Salat is the most important act of worship in Islam, and if Allah (SWT), accepts the Salat, all other acts of worship will be accepted, but if the Salat is not accepted, all other actions will also not be accepted.
In the same way that if a person was to bathe five times in one day, no dirt or filth would remain on his body, Salat too, if performed five times per day will clean all the sins from a person and make him tahir.
It is better that a person reads his Salat in the first time (when the time for Salat comes in), and one who counts his Salat as being something light and trivial is just like the one who does not read his Salat at all. The Prophet of Islam (S) has said that, "He who does not give importance to his Salat and considers it something light (trivial), is worthy of the punishment of the next life."
It is better that those things that reduce the reward of the Salat be avoided; for example, reading the Salat in a state when one is sleepy, or looking up at the sky while one is praying. Rather, one should perform those actions which increase the reward of the Salat; for example, praying with the cleanest clothes on, putting on perfume, brushing the teeth, and combing the hair.
The Divisions of Salat
In order to be better acquainted with the rules related to Salat, we must first start by pointing out that Salat is either wajib or mustahab. The wajib Salat are divided into two categories; some of them are a daily responsibility, meaning every day, and at certain specific times they must be performed, and the other group are those prayers that become wajib at specific times due to certain incidents, and these do not have a set program or schedule, and are not performed every day.
Times for the Daily Salat
ISSUE 151: The Salat that are performed everyday are five, and in total are 17 rak'at:
Salatul Fajr - 2 Rak'at
Salatul Zuhr - 4 Rak'at
Salatul 'Asr - 4 Rak'at
Salatul Maghrib - 3 Rak'at
Salatul 'Isha - 4 Rak'at
ISSUE 152: The time for Salatul Fajr is from the adhan of fajr until the rising of the sun ـ and in this period of time, the Salat must be read, and the best time to read it is as close to the time of adhan as possible (when it has finished).
The time for Salatul Zuhr and 'Asr is from midday (according to Islamic Law) until the setting of the sun. That amount of time that one can perform a four rak'at Salat at the beginning of midday is the prime time reserved only for Salatul Zuhr, and that same amount of time that remains before the setting of the sun is the reserved time only for Salatul 'Asr.
The time for Salatul Maghrib and 'Isha is from Maghrib (for explanation of this please refer to Rule 155) until midnight (according to Islamic Law), and that amount of time that one can perform a three rak'at Salat at the beginning of the time, is the prime time reserved only for Salatul Maghrib, and the amount of time that remains before "midnight" that one can pray a four rak'at Salat is the specific time only for Salatul 'Isha.
The Time for Fair Adhan
ISSUE 153: Close to the time for the adhan of fajr, in the eastern sky, a white light rises up, this is referred to as the first dawn. Once this whiteness spreads it is called the second dawn, and this is the beginning of the time for Salatul Fajr.
ISSUE 154: If a stick or something like this is placed upright in the ground, it's shadow will fall westward when the sun rises in the morning, and as the sun continues to rise, the shadow will reduce in size. Once the shadow reaches it's smallest size, and starts to turn to the east, it will then start increasing in size once again, and midday (according to Islamic Law) has started, and thus begins the time for Salatul Zuhr11.
ISSUE 155: Maghrib is that time when the redness in the eastern sky that appears after the setting of the sun is seen, passes overhead.
ISSUE 156: To calculate midnight, which is the final time to perform Salatul 'Isha, the time between the setting of the sun until the adhan of fajr should be divided in two.
The Rules of the times of Salat
ISSUE 157: The Salat, other than the daily Salat do not have a specific time (to be recited), rather they are related to a specific time and event which makes them wajib; for example, Salatul Ayat is related to events like earthquakes, solar eclipses, lunar eclipses or other natural occurances; or Salatul Mayyit which becomes wajib when a Muslim passes away.
11 In most cities, Makkah, the ahadow completely disappears, so when it reappears again, it indicates that Zuhr has started.
