Bestarting the Salat, one must perform wudhu, and prepare himself for this important act of worship. In some instances, one must also perform ghusl Ü meaning the complete body is washed; and any time one can not perform wudhu or ghusl, one must perform another action called taya mmum. Each one of these will be explained with their specific rules in the following section.
How do we perform Wudhu?
ISSUE 58: To perform wudhu, one must first start by washing the face, then wash the right arm, followed by the left arm. After this, the moisture that is in the right hand from the washing, must be wiped on the head, meaning, the fingers of the right hand are wiped on the top of the head, then the right foot, and left foot are wiped (with this moisture).
An explanation of the actions in Wudhu
ISSUE 59: In wudhu, the person must first start by washing his face from the top of the forehead, meaning the point where the hair grows, until the bottom of the face (meaning the chin), and to ensure certainty that one has washed that which is wajib for him, he must wash a little bit extra of the surroundings of the face.
ISSUE 60: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the face must be washed from the top to the bottom.
ISSUE 61: After washing the face, the right arm must be washed, followed by the left arm, from the elbow up to the finger tips Ü from top to bottom.
ISSUE 62: To be sure that one has washed the complete arm, one must also wash a little bit above the elbow.
ISSUE 63: If someone washes his hands up to the wrist before he washes his face, when he starts to perform the wudhu, he must wash from the elbow to the tips of the fingers, and if he washes up to the wrist, his wudhu is void.
ISSUE 64: The place for wiping is one quarter of the frontal part of the head above the forehead.
ISSUE 65: The wiping of the head must be done in such a way that if someone sees you performing it, he would say you are performing the wiping.
ISSUE 66: It is mustahab that the wiping be the width of three closed fingers, and the length of one finger.
ISSUE 67: It is not necessary that the wiping be done on the scalp, rather it is correct even if it is done on the hair, unless the hair on the head is so long that when it is combed, it falls on the face, or other parts of the head Ü in this event, the skin on the head or the roots of the hair must be wiped.
ISSUE 68: After wiping the head, with the moisture that is present on one's hand from performing the wudhu, one must wipe the feet from anyone of the toes to the joint.
ISSUE 69: While performing the wiping on the head or feet, the hand itself must be drawn, and if the hand is kept stationary and the hand or feet are moved, the wudhu is void, but if the head or feet move slightly while the hand is being drawn for wiping, it is not a problem.
ISSUE 70: The moisture on the hand must be a sufficient amount so as to leave an effect on the head or feet.
ISSUE 71: The place of wiping (head or feet) must be dry, so if the place of wiping is wet, it must be dried (before being wiped); but if the wetness is very little such that it does not affect the moisture on the hand, it is no problem.
ISSUE 72: There must be no barrier between the hand and the head or the feet, like a scarf and hat or socks and shoes, no matter how thin they be even if the water still manages to reach the skin.
ISSUE 73: The place of wiping mast be tahir, so if there is a najasat present, and one is not able to remove it with water, one must perform tayammum.
Conditions for Wudhu
ISSUE 74: If the following conditions are present, the wudhu will be correct, and if they are not present, the wudhu will be void.
1. The water for wudhu must be tahir (not najis), and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, there must not be any uncleanliness like the urine of a halal animal or pus in it.
2. The water for wudhu must be Mubah (permissable for use) Ümeaning it is not stolen property.
3. The water for wudhu must be Mutlaq (pure) Ü not mixed water.
4. The container holding the water must be Mubah.
5. The container holding the water must not be made of gold or silver, according to Ihtiyat Wajib.
6. The parts of the body that are to be wiped or washed at the time of wudhu must be tahir.
7. There must be no obstruction on the body that prevents the water from reaching the body.
8. The wudhu must be done with the niyyat of "nearness to Allah", and not for showing off.
9. Succession (Tarteeb) in actions must be observed (as was explained earlier).
10. No unusual gap of time (Muwalat) in the actions (there should not be a big time gap between the actions of wudhu).
11. One must not acquire the help of other people.
12. There should be no constraint in using the water.
13. There must be enough time to perform wudhu and to perform the Salat.
Summary of the conditions of Wudhu
ISSUE 75: The wudhu that is done with mixed water is void Ü whether you know the water is najis or mixed and even if you do not know, or if it was forgotten.
ISSUE 76: The water for wudhu must be Mubah; therefore in the following instances, the wudhu is void:
Performing wudhu with water whose owner is not happy with his water being used. (His displeasure is known).
That water which is not known if its owner is happy or not by its use.
