanders became active and numberous in that unfortunate city (ie, Kufa).
Hijr remained in the prison of Kufa for ten days till the plicy men of Zyyad gathered his above mentioned companions. Then Zyyad ordered them to be sent to Sham (Syria). So all what was in kufa indicated that the situation would result in an uprising. No one knew the tribulation of that uprising against the ruler and the subjects.
However, Zyyad paid attention to that, so he ordered them to be sent during the night to make use of darkness and to decrease the violence of this bovious oppression.
Qubaysa b. dubay'a, one of Hijr's companions, looked left and right. He found Himself walking by his house near the graveyard of Arzam. Also he found his daughters looking at Him and weeping over Him. So he spoke to them and preached them, and then he went away. We will mention that in his biography.
A daughter of Hijr's feared for Him. So she recited the following lines of poetry during one of her black nights when she addressed the moon. It was said that Hind bint (the daughter) of Zayd al-Ansari recited these lines to bewail Hijr:
O bright moon, go higher
so that you may see Hijr walking!
He is walking to Mu'awiya b. Harb.
(Mu'awiya will ) kill Him as the Emir has claimed.
(He will) hang Him on the gate of Damascus.
So the eagleswill eat from his charms.
The tyrants have become haughty after Hijr.
Al-Khawarnaq and al-Sidir (two palaces) have delighted them.
The country has become faded.
As if no rain had enlivened it.
O Hijr, Hijr b. Adi,
May safety and joy receive you.
I fear that you will be killed as 'Ali had been killed.
(There is ) a shaykh in Damacus with roar.
If you perishes, then every chief of people
moves from this world to destruction.
They (i.e., the police men) took them (i.e., Hijr and his companions) to Adhra, that was a village twelve miles far from Damascus. They were imprisoned there. Mu'awiya and Zyyad exchanged letters. The delay increased them nothing by torture. The one eyed man of Mu'awiya and a group of his companions came to them. They brought Mu'awiya and a group of his companions came to them. They brought Mu'awiya's order to kill Hijr and his companions. Also they brought shrouds with them. He (ie, the one eyed man of Mu'awiya) said to Hijr; "Indeed the Commander of the faithful (ie, Mu'awiya) said to Hijr: "Indeed the Commander of the faithful (ie, Mu'awiya) has ordered me to kill you, for you are the head of error, the origin of unbelief and tyranny, and the supporter of Abu Turab (ie, Imam Ali). Also he had ordered me to kill your companions except when you withdraw from your unbelief, curse your leader (ie, Imam Ali) and renounce him." So Hijr and is companions said to him: "Indeed patience towards the punishment of the sword is easier for us than what you summon us to. Then meeting Allah, His Apostle, and his(ie, the Prophet's) trustee of authority (wasi) is more lovable for us than entering the fire."
The graves were dug. Hijr and his companions began performing prayers throughout the night. When the morning came, they (ie, the police men) brought them to kill them, so Hijr said to them: "Let me perform the ritual ablution and say prayers. For when I perform the ritual ablutions, I say prayers." They let him (pray). He prayed, and then went away. By Allah, I had not performed a prayer lighter than it (ie, this prayer). Were it not for that you think that I an impatient of death, I would increase it."
Then Hijr said: 'O Allah, we ask you to show enmity towards our people. Indeed the Kufans had testified against us, and the Syrians have come to kill us. By Allah, if you kill me at it (ie, the village of Adhra), I will be the first Muslim horseman to be killed in its valley, and the first Muslim man at whom is dogs will bark."1
Then Hudba b. Fayyad al-Qud'i walked forward Hijr carrying his own sword. The former trembled and said to the latter: "you have claimed that you are patient towards death. Therefore renounce your leader (ie, Imam Ali), and we will let you (go)."
So Hijr said: "Of course, I am patient towards death. For I see dug grave, a spread shroud, and a drawn sword. Indeed, by Allah, even if I am impatient towards death, will not say what displeases the Lord!"
Some close associates of Mu'awiya interceded for seven companions of Hijr.
The rest of Hijr's companion were exposed to the sword. Hijr's final words were: "leave me shackled with iron and stained with the blood. For I will meet Mu'awiya on the straight path tomorrow (ie, on the judgement Day). I will bring suit (against him before
1. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi Tarikh, vol.13, p.192. Ibn Sa'd and Mus'ab al-Zubari have narrated the following on the authority of al-Hakim, who said: "He (ie, Hijr) was killed at Marj Adhra according to Mu'awiya's orders. It was Hijr who conquered it (ie, Marj Adhra), then he was killed at it.
