In Umrat-ul-Tamatoo, the second obligation is tawaaf and its deliberate non-performance invalidates the Hajj, whether or not he was aware of the rule or the subject. To delay its performance till the time when it would no longer be possible to perform it as it would be time for the stay in Arafah, then the Umrah will be invalid and it is apparent that the ihram will also be invalidated. Reverting to Hajj-ul-Ifraad is not sufficient even though one should do so as a matter of caution and in both situations, it is obligatory on him to repeat the Hajj in the following year.
THE CONDITIONS FOR TAWAF
There are certain matters relating to tawaaf:
First: Niyyah: The tawaaf is invalid if there is no intention to perform it for the purpose of attaining nearness and obedience to Allah.
Second: Cleanliness from urine and excretion and if one performs the tawaaf despite such uncleanliness, whether deliberately or out of ignorance or by oversight, the tawaaf is invalid.
If in the course of the tawaaf, the pilgrim in the state of ihram passes wind, water or excretion,then:
(i) if he does so before completing the fourth round,the tawaaf is invalid and he must repeat it after performing wudhu;
(ii) if it occurs involuntarily after completing the fourth round,he must interrupt the tawaaf,perform wudhu and complete the tawaaf from where he had interrupted it;
(iii) if it occurs after completing the fourth round, but occured deliberately,then, as a matter of caution, he must complete the tawaaaf after performing wudhu and repeat the tawaaf.
If the pilgrim entertains a doubt about being in wudhu before commencing the tawaaf, then if he remembers having performed wudhu and the doubt relates to whether it was subsequently broken or not, he should ignore the doubt,else it will be obligatory on him to perform wudhu and the tawaaf. However if that doubt arises in the course of the tawaaf, then if he remembers having performed wudhu before, the ruling is as already stated; else, if the doubt arises before the completion of the fourth round, he must perform wudhu and repeat the tawaaf, else he must interrupt the tawaaf, perform wudhu and complete the remainder of the tawaaf.
If the doubt arises about the cleanliness after completing the tawaaf it must be ignored, although as a matter of caution it may be repeated but it is obligatory to clean oneself for the prayers (salaat) after the tawaaf.
If it is not possible to perform wudhoo for a reason not likely to change, tayammum must be performed for the tawaaf and if even tayammum is not possible the tawaaf itself cannot be performed. When all hope of possibility fades, a deputy must be appointed to perform the. tawaaf on his behalf and, as a matter of recommended caution, he must also perform the tawaaf without wudhu or tayammum.
When the periods of Haiz and Nifas are over and on Mujnib, ghusl is obligatory for the performance of tawaaf and if it is not possible to do so and there is no hope of any possibility of ghusl, then the tawaaf must be performed with tayammum. In such a case, as a
matter of recommended caution, a deputy must also be appointed to perform the tawaaf and if even tayammum is not possible, the appointment of the deputy will be confirmed.
If in the course of Umrat-ul-Tamatoo, a lady whether in the state of ihram or not gets into menstruation, then, if there is sufficient time for performance of the Umrah, she should wait for the period to be completed, perform her ghusl and then perform the Ihram. If, however, the time is short, two situations can arise:
Firstly, if the period commenced before getting into the state of ihram, she should change to Hajj-ul-Ifrad and on completion of the ceremonies for Hajj, if possible, it is obligatory on her to perform the Umrat-ul-Mufradah.
Secondly, if the period commences after getting into the state of ihram, then she has the choice of either performing the Hajj-ul-Ifraad as stated in firstly above or to perform the ceremonies of Umrat-ul-Tamatoo without performing the tawaaf and its prayers. After saee she should perform taqseer and then wear the ihram for Hajj. On returning to Makkah after completing the ceremonies of Mina she should perform the tawaaf of the Umrah before performing the tawaaf for the Hajj. If even then the bleeding should be continuing and she is convinced that it will continue until after return from Mina, she should appoint a deputy to perform the tawaaf for her. She should perform the saee herself.