12 After approximately 1149 hours after midday ( according to Islamic Law ) is the final time for Salami Maghrib & 'Isha; for example if midday is at 12:15 PM, midnight would be at 11:30 PM.
ISSUE 158: If the complete Salat is read before its time has set in, or intentionally the Salat is started before the time has set in for that Salat, that Salat will be void.
(If the Salat is read in is specific time, it is referred to as Salatul ـAda, and if it is read after the time has elapsed, it is referred to as Salatul Qadha).
ISSUE 159: A person must read his Salat in its specified time, and if he intentionally does not pray it in this time, he has committed a sin.
ISSUE 160: It is mustahab that a person read his Salat right when the time sets in, and the closer that it is read to when it becomes time, the better it is. However, if it is delayed for a good reason, such as delaying the Salat so it can be read in Jama'at, then this is better.
ISSUE 161: If the time for Salat is short but the person wants to pray the mustahabbat of Salat, such that if he does, a part of the Salat will be performed after the time of Salat, he must leave out the mustahabbat. For example, if one wants to pray the qunut, the time will pass from the Salat, one must leave out the qunut.
ISSUE 162: A person must read Salatul 'Asr after Salatul Zuhr and Salatul 'Isha after Salatul Maghrib, and if one intentionally prays Salatul 'Asr before Salatul Zuhr or Salatul 'Isha before Salatul Maghrib, the Salat will be void.
ISSUE 163: The Ka'bah which is situated in the city of Makkah, inside the Masjid ulـHaram is the Qiblah, and a person who intends to pray must face in this direction.
ISSUE 164: If someone who is out of the city of Makkah and is far away, stands in such a way that it can be said he is praying facing the Qiblah, this is sufficient.
Clothing in Salat
ISSUE 165: During Salat, boys and men must cover their private parts, and it is better that the area between the navel to the knees is covered.
ISSUE 166: Girls and women must cover their entire body, but covering the hands and the feet up to the ankle, and the face ـ that amount that must be washed in wudhu ـ is not necessary, although to cover these areas is not a problem.
ISSUE 167: The clothing of the person performing Salat must have the following conditions:
It must be tahir (not najis).
It must be mubah (not ghasbi).
It must not be made from an animal's corpse; for example the skin of an animal that has not been slaughtered according to Islam, even so much so as a belt or hat. (According to Ihtiyat Wajib).
It must not be from predator animals, rather according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it must not be from any animal that is haram to eat; for example, it must not be from the skin of a leopard or fox.I
If the person who is praying is a man, his clothing must not be made from gold or pure silk.
ISSUE 168: Along with the clothing, the body of the person who intends to pray must also be tahir.
ISSUE 169: If a person knows that his body or clothing is najis, but at the time of Salat, he forgets (they are najis) and he reads his Salat in this state, then if his forgetting was due to carelessness or not paying attention (to them being najis), then, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, he must repeat his Salat.
ISSUE 170: In the following instances, if someone reads his Salat while his body or clothing is najis, the Salat will be correct:
One does not know that his body or clothing is najis, and after the Salat, he realizes it.
Due to an injury on the body, the body or clothing has become najis, and it is difficult to wash the clothing or change them.
The body or clothing of the person intending to pray has become najis by blood, but the amount that is najis is less than the size of a dirham (almost the size as the upper joint of the thumb).13
Someone is helpless and must pray with a najis body or clothing; for example, one does not have water to clean the clothing or body. (According to the explanation in Rule 854 in the Tawdihul Masa'il).
ISSUE 171: Wearing an 'aba, white clothing, as well as the cleanest clothing, and applying perfume on one's self, and wearing an Aqiq ring on the hand during Salat are all mustahab.
13 This rule has many exceptions, which are further explained in the Tawdihul Masa'il, on rule 849.
ISSUE 172: Wearing black clothing, tight or short clothing, and clothing that has pictures or images on it, and keeping the buttons open during the Salat are all makruh.
The Place of Salat
ISSUE 173: The place where a person prays his Salat must have the following conditions:
Mubah (not Ghasbi).