I (i.e., the author) say: This is the meaning of Hijr's words: "...., and the first Muslim man at whom its dogs will bark." He meant the day when he conquered it.
Allah). Mu'awiya mentioned these words of Hijr. So when he was about to die, he said: "Hijr, my day will be long because of you.
The Muslim's Reactions towards Hijr's killing
After he had killed Hijr, Mu'awiya performed the hajj. Then he passed by A'isha. "He asked permission (to enter her house). She permitted him. When he sat down, she said to him: Did not you fear Allah When you killed Hijr and his companion?"1 Then she added: "Were it not for the critical situation, we would change the killing of Hijr. By Allah, he performed the greater and the lesser hajj."2
Shurayh b. Hani wrote to Mu'awiya concerning Hijr. He gave him a religious opinion in which he denoted that it was forbidden (for Mu'awiya) to shed the blood of Hijr and to take his possessions. Concerning Hijr, Shurayh said: "He was among those who performed the ritual prayers, pay zakat, performed frequently the lesser and the greater hajj, enjoyed (the people) to do good deeds and prevented them from doing evil deeds. It was forbidden to shed his blood and to take his property."3
Ibn Umar began asking the people about Hijr from the day when the latter was captured. While b. Umar was walking in the market, he was told that Hijr had been killed. So he burst into tears and went away.4
Abd al-Rahman b. al-Harith b. Hisham came to Mu'awiya, after the latter had killed Hijr, and said to him: "When did the clemency of Abu Sufyan leave you? Mu'awiya replied: It left me when those who were like you in clemency left me. Ibn Sumayya (ie, Zyyad b. Abih) provoked me, so I carried tht out." Then He (ie, Abe al-Rahman)
1. Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 156.
2. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol. 3, p. 193.
3. Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 153.
said: "By Allah, the Arabs will never regard you as the one who has clemency and an opion. you killed the people whoom the prisoners from the Muslims sent to you."
Many pople from Kinda, al-Sikun, and the Yemen supported Malik b. Hubayra al-Sikuni. So Malik was able to say to Mu'awiya the following words when the latter refused to release Hijr: "By Allah, we are in no need of Mu'awiya more than Mu'awiya is in no nedd of us. We have alternates among his people,1 while he has no successor from us amog the people.
It was said to Abu Ishaq al-Subay'i: When did the people become low?" He replied: "When Al-Hasan died, Zyyad was claimed, and Hijr b. Adi was killed."2
Al-Hasan al-Basri said: "Mu'awiya had four qualities. If he had only one of them, it would have been a grave sin: he dominated this community through the foolish to the extent that he usurped its affair (ie, the succession) without any advice from it. (ie, the community), while among it were the rest of the Companions (of the prophet) and virtuous ones. He appointed his son to the succession to authority while he drank wine, wore silk (clothes), and played on the lutes. He claimed Zyyad while the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, said: "They baby is to bed and the prostitute is stoned. He killed Hijr. Woe unto him (ie, Mu'awiya) from Hijr and his companions."3
Al-Rabi' b. Zyyad al-Harithi died of sadness when Hijr was killed. He was the governor of Mu'awiya over Khursan. In his book (al-Kamil fi Tarikh, vol. 3, p. 195) b. al-Athir said: "The reason for his death was that he was indignant when Hijr b. Adi was killed, so he said: The Arabs will be killed because of patience after Hijr. If they had revolted (against Mu'awiya) when he killed Hijir, no one of them would have been killed because of patience. However, they
1. He meant th banu (sons) of HasHim.
2. Ibn Abu al-Haddid, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 4, p. 18.
3. Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 157.
accepted that so they became low. After this speech, he (ie, al-Rabi') remained one Friday. Then he went out on Friday and said: "O people, indeed, I am tired of life. So I will ask (Allah for something) through a supplication, so be safe. Then he raised his hands after the prayers and said: " O Allah, if I good with you, then make me die soon. The people became safe. then he went out. Before his garments disappeared he fell (over the ground)."1
Al-Husayn. peace be on him, wrote a letter to Mu'awiya: "Aren't you who killed Hijr the brother of Kinda and he worshipping prayers who refused oppression and regarded heresies as great and did not fear the blame of the blamer concerning Allah. you killed them because of oppression and enmity after you had given them strong oath and certain covenants (al-Husayn refers to the clauses of the fifth item in the Peace Treaty.) so that you should not punish them due to an event between you and them or a spite you bear in yourself against them.2
Then the role of history came so that many historians have written books about Hijr and his companions. For example, Nasr b. Muzahim al-Manqari and Lut b. Yahya b. Sa'id al-Azdi3 have written two books about the killing of Hijr. Hisham b. Mohammed b. al-Sa'id has written two books: one concerning the killing of Hijr; the other is about the killing of his companions such as Rashid, Maythan, and Juwayriya b. Mishhir.4
Traditions concerning Hijr and his companions
Ibn Asakir said: "After A'isha had blamed Mu'awiya for killing Hijr and his companions, she said: "I heard the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, say: At (the Marj of) Adhra', the