Water that has been donated (Waqf) to specific people, which is used by other than those specified; for example, the pools of most Madaras (schools) which have been given as a donation to those of that specific Madrasah (school), and the rooms of wudhu in most Masajid that have been specifically donated for those people who read their Salat in that Masjid.
ISSUE 77: If the exact type of Waqf is not known, and that water is commonly used for wudhu, and one is not prevented from using it, it can be used for wudhu.
ISSUE 78: Performing wudhu from a large body of water (river, lake, etc...) even if the person does not know if its owner is content or not, is not a problem.
ISSUE 79: The parts to be washed or wiped in wudhu, for example the face, arms, and feet must be tahir.
ISSUE 80: If there is something on the face or arms that prevents water from reaching there, it must be removed to perform the wudhu.
ISSUE 81: The ink of a pen, the spot of paint, and oil/grease, and cream, in the event that its effects are not remaining (on the skin) and it is not an obstacle or barrier for performing wudhu (is not a problem), but if it is a covering on the skin that prevents water from reaching the skin, it must be removed.
ISSUE 82: If something is stuck on one of the areas of wudhu, but it is not known if it will prevent water from reaching that area or not, it must be removed or the water must be made to flow underneath it.
ISSUE 83: The actions of wudhu must be done in the following sequence (Tarteeb): The face, then the right arm must be washed, then the left arm must be washed, and then the head and feet must be wiped.
ISSUE 84: Muwf Ü meaning one after the other, with no gap between the actions.
ISSUE 85: If between the actions of wudhu, a period of time passes so that when one decides to wash or wipe a particular place, one notices that the moisture of all the places that had previously been washed or wiped has become dry, the wudhu is void; and the same rule applies if between the actions of wudhu, such as a gap is left that in the view of the people, it would be said wudhu has not been performed.
ISSUE 86: Someone who is able to perform the actions of wudhu is not allowed to seek assistance from others. Therefore, if the person who needs to perform wudhu has someone helping him in performing the washing of the face and arms and/or the wipings, or helps with making the water reach to all the necessary parts that must be purified in wudhu, his wudhu is void.
ISSUE 87: Someone who is not able to perform wudhu on his own must perform wudhu with the help of someone else, and if it is not possible for the person who needs to perform wudhu to in any way help in his own wudhu, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, both must make the niyyat of performing wudhu.
ISSUE 88: Someone who knows he will get sick or feels scared that he will become ill if he performs wudhu, mast perform tayammum, and if he performs wudhu, it will be void. If he doe not know that the water is harmful for him, and he performs wudhu, and later on finds out that the water was harmful for him, his wudhu is void.
ISSUE 89: Wudhu must be performed with the intention of "nearness to Allah," meaning for the wish or desire of Allah (SWT) one is performing wudhu, and it is not necessary that the niyyat be "spoken" or even "mentioned" in the heart, rather even if one knows that he is performing wudhu to obey the commandment of Allah, this too is sufficient. Such that if he was asked, "What are you doing?", his response would be: "I am performing wudhu for the wish or desire of Allah."
ISSUE 90: If the time of Salat is so short that if a person wishes to perform wudhu, the complete Salat or a part of it will be perfomed after its time, he must perform tayammum; but if the performing of wudhu and tayammum takes the same amount of time, he must perform wudhu.
Medicine or things like this that have been applied to an injury, or things that are wrapped around an injury and things of this type, are referred to as Jabirah.
ISSUE 91: If someone who has an injury or a wound on one of the parts of wudhu, but he is still able to perform wudhu in the regular manner, then he must perform it as such. For example if the injury is open, and pouring water on it is not harmful; or if the injury is covered (like with a cast or bandage), but it is possible to open that covering and the pouring of water on the wound is not harmful, then wudhu must be performed in the usual manner.
ISSUE 92: In the event that the injury is on the face or arms and the injury is open and it is harmful to pour water on it, one must wash around the injury, and if the rubbing of a moist hand over top of the injury will not be harmful, then it is better that the moist hand be rubbed over those parts, and then a clean cloth should be placed over the injury and the wet hand should also be rubbed over the cloth.
ISSUE 93: While performing wudhu jabirah, the places that must be washed and rubbed must be washed or rubbed according to standard procedure and in places where it is not possible, a wet hand must be rubbed over the jabirah.
ISSUE 94: If the injury is on the front of the head or on the top of the feet (the places of wiping) and the top of these places is open (the wound is open), and one can not perform the rubbing, one must perform tayammum.