If the bleeding commences when the lady in the state of ihram is in the course of tawaaf, then if it occurs before the completion of the fourth round, the tawaaf is invalid and the rule in her case is as stated above but if it occurs after the completion of the fourth round, what was performed is valid and it is obligatory to complete the remainder of the tawaaf after ghusl. In both the situations, as a matter of caution, if time permits, she should perform a complete tawaaf afterwards. Else, she should perform saee and taqseer, wear the ihram for Hajj and on her return to Makkah from Mina after completion of the ceremonies there she should perform the tawaaf by way of qadha before performing the tawaaf for the Hajj as stated above.
If the bleeding commences after completion of the tawaaf but before saying the prayers (salaat) for the tawaaf, it is valid and she should say the prayers after performing her ghusl but if the time is short, she should perform the saee and taqseer and say the prayers by way of qadha before the tawaaf of Hajj.
If a lady has completed her tawaaf and said her prayers (salaat) for the tawaaf and then feels the bleeding but is uncertain as to whether it commenced before the tawaaf or the prayers or during one of them or after completion of the prayers, she should proceed on the basis that the tawaaf and the prayers are valid. However, if she knows that it commenced before or during the prayers, the preceding rule will apply.
If, when a lady enters Makkah she is able to performs the Umrat-ul-Tamatoo but deliberately postpones its completion until her monthly period commences and the time becomes short, it is apparent that her Umrah becomes invalid. As a matter of caution, she should change to Hajj-ul-Ifraad and has no choice but to perform the pilgrimage again in the following year.
In an optional tawaaf, cleanliness is not a prerequisite and is valid without it but it is essential for the prayers (salaat) which are not valid without it.
It is sufficient for a disabled person to clean himself according to his condition. For example, he may be helpless or incontinent of urine or afflicted with intestinal ailment and may not be able to control himself. As a matter of caution, he must do both, if possible, perform the tawaaf personally and appoint an attorney to perform it on his behalf. In the case of abnormal menstruation, as a matter of caution, if it is little, she should perform a separate wudhoo for both the tawaaf and the prayers; if it is moderate, she should perform a ghusl but a separate wudhoo for both of them and if it is intense then she should perform a separate ghusl for the tawaaf and the prayers without the need for wudhoo if there is no urination. If there is, then, as a matter of caution, wudhoo would also have to be performed with the ghusl.
Thirdly, Conditions of tawaaf: Cleanliness of the body and clothes: a tawaaf is not valid if the body or the clothes worn are unclean (najis). The uncleanliness (najasah) which is excusable in prayers (salaat)-like blood of the size of less than a dirham is not, as a matter of caution, excusable in tawaaf. There is no objection in carrying anything which is najis during tawaaf.
There is no objection about blood from ulcers or wounds oozing in the course of a tawaaf if it is difficult to restrain it. Nor is it obligatory to remove the blood from the cloth or body in the course of the tawaaf. For a pilgrim to have with him unclean things in the course of a tawaaf does not invalidate the tawaaf nor items which would invalidate the prayers (salaat) if worn in them.
If the pilgrim is unaware of any uncleanliness (najasah) on his body or clothes and becomes aware of it only after completion of the tawaaf, it is valid and there is no need to repeat it. Similarly even the prayers (salaat) after the tawaaf will be valid if he was unaware of the uncleanliness until after completion of the prayers unless he was in doubt about the uncleanliness before the prayers or made investigation and did not become aware of it. However, the person who has a doubt but does not make investigation and finds the uncleanliness after prayers must, as a matter of caution, repeat the prayers.
If the pilgrim forgets about the uncleanliness (najasah) on his body or clothes and remembers of it after completion of the tawaaf it is apparent that the tawaaf is valid but, as a matter of caution, it is better to repeat it. However, if he remembers it after completion of the prayers (salaat) he must repeat the prayers, as a matter of caution, if he forgot as a result of negligence, otherwise there is no need to repeat it.