1. See also: Ibn Abd al-Bisr al-Maliki, al-Isti'ab.
Ibn al-Athir, Asad al-Ghaba fi Tamayiz al-Shahaba. Ali Khan, al-Darajat al-Rafii'a. al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Amali.
2. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol.10, p.149
3. Ibn al-Nadim, al-Fihrast, p.136
4. Al-Najashi, Fihrast al-Rijal, p.306.
place where Hijr and his companions were killed, people will be killed so that Allah and the people of the sky will be angry for them."
He (i.e., b. Asakir) has narrated traditions similar to this one through another way on the authority of A'isha.
Al-Bayqahi (in his book al-Dala'il) and Yaqubi b. Sufyan (in his book Tarikh) have narrated the following tradition on the authority of Abd Allah b. Zurayr al-Ghafiqi, who said: "I heard Ali b. Abu Talib, peace be on him, say: O people of Iraq, seven people from the you will be killed at (the Marj of) Adhra. Their likeness is like the Companions of the furrow (ikhdud)."
The Martyrs from Hijr's Companions
From what we have mentioned, we understand that the companions of Hijr were a choice from the few of men of Allah. Also we have known that al-Husayn, peace be on him, wrote a letter to Mu'awiya concerning them, in which he said: "... and he worshipping prayers who refused oppression and regarded heresies as great and did not fear the blame of the blamer concerning Allah."
Also we have known that the great Muslim figures mentioned them as long as they mentioned Hijr.
Though the Umayyads did their best to hide the stories of Hijr's companions, they (ie, Hijr's companions) have become the martyrs of the principles and victims of the usurped right to authority. That is enough for them to be virtuous, glorious, and prominent in history.
After he had killed this honorable group of people, and after he had performed his (accepted) hajj, Mu'awiya met al-Husayn b. Ali, peace be on them, in Mecca and said to him proudly: "Have you heard what we have done for Hijr, his companions, nad his Shi'a (followers) who were the Shi'a of your father?" al-Husayn asked: "What have you done for them? Mu'awiya replied: "We have killed them, shrouded them, prayed over them, and buried them." al-Husayn, peace be on him, smiled, and then he said: "Mu'awiya, the people will bring suit against you (before Allah). If we killed your followers, we would no shroud them nor would we pay over them, nor would we bury them."1
The following are the martyrs from Hijr's companions:
A. Shurayk b. Shaddad or Thaddad al-Hadrami
Another (historian) has called him "Urak b. Shaddad.
B. Sayfi b. Fasil al-Shaybani
He was a leading companion of Hijr. He had an iron heart, a strong belief, and correct words. He was captured and brought before Zyyad who said to him: "O enemy of Allah, what do you think of Abu Turab (ie, Imam Ali)?" "I do not know Abu Turab," replied Sayfi.
"You know him very well, said Zyyad. "I do not know," answered Sayfi. "Do you not know Ali, Abu Talib? asked Zyyad. "Yes, answered Sayfi.
"That is Abu Turab, said Zyyad. "No, that is Abu Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, said Sayfi. So the commander of the police of Zyyad said to Sayfi: "The Emir say to you: He is Abu Turab, and you say: No." Do you want me to tell lies as the Emir does or do you want me to testify falsehood as the Emir does? asked Sayfi. "This is some of your sin, too. Bring me the rod," said Zyyad. The rod was brought to Zyyad, and then he said to Sayfi: "What do you say?" "These are the best words which I have said concerning a servant from the believing servants of Allah, replied Sayfi. "Hit his shoulder with the rod till he stick to the ground, said Zyyad. So Sayfi wa hit till he stuck to the ground.
Then Zyyad said: "leave him. What do you think of Ali?" By
1. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar. al-Tabari has narrated a tradition similar to this one on the authority of Al-Hasan. That is incorrect for the tragedy of Hijr and his companions were two years after the death of Al-Hasan. A similar tradition has been narrated by b. al-Athir on the authority of Al-Hasan al-Basri who said: "By the Lord of the Kaaba, they have instituted a proof aganst them."
Allah, even if you cut me to pieces with the razors and the knifes, I will not say except what you have heard from me," answered Sayfi.