ISSUE 95: If there are multiple injuries on the face or arms, the areas between the injuries must be washed, and if there are multiple bandages on the top of the feet, the wiping must be performed between these bandages, and wherever there is no bandage, wiping must be performed in the way as was previously mentioned for wudhu jabirah.
ISSUE 96: Someone who has a bandage on the palm of the hand or on the fingers, and at the time of wudhu the wet hand is rubbed over it, then he can perform the wiping of the head or feet with that same moisture.
ISSUE 97: If the bandage covers the complete face or one of the arms, the rules of jabirah apply and performing wudhu jabirah is sufficient.
ISSUE 98: If the bandage covers the complete foot, but a small amount around the toes and a little area above the foot is open, one must wipe those parts which are open and also wipe on top of the jabirah.
ISSUE 99: If the jabirah is larger than usual around the injury, and it is not possible to take it off, one must perform tayammum, unless the jabirah is on the forehead or on the back or palm of the hand, in which case it is necessary to perform wudhu jabirah and also perform tayammum.
ISSUE 100: If something is stuck on the place of wudhu or ghusl, and it is not possible to remove it or it is so painful to take it off that one will not be able to withstand the pain, one must perform tayammum, unless there is something on the areas of tayammum, in which case one must perform wudhu jabirah and also tayammum.
ISSUE 101: Ghusl jabirah is perfomed like wudhu jabirah, and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, must be performed by way of tartibi (sequential), and not irtimasi (all at one time).
Things for which Wudhu must be performed
ISSUE 102: A person must perform wudhu for Salat (except Salat alÜMayyit), and Tawaf of the Ka'bah and for touching any part of the body to the Qur'an or the names of Allah.
ISSUE 103: If someone performs Salat or a wajib Tawaf of the House of Allah without wudhu, it is void.
ISSUE 104: It is not permissible for someone to touch the following things without wudhu (with any part of the body):
The script of the Holy Qur'an, but touching its translation is not a problem.
The name of Allah in any language, for example: «Çááå» or «ÎÏÇ» or «God» Ü according to Ihtiyat Wajib.
ISSUE 105: It is mustahab to perform wudhu for the following acts:
Entering a Masjid or haram of the A'immah ('a).
Reciting the Qur'an.
Carrying the Qur'an.
Touching any part of the body to the cover or the margins of the
Performing Ziyarat of the deceased.
How does Wudhu become void?
ISSUE 106: If a person commits any of the following acts, his wudhu is void:
Urinating, defecating or passing gas.
Going to sleep; in such a way that you can not hear or see anything.
Anything that makes one lose his senses; like going insane, becoming drunk, or becoming unconscious.
Istihada Ü for women3
Entering into the state of Janabat.
3 This rule applies only to women, and for a complete explanation, please rafer to #135
Sometimes for Salat and other acts that require wudhu, ghusl too, becomes wajib.
The method of performing Ghusl
ISSUE 107: To perform ghusl, the complete body, including the head, and the neck must be washed. Sometimes a ghusl becomes wajib, for example in the case of janabat; and sometimes a ghusl is mustahab, like the ghusl on Friday (Jumu'ah). However, there is no difference in the way the ghusl is performed, only the niyyat will vary.
ISSUE 108: Ghusl can be performed in two ways: either tartibi or irtimasi.
In ghusl tartibi, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must start by washing the head and neck, and then the rest of the body should be washed Ü and it is better if the right half of the body is washed first, followed by the left half of the body.
In ghusl irtimasi, one is allowed to place the complete body under water at one time, or in stages. Therefore, for ghusl irtimasi, the amount of water must be so much so that the person is able to submerge his complete body under the water.
Conditions necessary for a correct Ghusl
ISSUE 109: All the condrions that were necessary for a correct wudhu4 are necessary to have a correct ghusl, except for muwalat (without a gap) Ü and also, it is not necessary that the body be washed from top to bottom.
4 The conditions for wudhu were mentioed in Rule 70.
ISSUE 110: If many ghusls become wajib on a person, he is able to perform all of them in one ghusl, simply by specifying a niyyat for each one.
ISSUE 111: One who has performed ghusl janabat mast not perform wudhu for Salat; and with other ghusls, one is also able to offer Salat (without performing a separate wudhu) even if mustahab ghusls are performed. However, if one performs ghusl for "medium" istihadha5, one can not read the Salat directly due to the fact that a wudhu must also be performed.
ISSUE 112: In ghusl irtimasi or tartibi, it is not necessary that the complete body be tahir; therefore, if by going into water or pouring water on the body with the intention of doing a ghusl, the body becomes tahir, the ghusl is correct.