If the pilgrim was unaware of the uncleanliness (najasah) on his body or clothes and became aware of it in the course of the tawaaf or he or the clothes became unclean in the course and before the completion of the tawaaf, then if he has clean (tahir) clothes on him, he should change into clean ones and complete the tawaaf and if he does not have them with him, then if this occurred after the completion of the fourth round of the tawaaf, he should leave the tawaaf, clean the clothes or himself and complete the tawaaf. If this occurs before the completion of the fourth round, he should leave the tawaaf, clean the clothes or himself and, as a matter of caution, perform another complete tawaaf, even though it is apparent that it is not obligatory to repeat the tawaaf.
Fourth: Circumcision of Males: It is apparent that as a matter of caution, if an intelligent child wears the ihram himself, he must also be circumcised. If he is not intelligent or his guardian helped him wear the ihram then it is not clear that he is required to have been circumcised for the purpose of tawaaf, although, as a matter of caution, he should be.
If an uncircumcised pilgrim in ihram, whether of puberty or an intelligent child, performs a tawaaf, it is invalid and, unless he repeats it after being circumcised, will be regarded as a person who has abandoned the tawaaf and treated as will hereafter be discussed.
If a person has the means to perform the obligatory pilgrimage but is not circumcised, then if he can be circumcised and can perform the pilgrimage in the same year, it is obligatory on him to do both in the same year or else, he should postpone the pilgrimage till after circumcision. If it is not possible for him to be circumcised at all, whether because of some necessity or any other reason, then it is obligatory on him to perform the pilgrimage but, as a matter of caution, he should perform the tawaaf himself for both the Umrah and Hajj and also appoint an agent to perform the tawaaf and say the prayers (salaat) after the tawaaf on his behalf and he should recite the prayers (salaat) after the tawaaf after the agent has recited them.
Fifth: As a matter of caution, it is necessary to cover the private parts during tawaaf and the clothes have to be lawfully acquired. As a matter of caution, all the rules applicable to the clothes worn during prayers (salaat) must be observed during tawaaf as well.
THE OBLIGATIONS IN TAWAF
There are eight obligations to be fulfilled in tawaaf:
First: It must be commenced at Hajar-ul-Aswad (The Black Stone) and as a matter of recommended caution the entire body of the pilgrim must pass in front of the entire Stone. It is recommended to stop a little distance from the Stone so that one is certain to be opposite to it 'and the extra distance will provide assurance of a proper start.
Second: Each round is completed at the Hajar-ul-Aswad and in the last round it is recommended to proceed a little further from the Stone so that the extra distance covered may provide assurance of its proper completion.
Third: At all times during the tawaaf, the Holy Kaaba must be to the left of the pilgrim. If, in order to kiss a corner of the Holy Kaaba one faces it or because of great rush of the pilgrims, one becomes facing it or it is to one's back or right the distance covered in such pose will not be counted as part of tawaaf. This rule is basic common sense as is also evident from the tawaaf of the Holy Prophet (S.A.A.W.) when he did so riding. So there is no need for special effort to be made at the Hijr Ismail and at the corners.
Fourth: Hijr Ismail must be included in the tawaaf, that is to say, the pilgrim must go round the Hijr without entering it or climbing its wall.
Fifth: One must circumambulate keeping clear of the Holy Kaaba and the projection from it known as Shadharwaan.
Sixth: One must circumambulate seven times continuously. Less than seven rounds will invalidate the tawaaf and if more than seven rounds are made deliberately, the tawaaf will be invalid too as will be discussed below.
Seventh: The seven rounds must follow each other without considerable interruption between them.
Eighth: The tawaaf must be performed by free movement of the pilgrim. If he was made to move by being pushed by the crowd the tawaaf will not be acceptable.