"You should curse him (ie, Imam Ali): otherwise I will cut off your neck, "said Zyyad. "Therefore cut off, and Allah accepts that. If you refuses (anything) but to cut it off, them I am satisfied with Allah, (while) you are unhappy," said Sayfi. Push him in the neck. Tie him up with the shackles, and throw him into prison," shouted Zyyad.
Then Sayfi joined the caravan of death with Hijr, and was among those blessed people who died martyrs at (the Marj of) 'Adhra'.
C. 'Abd al-Rahman b. Hasan al-Anzi
He was among Hijr's companions. He was sent with Hijr while he was shackled. When he arrived at (the Marj of) Adhra, he asked (the police men) to send him to Mu'awiya, for he thought that Mu'awiya would be better than b. Sumayya (ie, Zyyad), When he came to Mu'awiya, the latter said to him: "Brother of Rabi'a, what do say concerning Ali? Leave me and do not ask me (about him), for that is better for you, replied Abd al-Rahman. "By Allah, I will not leave you," said Mu'awiya. Abd al-Rahman said: "I testify that he was among those who remembered Allah very much, enjoined (the people to follow) the truth, undertook justice, and forgave the people." "What do you say concerning Uthman? asked Mu'awiya. "He was the first to open the door of injustice and to close the door of the truth," answered Abd al-Rahman. "you have killed yourself," and said Mu'awiya. "Rather, you have killed yourself," said Abd al-Rahman. Then Mu'awiya returned him to Zyyad in Kufa and ordered him to kill him in an evil manner.
It was Abd al-Rahman who said the following words on the day when the police men of Mu'awiya imprisoned him along with his companions (at the Marj of) Adhra: "O Allah, made me among those whom you honor through their (i.e., the Umayyads') disgrace, and you are pleased with me. I subjected myself to killing many times, but Allah refused (that) except what He willed."
In his book (Tarikh al-Kufa, p. 274), Habbata al-'Arani has mentioned Abd al-Rahman as follows; "Abd al-Rahman b. Hasan al-Anzi was among the companions of Ali, peace be on him. He lived in Kufa to provoke the people against the banu (sons) of Umayya. So Zyyad captured him and sent him Sham (Syria). (There) Mu'awiya summoned him to renounce Ali, peace be on him. So Abd al-Rahman answered Mu'awiya rudely. Then Mu'awiya returned him to Zyyad, so he (ie, Zyyad) killed him.
Ibn al-Athir (in his book al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol.3, p.192.) and al-Tabari (in his book Tarikh, vol.6, p.155.) said that Zyyad buried Abd al-Rahman alive at the Qis of al-Natif.1
I (i.e., the author) say: If Mu'awiya had known the ways which Zyyad used to kill the Shi'a of Ali in Kufa, and if he had known that Zyyad cut off their legs, their hands, and their tongues, and knocked out their eyes, he would have not suggested any way when he ordered them to kill Abd al-Rahman through evil way. Is there a way worst of these ways of killing and punishment? However, Zyyad carried out Mu'awiya's suggested, so he created a way through which he buried Abd al-Rahman alive to kill him.2
Do you know which punishment Mu'awiya and Zyyad will face on the Judgment Day because of these ways of killing?
1. A place near Kufa. It was on the eastern bank of the Euphrates.
Al-Marwaha faced it on the western bank of the Euphrates. The Battle of Abu 'Ubayd the father of al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi took place at it.
2. Then this kind of killing became the bad practice (Sunna) which the tyrants after Zyyad followed, When the Umyyads were angry with Umar al-Maqsus, the educator of Mu'awiya b. Yazid b. Mu'awiya, who resigned from the their succession as protest against them, they took him and buried him alive. This has been narrated by al-Dimyari in his book 'Hayat al-Hayawan, p. 62. In the book, he has narrated the speech which Mu'awiya made concerning the backgrounds of Umar's resignation, which make the person feel that Umar was a follower of ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them.
D. Qubaysa bin Rabi'a al-'Abasi
Some historian have called Qubaysa b. Dubay'a. He was the brave man who decided to resist the Umayads with his weapon and his people. However, the commander of the police gave him security over his blood and his property. So he put his hand in their hands depending on security covenant which the Arabs before and after Islam followed. However, it seems that the Umayyads abandoned the Arabic and the Islamic morals or that they understood that such morals were mere means for victory and violence.
Accordingly, (Qubaysa) b. Duby'a al-Abasi was broght before Zyyad who said to him: By Allah, I will do (something) for you to distract you from creating discords and revolting against the governors." Qubaysa said: "I have come to you according to the security covenant." "Take him to prison, said, Zyyad.