ISSUE 113: Ghusl jabirah is performed just as wudhu jabirah.6
ISSUE 114: There are seven wajib ghusls:
The ghusl made wajib by a nadhr (promise)
5 Ghusl Istihadha is a ghusl related to Women only.
6 The rules related to wudhu jabirah were mentioned in Rule 54.
ISSUE 115: If semen7 comes out of a person, either in sleep or due to sexual intercourse, however small an amount, he become junub, and must perform ghusl janabat for Salat and other acts which require taharat.
ISSUE 116: If someone feels the movement of semen within one's own body, but it does not come out, one will not be considered as junub.
ISSUE 117: If someone knows that semen has come out of the body or one knows that the liquid which has come out is semen, one will be considered as junub, and therefore must perform ghusl.
ISSUE 118: If a person has a liquid come out of his body but does not know if it is urine, semen or that it is neither of these, then in the event that the liquid that was discharged came out with passion, and after it came out, his body became relaxed, then that wetness will be considered as semen; but for the person who is sick, even the one sign, meaning the wetness coming out in a state of passion, is enough.
ISSUE 119: It is mustahab that a person urinates after semen has come out, and if one does not urinate and after the ghusl a liquid comes out and one does not know if it is semen or something else, it will be considered as being semen.
Actions Haram for a Junub
ISSUE 120: From the time a person becomes junub until he performs the ghusl, or if he is not able to perform ghusl and instead performs tayammum, the following acts are haram for him:
7 Semen: It is aliquid that comes out if the reproductive gland due sexual intercoures or due to having a wetÜdream. ( It comes out from the area that urine comes out of ).
Touching the Qur'an with any part of the body, and the names of Allah, and it is better that he does not even touch the names of the Prophets and the A'immah (AS).
Going into Masjid alÜHaram and Masjid anÜNabi (s) Ü even if one just goes in from one door and exits through another door.
Staying in a masajid, and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, staying in the haram of the A'immah ('a), but if one only intends to enter from one door and exit through another door, or just goes to take something, it is not a problem.
Going into a Masjid to return something there or to take something out of there, according to Ihtiyat Wajib.
Reciting one of the Surahs from the Qur'an that contain a wajib sajdah, even if it is only one letter of these Surahs. (The ayats of sajdah are the following):
1. Surah Sajdah32:15
2. Surah Fusilat41:37
3. Surah Najm53:62
ISSUE 121: If a person has a specific room for Salat (like those found in most organizations and clubs), it does not have the ruling of a Masjid.
ISSUE 122: There is no harm in staying in the harams of the descendents of the A'immah (a.s) in a state of janabat, but staying in the masajid that are usually built adjacent to the harams, is haram.
ISSUE 123: Anytime a muslim passes away, his body must be given a ghusl and kafan and Salat must be prayed over the body, and then he must be buried.8
Ghusl Mass Mayyit
ISSUE 124: If any part of the body of someone touches any part of the body of a dead person whose body has gone cold and has not been given a ghusl, he must perform ghusl for touching the dead body Ü this is known as Ghusl Mass Mayyit.
The Ghusls related to Girls and Women
ISSUE 125: Three ghusls, from all of the wajib ghusls, meaning the ghusl of haidh, istihadha, and nifas are only wajib on girls and women. The reason for these ghusls is in relation to the blood that is discharged from the womb of the woman. Each of these three ghusls has their own specific rulings.
Ghusl of Haidh (Menstruation)
ISSUE 126: When the discharge of blood of the menstrual period stops, the woman must perform ghusl in order to make Salat and other actions for which taharat is necessary.
ISSUE 127: The blood of menstruation does not occur before the age of 9 years, and if a girl sees blood before this, it does not have the ruling of haidh.
8 For a better understanding of the rules related to a dead Muslim, one can refer to Rule 546 in TaWdihul Masa'il
ISSUE 128: The duration of haidh can not be less than three days, so then if the blood that is discharged stops before three days, it will not be considered as haidh.
ISSUE 129: The duration of.haidh can not continue for more than ten days, therefore if a woman sees blood for more than ten days, the period after ten days will not have the same ruling as haidh.
ISSUE 130: The blood of haidh is usually thick, warm, and dark in color, and is discharged with pressure and a bit of burning.
ISSUE 131 : During the period of haidh, certain actions are haram for a woman:
Salat and Tawaf of the Ka'bah
AU the actions that are haram for a junub, such as staying in a Masjid9
ISSUE 132: During the period of menstruation, performing Salat and fasting are not wajib. As for the Salat that were missed, they do not have to be made up, however the fasts which were not kept must be made up.