It is generally well known about tawaaf that it be performed between the Holy Kaaba and Maqame Ibrahim (a.s.) which is a distance of twenty six and a half arm lengths (=about 12 meters) and as one has to go round the wall of the Hijr Ismail, the distance there is reduced to six and a half arm lengths (=4.42 meters) but it is clear that if one moves outside this ambit it is acceptable particularly if one is unable to remain within the limits or it would cause him harm to do so. However, if possible, it is recommended to repeat the tawaaf if one has moved outside the limits.
DEPARTING FROM BOUNDS OF TAWAF
If a person departs from the limits of tawaaf and enters the Holy Kaaba, the tawaaf is invalidated and it must be repeated. It is preferable that the tawaaf be first completed and then performed again if the departure took place after completion of half of the tawaaf.
If a pilgrim departs from the tawaaf to the ' Shadharwaan', the tawaaf becomes invalid to the extent of the departure. As a matter of caution, after making good the distance, he should complete the tawaaf and then repeat it. As a matter of caution, one should not, in the course of tawaaf, extend one's arm towards the ' Shadharwaan' or the wall of the Holy Kaaba to touch a corner or whatsoever.
If a pilgrim enters Hijr Ismail in the course of a tawaaf, by oversight or out of ignorance, the round in which this occurs is invalid and there is no option but to repeat it and it is better to repeat after completion of the entire tawaaf: The same rule applies, as a matter of caution, to walking on the wall of the Hijr and a pilgrim in the course of tawaaf must not touch the wall of the Hijr either.
If, without good reason, a pilgrim in the course of a tawaaf departs from it to the outside before completing the fourth round, the tawaaf is invalid and has to be repeated. If it was after completing the fourth round, as a matter of caution, the tawaaf must be completed and then repeated. However, if the tawaaf was optional, he may complete the remainder provided that he does not break the sequence.
If menstruation of a lady commences in the course of a tawaaf, it is obligatory on her to depart from it and the Masjid-ul-Haraam immediately. The Rule that would then apply to her has already been discussed in the Condition for tawaaf above.
It is permissible for a pilgrim performing tawaaf to depart from it in order to visit a sick person or to attend to his own matter or that of a brother in faith, and if the tawaaf was obligatory and he had completed the fourth round, his tawaaf is valid. However, if he leaves before completing the fourth round, his tawaaf is invalidated. If the tawaaf was a recommended one, he can continue from where he stopped, even though he had not completed four rounds.
It is permissible to sit down to rest in the course of a tawaaf but it must not be prolonged so much that the sequence as generally accepted be broken for in that event the tawaaf becomes invalid and has to be performed again.
IRREGULARITIES IN TAWAAF
If a pilgrim interrupts a tawaaf in order to obtain the benefit of praying at the earliest time or join congregational prayers or perform the recommended prayers, then he must complete the tawaaf from where he interrupted it after completing his prayers. As a matter of caution, he should repeat the tawaaf after completing it if the interruption was in the course of an obligatory tawaaf and occurred before completing the fourth round.
If during a tawaaf an omission is made by inadvertence and the pilgrim becomes conscious of the impropriety before the sequence of continuity is broken and he has not left the area of tawaaf, he should complete it and it will be valid.However, if he becomes conscious of it after the sequence is broken, then if he had forgotten to perform one round or two or three rounds, he should perform it or them, and the tawaaf will be valid. If he cannot perform it personally even though he remembers after returning to his home, he may appoint an agent to perform it on his behalf. If he had forgotten more than three rounds, he should return and perform the missed ones but it is better that having done so, he should perform another full tawaaf.
ADDITIONS IN TAWAAF
There are five kinds to be considered:
1. If there is no intention to make any additions as part of the tawaaf being performed or another tawaaf, for example that it was intended to make one more round assuming that it was recommended to do so, any addition made does not invalidate the tawaaf.