It should not be in such a way that due to intense movement, it prevents the person from reciting Salat; from standing, or performing ruku or sujud. In fact, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, there should be no movement (in the place of Salat) so that it does not upset the stillness of the body.
The place must not be too narrow and the ceiling must not be so low so that one is not able to perform the qiyam, ruku', or sujud in the proper way.
The place where one puts his forehead (sajdah) must be tahir.
If the place of prayer is najis, it must not be wet that it transfer the najasat to the body or the clothing.
The place where one puts his forehead (in sajdah) must not be more than the amount of four closed fingers lower or higher than the feet, but if the ground is sloped a little bit, it is not a problem.
According to Ihtiyat Wajib, women must stand behind men in Salat.
14 In the Tawdihul Masa'il, other rules have also been mentioned. For abetter understanding of these rules, please refer to rules 860 and after.
The Rules of the Place of Salat
ISSUE 174: If, due to a shortage of time, or for other reasons, one is helpless to read his Salat in a moving vehicle like a train or plane, he must to the best of his ability observe stability and observe the direction of the Qiblah, and if while in a vehicle, one turns away from the Qiblah, one must turn such that he once again faces the Qiblah.
ISSUE 175: It is not permissable to pray in front on the grave of the Prophet (S) and the A'immah ('a), if it involves disrespect, but if it does not entail disrespect, then there is no problem.15
ISSUE 176: It is mustahab that one recites his obligatory Salat in a Masjid, and in Islam a lot of emphasis has been placed on this recommendation.
The Rules of the Masjid
ISSUE 177: In the following rule, we will explain the importance of being present in the Masjid, and reading Salat in this place:
Frequenting the Masjid is mustahab.
It is mustahab to go to that Masjid that people do not use much.
It is makruh for the person who is a neighbour to the Masjid to pray in any other place (other than the Masjid) without an excuse.
It is mustahab that if a person does not go to the Masjid for Salat, others should not eat with him, nor take advice from him, nor live beside him, nor take a woman from his family (in marriage), and nor should one give a woman to him (in marriage).
15 This rule refers to praying while standing in front of the grave with one's back to the grave of the Prophet (S), or A'immah (a) ((Translator's Note)).
ISSUE 178: The following actions related to the Masjid, are haram:
Decorating the Masjid with gold (according to Ihtiyat Wajib).
Selling a Masjid ـ even if it is demolished.
Making a Masjid najis, and if it has been made najis, then it must be made tahir immediately.
ISSUE 179: The following actions, related to the Masjid are mustahab:
One should come to the Masjid earlier than mothers, and leave it after everyone else has left.
Illuminating the Masjid.
Cleaning the Masjid.
Entering the Masjid with the right foot first.
Exiting the Masjid with the left foot out first.
Reciting a two rak'at mustahab Salat as a gesture of entering the Masjid, and as respect to the Masjid.
Applying perfume to one's self and wearing one's best clothes.
ISSUE 180: The following actions, related to the Masjid, are makruh:
To spit or throw phlegm or mucus from the nose inside the Masjid.
Sleeping in the Masjid ـ except in a state of helplessness.
Yelling in the Masjid, or speaking very loud, except for adhan .
Speaking about worldly affairs.
For someone to go into a Masjid who has eaten onions or garlic, etc... and whose bad breath may upset others.
The Preparation for Salat
Now, since we have learnt the rules related to wudhu, ghusl, tayammum, the times for Salat, the covering in Salat, and the place of Salat, we are ready to start praying!
Adhan and Iqamah
ISSUE 181: It is mustahab, that before reading the daily Salat, one recites the Adhan and Iqamah, and then starts the Salat.