Then Qubaysa was among the shackled persons who were driven to death because of patience. In this connection the tradition says: "Whoever gives security to a man over his blood and kills him, therefore I (ie, the Prophet) renounce the killer even if the killed one is unbeliever."1
Before the police men took the prisoners (ie, Hijr and his companions), they had passed by Qubaysa's house. Qubaysa saw his daughters looking at him and weeping over him. So he said to the two police men (ie, Wa'il and Kuthayr): "Permit me to recommend my family. When he approached his daughters who were weeping, he kept silent for an hour, and then he said to them: "Be silent." So they kept silent. Then he said to them: "Fear Allah, the Great and Almighty. Be patient. Indeed I hope that Allah, my Lord, will grant me one of the two good things during this going of mine: either martyrdom that is happiness or coming back to you in good condition. It is Allah, the Most High, Who gives you your provisions. He is Living, and never dies. I hope that He will not leave you. Rather I hope that He will
1. Ahmad Shahab al-Din al-Asqalani, al-Isaba fi Tamyiz al-Sahaba, vol.4, p.294.
protect me for you." Then Qubaysa went away.
The hopeless family spent that night weeping and praying, as Mu'awiya wanted. There were then many daughters similar to Dubaya's ones in tradegy.
Al-Tabari said: "Qubaysa b. Dubay'a fell into the hands of Abu Sharif al-Baddi. So Qubaysa said to him: Indeed there is no evil between my people and your people. Thus let other than you kill me, Abu Sharif said: kinship is obedient to you. Then al-Quda'i killed Qubaysa.
E. Kaddam bin Hayyan al-Anzi
F. Muhriz bin Shahab bin Bujayr bin Sufyan bin Khalid bin Munqir al-Timimi1
He was among the chiefs of the people, and from the pure Shi'ites who were known for their Shi'ism. Muhriz was the commander of the left wing of the army headed by Ma'qal b. Qays who waged war against the Kharijites in the year 43 A.H. During those three battles the army of Ma'qal was three thousand people from the loyal Shi'ites and their horsemen, as al-Tabari described them in his book (Tarikh, vol.6, p.108).
2. Amru bin al-Hamaq al-Khaza'i
He was b. (son of) al-Kahil b. Habbib b. Amru b. al-Qayn b. Dharrah b. Amru b. Sa'd b. Ka'b b. Rabi'a al-Khaza'i.
He became Muslims before the Conquest (of Mecca), and emigrated to Medina. He was a loyal companion. Thus the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, prayed for Allah to make him (i.e., Amru)
1. See the following references about what we have written concerning Hijr and his companions: al-Daynwary, b. al-Athir, al-Tabari, b. Abu al-Haddid, al-Isti'ab, al-Nasa,ih al-Kafiya, and Tarikh Baghdad.
enjoy his youth. So eighty years, passed and no one saw a white hair among his hair, in addition to this, there was handsomeness on his face, that increased his splendor.
After the Prophet, Amru became a companion of the Commander of the faithful (ie, Ali) peace be on him, Thus he was the sincere companion to whom Ali said; "I wish I had a hundred people. like you in my army." Amru witnessed the Battles headed by Ali such as the Camel, Siffin, and al-Nahrwan.
The Commander of the faithful invoked Allah for Umru with these words. "O Allah, enlighten his heart with piety, and guide him to your stright path." Moreover, he said to him: "Amru, you will be killed after me. Indeed, your head will be moved (from one place to another). It will be the first head to be moved in Islam. Woe unto him who will kill you."1
Ibn al-Athir said in his book (al-Kamil fi Tarikh, vol.3, p.183): "When Zyyad came to Kufa, Ammara b. Aqaba b. Abu Mi'yat said to him: Indeed Amru b. al-Hamq has gathered the Shi'tes of Abu Turab (ie, Imam Ali)". Thus Zyyad sent for him (and said to him): "What are thse groups which you have gathered? Whomever you want to speak to, (you should speak to him) in the mosque."2.
"Then Amru was still (as al-Tabari has narrated) afraid and expecting till the event of Hijr b. Adi occurred. Then he proved Himself brave. A man called Bakr b. 'Ubayd from al-Hamra' (ie, the police of Zyyad) hit Umru on the head with an iron bar. Thus Amru fell over the ground. The Shi'ites carried him and hid him in the house of a man from the Azd. Then Amru went out to leave (Kufa). The other leader, Rifa'a b. Shaddad, accompanied him. So they headed for al-Mada'in. Then they departed till they arrived at the land of Mousil. They hid in a contain there. The governor of al-Rustaq condemned
1. Abbas al-Qummi, Safinat al-Bihar, vol. 2, p. 360.
2. al-Tabari had mentioned that slander of Ammara b. Aqaba, and then he said: "It is said that it was Yazid b. Ruwaym who slandered Amru b. al-Hamq, and said: He (ie, Amru has provoked the two cities (ie, Basrah and Kufa.)"