2. If at the commencement or in the course of a tawaaf an intention is formed to make an addition as part of the tawaaf being performed, it is undoubtedly invalid and has to be performed again.
3. If after completion of the tawaaf, any addition made is considered part of the tawaaf performed, then it is clear that the tawaaf becomes invalid.
4. If the addition is intended to be part of another tawaaf, the other tawaaf will need to be completed but it will not be valid as two tawaafs will have been joined except if both the tawaafs are not obligatory ones, but it is discouraged to join two tawaafs.
5. If the addition is intended to be part of another tawaaf which per chance was not completed, there is neither addition nor connection but the tawaaf is none the less invalid as it lacks the intention of attaining nearness to Allah. Similar will be the case if the pilgrim intends at the commencement or in the course of the tawaaf to make an addition knowing of the invalidity of the connection between the two tawaafs as there would be no certainty of the intention to obtain nearness, even if the connection does not materialise out of accident.
If a pilgrim makes addition to his tawaaf by oversight, then if he remembers after reaching the Iraqi corner he must complete that addition as a complete tawaaf with the intention of attaining nearness to Allah, without specifying it to be obligatory or recommended. Then he must recite four rakaats, and preferably separate them by reciting two for the obligatory tawaaf before saee and the other two for the recommended tawaaf after saee. As a matter of caution, the same rule applies if he remembers before reaching the Iraqi corner.
DOUBT AS TO THE NUMBER OF ROUNDS
If after the completion of the tawaaf a doubt arises as to the number of rounds performed or the propriety of the tawaaf, it may be ignored. If it arises in the course of the prayers (salaat) recited after the tawaaf, the doubt may also be ignored.
If the pilgrim is sure of having performed seven rounds but entertains a doubt as to whether there was any addition, for example doubting if the last round is the eighth, the doubt should be ignored and the tawaaf is valid. If the doubt, however, arises before the last round is completed, it is clear that the tawaaf is invalid and, as a matter of caution, the last round be completed and the tawaaf repeated.
If a doubt arises as to the number of rounds performed, for example, whether six or seven or whether five or six or lesser, the tawaaf is invalidated and so is the case if the doubt is in respect of greater number of rounds or lesser, like whether the last round is the sixth or the eighth.
If the doubt is whether it is the sixth or the seventh round and owing to ignorance of the rule the pilgrim proceeds on the basis that it is the sixth round and completes the tawaaf, he is obliged to perform the entire tawaaf again but if he remains ignorant of the rule until the period for correction passes, the tawaaf would be valid.
It is permissible for a pilgrim to place reliance on the count of rounds by his companion if the latter is certain of his count.
If a doubt arises in an optional tawaaf, one can proceed on the basis of the lower figure and the tawaaf is valid.
If a pilgrim omits to perform the tawaaf in Umrat-ul-Tamatoo deliberately and knowingly or out of ignorance and it is not possible to perform it before the time of stay at Arafaat, the Umrah is invalid and he is obliged to repeat the Hajj the following year and, as already been discussed, it is clear that his ihram will also be invalidated but, as a matter of caution, he
should change to Hajj-ul-Ifraad and complete it with the intention of performing Hajj and Umrat-ul-Mufradah. If a pilgrim deliberately omits to perform the tawaaf of Hajj, and it is not possible to rectify the omission, the Hajj is invalid and he is obliged to repeat the pilgrimage in the following year. If he did so out of ignorance, the penalty is the sacrifice of a camel.
If a pilgrim forgets to perform a tawaaf it is obligatory on him to perform it when he remembers and if by then the period for it has passed, he should perform it by way of qadha and his Hajj will be valid. As a matter of caution, after the qadha tawaaf, he should repeat the saee. If he remembers at a time when it is no longer possible to perform its qadha, for example if he has forgotten the tawaaf of Umrah-ul-Tamatoo till his stay at Arafaat or forgot his tawaaf of Hajj till the end of Dhil Hijjah he must perform the qadha and repeat the saee as a matter of caution. If he has already reached his home country, he is obliged to appoint an agent.