ISSUE 133: The ghusl of.haidh is no different than the ghusl of janabat, except for the niyyat.
Ghusl of Istihada
ISSUE 134: One of the other types of blood that is discharged by girls and women for a certain amount of time from the womb, is called Istihada.
9 There are also certain other actions that are haram, that if one would like to be better acquained with, one can refer to the Tawdihul Masa'il under Rule 456. Also, those actions which are haram for a junub were mentioned in Rule 120.
ISSUE 135: The blood of Istihada is usually yellow in color, and cold, and comes out without force or burning, and is not thick; but it is possible that sometimes it may possess a dark color, warm, is thick, and comes out with force.
ISSUE 136: The blood of Istihada is of two types, either little or a lot, of which these two are broken up into three categories. If it is very little in quantity, ghusl is not needed, but it does make the wudhu void; and if it is not a little quantity, ghusl becomes wajib. For a better understanding of the rules of each of these categories, women can refer to Rule 399 in the Tawdihul Masa'il.
Ghusl of Nifas
ISSUE 137: Ghusl of nifas is related to child birth and does not occur in any other instances. This ghusl must be performed after the blood that comes out following delivery is seen.10
10 The explanation of this rule is given in the tawdihul Masa'il in Rule 514.
ISSUE 138: In the following instances, instead of wudhu and ghusl, tayammum must be performed:
There is no water available or there is no way to get any water.
The use of water has some danger; for example, if water is used one will become ill or an illness will become aggravated, or it will be very difficult to be cured (from the illness).
If one gets water to perform wudhu or ghusl, ones self, spouse, or children, or a friend or someone who is dependant on him will die of thirst or will become sick or will remain so thirsty that they will not be able to handle it (this also includes animals that are under one's care).
His body or clothes are najis, and there is only enough water left to make them tahir and no more, and he also has no more clothes.
The amount of time is extremely short, such that if one performs wudhu or ghusl, the complete Salat or a part of it will be read after its time.
The Rules of Tayammum
ISSUE 139: There are five things wajib in tayammum:
2. Hitting or placing the palms of the hands on something that tayammum is permitted on.
3. Wiping or stroking both hands over the complete forehead from where the hair starts to grows and over the eyebrows, and above the nose.
4. Wiping or stroking the left palm over the back of the right hand.
5. Wiping or stroking the right palm over the back of the left hand. (The fingers are also included in the palm)
ISSUE 140: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the palms of both hands must be struck on the ground (or on that which tayammum is performed on) at the same time.
ISSUE 141: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the palms of the hands must be wiped or stroked in both directions of the forehead (to cover the complete forehead).
ISSUE 142: In order to be certain that the complete backside of the hand has been wiped, one must start a little bit higher than the wrist in the wiping, but wiping between the fingers is not necessary.
ISSUE 143: In order to perform tayammum, one must remove any rings from the fingers and anything else that may be on the forehead or hands that will be a obstacle in the tayammum.
ISSUE 144: All the actions of tayammum must be done with the intention of performing tayammum, and for obeying the commandments of Allah (SWT), and it is not necessary that it be specified that tayammum is being perfomed in place of ghusl or wudhu, unless two tayammums are being performed at one time.
Things that Tayammum is permitted on
ISSUE 145: Tayammum is permitted on the following: earth (dirt), sand, a lump of clay or a stone, if they are tahir.
The Rules of Tayammum
ISSUE 146: There is no difference between the person performing tayammum in place of wudhu, and the person performing tayammum in place of ghusl.
ISSUE 147: If a person performs tayammum in place of wudhu, and if one of the things that causes wudhu to become void occurs after he has done tayammum, his tayammum will become void.
ISSUE 148: If a person performs tayammum instead of ghusl, and if one of the things that causes the ghusl to become void occurs after his tayammum, his tayammum will be void. For example, if in place of ghusl janabat, one performs tayammum, and if he once again becomes junub, his tayammum will become void.
ISSUE 149: Tayammum is only correct in the event that a person is not able to perform wudhu or ghusl. So if one performs tayammum with no reason it will not be correct, and if one has a reason, and later, that barrier (reason) is removed; for example one did not have water, then later he found some water, his tayammum will become void.
ISSUE 150: If one performs tayammum in place of ghusl janabat, it is not necessary to perform wudhu for Salat; but if in place of another ghusl he performs tayammum, according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, he should perform wudhu for the Salat and if he is not able to perform wudhu, he should perform another tayammum in place of wudhu.