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that. So he went to them with the horses. As for Amru, he reached Mousil while he was ill. As for Rifa'a b. Shaddad, who was a strong young men, he jumped on ihs quick horse and said to Amru: I will fight on behalf of you.' It does not avail me that you fight on behalf of me. Save yourself if you can. Thus Rifa'a attacked them, so they let him go. Then he want out while his horse was bolting. The horsemen went out looking for him. He was a sharp shooter so that he wounded or killed those horsemen who followed him. Thus they left him and went away. Then they asked Amru: "Who are you? "It is him whom if you lave it will be safer for you, and whom if you kill, it will be more harmful for you," replied' Amru, Again they asked him, but he refused to tell them. Thus b. Abu Balta'a, the governor of al-Rustaq, sent him to Abe al-Rahman b. Abd Allah b. Uthman al-Thaqafi, the governor of Mousil. When the latter saw Amru b. al-Hamaq, he knew him, and then he wrote to Mu'awiya concerning him. So Mu'awiya ordered Abd al-Rahman to stab Amru nine times as he (ie, Amru) stabbed Uthman."
Ibn Kuthayr opposed the Above mentioned account of al-Tabari. He said: "Indeed the companions of Mu'awiya found Amru dead in a cave. They cut off his head and sent it to Mu'awiya. Thus it was the first head to be moved in Ialam. Then Mu'awiya sent his head to his wife (ie, Amru's wife), Amina bint al-Sharid, who was in the prison of Mu'awiya. The head was put on her lap. She put her hadn on his forehead and kissed his mouth, and then she said: "you had concealed him for a long time, then you have offered him to me and he is dead. Therefore welcome to this lovable left."
Then he was in what al-Husayn, peace be on him, wrote to Mu'awiya: Aren't you who killed Amru b. al-Hamaq, the Companion of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family? He was the righteous person whom worship wore out to the extent that it made his body weak and his color yellow. you had given him security. you had given him some of the covenants of Allah and His pledges. If you had given them to a bird, it would have come showing impudence towards you Lord and disdaining His covenant through that."
I (i.e., the author) say: Through this covenant, al-Husayn refers to the clauses of the fifth item in the Peace Treaty.
In his book 'Safiinat al-Bihar, Abbas al-Qummi said: "His (ie, Amru's) gave was in the outskirts of Mousil. Abu Abd Allah, (ie, Sa'id b. Hamdan), the cousin of Saif al-Dawla, was the first to build the grave in the month of Sha'ban in the year 336 A.H."
In the book (Usul al-Tarikh wa al-Adab, vol. 9, p. 2) it has been mentioned: "Abu Al-Hasan 'Ali b. Abu Bakr al-Harawi said in the book al-Ziyarat (ie, visitations): "The shrine of Amru b. al-Hamaq was on the highest elevation at the outskirts of the Mousil. His body was buried (there) and his head was carried to Damascus. It was said that it was the first head to be carried in Islam. In the the shrine were some Sheriffs from the children of al-Husayn, peace be on him."
3. Abd Allah bin Yahya al-Hadrami and his companions
In his book (al-Furuq bayna al-Abatil wa al-huquq), Mohammed b. Bahr al-Shaybani has mentioned the following on the authority of al-Qasim b. Mujayma: "Mu'awiya did not fulfill anything of the covenant he made with Al-Hasan. I (ie, al-Qasim b. Mujayma) have read the letter of Al-Hasan to Mu'awiya, in which he counted he counted the crimes Mu'awiya committed against Him and his Shi'ite of Ali, peace be on Him. Al-Hasan mentioned Abd Allah b. Yahya al-Hadrami and those whom Mu'awiya killed with Him."1
I (ie, the author) say: We do not know now anything about the conditions of al-Hadrami, the event of his killing, and the number of his martyred companions. However, we know that this man (ie, Abd Allah b. Yahya) was among the men of the Commander of the faithful who said to him at the battle of Camel: "O sin Yahya, you and your father be cheerful."
We have known the reason why Al-Hasan mentioned Abd Allah before the Shi'ites whom Mu'awiya killed. Among these reasons is
1. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol.10, p.101.
that he was the farthest of them from the life on this world and the nearest of them to the life of asceticism.