If a pilgrim forgets to perform tawaaf, returns home and has sexual intercourse with his wife and later remembers the omission, then if the tawaaf was for Hajj, he is obliged to have a sheep sacrificed in Mina and if it was for Umrah in Makkah.
If a pilgrim forgets to perform a tawaaf and remembers it when there is still opportunity to perform its qadha, he should undertake it in his former ihram and there is no need to renew it. However, if he has departed from Makkah, it is necessary to wear a new ihram in order to enter Makkah except for the cases explained in Rule 141.
All that becomes lawful for a pilgrim after tawaaf does not become lawful for the one who forgets to perform it until after he has performed its qadha or his agent has done so on his behalf.
If by reason of illness, fracture of bones or old age, a pilgrim is unable to perform tawaaf by himself, it is permissible for him to take assistance from another person even by way of sitting on the shoulders of the other or pushed on a wheelchair but, as a matter of caution, should be carried in such a way that his feet touch the ground. If even that is not possible, he is obliged to appoint an agent to perform the tawaaf on his behalf. If even that is not possible, for example, because he is unconscious, his guardian should appoint an agent. The same is the rule in respect of the prayers (salaat) after the tawaaf. If he can recite them himself, he should do so, else he should appoint an agent to recite them on his behalf. (Rules regarding menstruation of women have already been discussed under the conditions of tawaaf).
THE PRAYERS (SALAAT) AFTER TAWAAF
The third obligation in the Umrat-ul-Tamatoo consists of two rakaats to be recited after the tawaaf. It is recited like the Fajr prayers except that the reciter has the option to recite it aloud or silently. It is obligatory to recite it close to Maqaame Ibrahim (a.s.) and, as a matter of caution, it is clear that it must be recited at its rear. If it is not possible to do so, one may recite them on one of its both sides in addition to reciting them far from the Maqaam but at its rear. If this is not possible, any of the two is sufficient. However, if this is not possible either, then one may recite them anywhere in the Mosque, as a mater of caution, as close to the Maqaam as possible.This is the rule when the tawaaf is obligatory but when it is optional, one may pray anywhere in the Mosque.
If a person deliberately omits to say the prayers after tawaaf, his Hajj is invalid.
The prayers must be recited immediately after the tawaaf, that is to say, there must not be a gap of time, generally speaking, between the tawaaf and the prayers.
If a pilgrim forgets to recite the prayers after tawaaf and remembers them after saee, he should recite them immediately and there is no need to repeat the saee, although one may do so as a matter of caution. If he remembers them in the course of the saee, he should interrupt it and recite the prayers at the Maqaam and then return to complete the saee from where he had interrupted it. If he remembers them after departing from Makkah, it is obligatory to return and recite them at the Maqaam, if doing so will not cause inconvenience and if it is not possible to return, he should say them wherever he remembers them. Even if it is possible to return to the boundary of the Haram,it is not necessary to do so. If one omits to recite the prayers out of ignorance, the same rule applies to him as for the one who forgets.
If a person dies but has an obligation to recite the prayers, it is obligatory on his eldest son to have the qadha recited.
If the recitation of the prayers by the pilgrim is not correct and he is unable to correct it, it is sufficient for him to recite whatever he knows. If it is possible to render the recitation correct, it is obligatory to do so. If, despite such possibility, he does not correct the prayers and the time becomes short, he should recite them as best he can and also join congregational prayers and also appoint an agent to recite them on his behalf.
If a pilgrim is unaware that his recitation is incorrect and his ignorance is excusable, his prayers are valid and there is no need to recite them again, even if he comes to know after the prayers that there was a defect in them. If his ignorance was not excusable, then after correcting his error, he must recite the prayers after tawaaf again and the rules relating to a person who had forgotten to recite the prayers will apply to him.