They (i.e., the historians) said: "Mu'awiya knew that (Abd Allah) b. Yahya and his companions were full of sadness when the Commander of the faithful (ie, Ali died, and that they loved Him and mentioned his outstanding qualities very much. Thus Mu'awiya brought them and cut off their heads because of patience. The one who brings down a monk from his cell to kill Him without a crime (issues) from Him towards his killer is more wonderful than the one who takes out a priest from an abbey and kills Him, for the owner of the abbey (ie, the priest) is nearer to the stretching of the hand then the owner of the cell (ie, the monk) who is between the sky and the earth. Therefore no wonder when Al-Hasan counted Mu'awiya's crimes, preferred servants to servants, ascetics to ascertics, and the lamps of the country (ie, the brilliant figures) to the lamps of the country. Rather, it is a wonder if he had preferred a neglectful one to the one who was humble (before Allah). and a moderate one to a hardworking one."1
The tragedy of Abd Allah b. Yahya was similar to the tradegy of Hijr b. Adi, For they both were killed becuse of patience. Companions were killed with them both. Moreover,they bothwere killed without any crime except the crime that was the title of their outstanding virtures.
4. Rushayd al-Hajri2
He was the student of Ali, peace be on Him, and his companions who devoted Himself to Him. He was a religious scholar. He was famous for the knowledge fo deaths and disasters. Many people narrated accounts on his authority. However, they all refrained from mentioning his name because they were afraid of the Umayyad rulers. No one narrated stories openly on his authority except his only daughter who attended Him when he was killed. It was she who
1. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol.10, p.102.
2. He was attributed to Hajr (i.e., Bahrain).
gathered his limbs (ie, his hands and his legs) which b. Sumayya (i.e., Zyyad) cut off.
When his limbs were but off, his daughter asked Him: "O my father! Do you feel pain because of what has hit you? "No, my little daughter, but (it is) like the crowd among the people."
Rushayd was brought before Zyyad who said to Him: "What had your companion (ie, Ali, peace be on Him) told you about what we would do for you?
"You would cut off my hand, my leg and would hang me," said Rushayd. By Allah, I will refute his (ie, Ali's) words. Release Him!" When Rushayd wanted to go out Zyyad said: "Return Him! We find nothing more appropriate for you than what your companion had said to you. For you still intend to do evil for us if you remain (alive). Cut off his hands and his legs!" They (ie, the police men) cut them off while Rushayd was still speaking! Thus Zyyad said: "Hang Him!" "A thing for me is with you. I do not think that you have done it yet," said Rushayd. "Cut off his tongue!" shouted Zyyad. When they took out Rushayd's tongue, he said: "Release me to say one word." So they released Him, and he said; "By Allah, this confirms what the Commander of the faithful had told me. He had told me that my tongue would be cut off."
Rushayd was brought out of the palace while he was torn to pieaces. The people gathered around Him. He, may Allah be pleased with Him, died at the same night.
His daughter said: "I said to my father: "How hard your struggle is!" "My little daughter, people will come after us. Their insight will be for their religion. Thus (their struggle) will be better than ours," He answered.
Also he said to her: "My little daughter, make the speech die through concealment, and make the heart an abode for trust."1
1. Abbas al-Qummi, Safiinat al-Bihar, vol.1, p.522.
5. Juwayriya bin Mashar al-'Abdi
Ibn Abu al-Haddid said: "One day, Ali, peace be on Him, look at Juwayriya and called Him: Juwayriya, follow me. For when I see you, I love you. Then he told Him about some affairs secretly. His last words to Him were: Juwayriya, love the person whom we love as long as he loves us, and hate the one whom we hate as long as he hates us. However, if he loves us, then love Him. If he hates us, then hate Him.' Juwayriya devoted Himself to Ali, peace be on Him. Thus he came one day to Him, peace be on Him, while he was sleeping and there were people from his companions with Him, and called Him: "O you who is sleeping, get up. Indeed you will be hit on the top of your head so that your heard will be colored because of that hit. He (ie, Juwayriya) said: Thus the Commander of the faithful smiled, and then he said: "Juwayriya, I will tell you about your fate. By Him in whose hand is my soul, you will be taken by force to the rude basterd (ie, Zyyad). He will cut off your hand and your leg, and will kill you beside a short trunk. He (ie, the narrator) said: By Allah, only few days after that, Zyyad took Juwayriya, cut off his hand and his leg, and killed Him beside the trunk of b. M'akbar. It was a long trunk so that he hanged Him on a short trunk beside it."
I (ie, that author) say: Habbata al-Arani, may Allah be pleased with, has narrated this story, too. Moreover, he added the following words: "Zyyad b. Abih was among those who showed enmity towards the Commander of the faithul, peace be on Him. He followed the companions of Ali while he (ie, Zyyad) knew them very well. Still he killed them everywhere."
6. Awfa bin Hisn
He was among the victims of the Umayyad injustice. Zyyad summoned Him, but he refused to meet Him. Zyyad reviewed the people so that he passed by Awfa and said: "Who is this?" It was said to Him: "Awfa b. Bism." Thus Zyyad said: "His two legs have brought you a traitorous (deed)." Then he said to Awfa: "What do you think of Uthman?" "The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family, married his (ie, Uthman's) two daughters," replied Awfa. Then Zyyad asked Him; "what do you think of Mu'awiya?" (He is) generous and clement," answered Awfa.
Awfa was smart in his language and his style so that Zyyad was unable to find a jutification to kill Him.
Again Zyyad came back to Awfa and asked Him: "what is your opinion concerning me?" Awfa replied: "I have heard that you said in Basra: By Allah, I will punish the innocent one because of the guilty one and the comer because of the runaway. "I said that" said Zyyad. "you mixed them at random," said Awfa.
I (i.e., the author) say: Some of the smartness of this wise man (ie, Awfa) was that he gave gradual answers to Zyyad to draw his attention to his errors. Do not forget that Awfa was at that time between the leather rug and the sword (ie, he was about to be killed), and between the right and the wrong. These attitudes increase our admiration towards these heroes from the students of Ali, However, all his preachment went in vain. That is because Zyyad said concerning Him: "the blower is not the worst of the group." Then Zyyad ordered Awfa to be killed.1
I (i.e., that author) do not know, and I do not think that Zyyad Himself knew the reason why he shed the blood of Awfa, while the Prophetic tradition says: "It is forbidden for the Muslim to (shed) the blood of the Muslim, (to violate) his honor, and (to confiscate) his property."
In all his answer, the man (ie, Awfa) as you have seen, did not reveal a secret, nor did he violate an affair. Rather the one who opposed the Koran openly when he punished the innocent because of the guilty and the comer because of the runaway did not understand the above mentioned traditions and the Words of Allah, that say: "And no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another."
1. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol.3. p.183. al-Tabari, Tarikh, pp.130-32.
Zyyad adhered to his immoderation. Thus the people around Him suffered from the strongest ordeals in the world: some of them were driven to prison; some of them were chased, and hundreds of them were brought before Him every day so that their eyes knocked out, their limbs were cut off, and their ribs were destroyed.1 Other shackled victims were between Kufa and Sham (Syria). There was another in Kufa except dreadful terrorism, and there was nothing in Sham but horrible death.
Kufa, which was full of plots and opposition, submitted as the broken wing did because of the oppression of the Umayyad rulers. Thus the people who plotted the Umayyads yesterday began to practice oppression today when they became rulers over the Kufans. Thus the Kufans became various groups and took to flight.
Mu'awiya, Zyyad b. Abih, and the men of their school were heedless. they did not think that violence would result in finding an ideal leader who was able to fight against the violent ruler, and that violence was unable to destroy that opinion that has become immortal in history.
For this reason hunderd millions of people took part in the opinion of the Kufans, and were ready to send Mu'awiya and his men its echo which the days were unble to wear out.
Torture without killing
The Umayyads had methods other than killing, homelessness, demolishing houses, confiscating properties, and muzzling mouths.
When b. al-Athir mentioned the tragedy of Awfa b. Hism, he said: "He (i.e., Awfa) was the first to be killed by Zyyad after the event of the thirty or the eighty (people) whose hands Zyyad cut off.
1. In bood (Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 147), al-Tabari said: "Umayr b. Yazid (a companion of Hijr b. Adi's) was brought before Zyyad. He had been given security over his blood and his property. Zyyad ordered Him to be shackled. Then the men began to lift Him to the highest point and let Him fall over the ground many times."
Mu'awiya knew thoroughly the internal affairs of Basra and Kufa, Thus he attacked the chiefs of the people, the swordsmen, the notable orators, and the Shi'te talented poets. He irritated them, imprisoned them, shackled them, made them homeless, and shed their blood.
The following are some examples of the tragedies which Abu Yazid (ie, Mu'awiya) committed then against the prominent figures from the Shi'ite leaders.
Source: SULH Al-Hasan (The Peace Treaty of Al-Hasan)
Shaykh Radi Al-Yasin