الله اَكْبَر 4 Times
اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اِلا الله 2 Times
اشهد ان محمدا رسول الله 2 Times
حي على الصلوة 2 Times
حي على الفلاح 2 Times
حي على خير العمل 2 Times
الله اكبر2 Times
لا اِله اِلا الله 2 Times
الله اَكْبَر 2 Times
اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اِلا الله 2 Times
اشهد ان محمدا رسول الله 2 Times
حي على الصلوة 2 Times
حي على الفلاح 2 Times
حي على خير مل 2 Times
الله اكبر 2 Times
لا اِله اِلا الله 1 Times
ISSUE 182: The sentence:«اَشْهَدُ اَنَ علياً وَليُ الله» is not a part of the Adhan or Iqamah, but it is better to recite it after: « اَشهَدُ اَنَ مُحَمَداً رَسُولُ الله», with the intention of seeking nearness to Allah.
ISSUE 183: The Adhan and Iqamah must be recited after the time for Salat has set in, and if it is recited before the time, it will be void.
ISSUE 184: The Iqamah must be read after the Adhan, and it is not correct if it is read before the Adhan.
ISSUE 185: There must not be a large gap between the sentences in the Adhan and Iqamah when they are being read, and if the gap is greater than usual, then they (the Adhan and Iqamah) must be repeated.
ISSUE 186: If the Adhan and Iqamah have been recited for Salat jama'at, one must not read his own Adhan and Iqamah, if he is joining that jama'at.
ISSUE 187: If someone goes to the masjid for Salat jama'at, and when he gets there he notices that the Salat is finished, as long as the lines of the congregation have not broken and the people have not split up, he is able to read his Salat without reciting Adhan and Iqamah.
ISSUE 188: The mustahab Salat do not have an Adhan or Iqamah.
ISSUE 189: It is mustahab that when a child is born, Adhan is recited in his/her right ear, and Iqamah in the left ear.
ISSUE 190: It is mustahab that the person who intends to read the Adhan: prepares himself for the Adhan, and that he be a just person (Adil), and he is one who can distinguish the time of Adhan, and that he recites it in a loud voice.
The Actions in Salat
ISSUE 191: The Salat starts by saying: «الله اَكْبر». and ends by reciting the Salam.
ISSUE 192: The actions performed in Salat are either wajib or mustahab.
ISSUE 193: The wajibat of Salat are 11, of which some are rukn, and others are ghairـrukn.
Wajibat of Salat
Takbiratul Ihram (Recitation of «الله اَكْبر»
Rukn of Salat
Niyyat (Intention)Takbiratul Ihram (Recitation of «الله اَكْبر»
Qiyam (Standing ـ both standing during the recitation, and standing after ruku)
The Difference between Rukn and GhairـRukn
ISSUE 194: The arkan of Salat are those parts which are the necessities of the Salat, and if any of the rukn are left out, even if it may be due to forgetfulness, the Salat will become void. Similarly if any of the rukn are added intentionally, the Salat is void; and if due to forgetfulness, one performs an extra ruku' or more than two sajdas in one rakat, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the Salat will become void. However, in relation to the other wajibat, although performing them is mandatory, if they are left out or extra are added due to forgetfulness, the Salat will not be void; but if they are intentionally not performed or extra are added, then the Salat will become void.
The Rules Pertaining to the Wajibat of Salat
ISSUE 195: The person praying must know which Salat he is reading, and he must be performing it with the intention of complying with the orders of Allah.
ISSUE 196: It is not necessary to speak the niyyat with the tongue, but if this is done, it is not a problem.
ISSUE 197: The Salat must not be performed with the intention of showing off or boasting; and must only be performed for Allah (SWT), and if the complete Salat, or even a part of the Salat is performed to show off to people, it is void.
ISSUE 198: As was previously explained, saying: «الله اَكْبر» starts the Salat, and this phrase is referred to as Takbiratul Ihram. [It is called such because with the saying of this takbir, many actions which before the Salat were permissable for the person praying, now become haram, such as eating, drinking, laughing and crying (according to the conditions that will be explained shortly)].
ISSUE 199: It is mustahab that the person praying raise his hands until they are parallel with his ears at the time of saying Takbiratul Ihram, and for the other takbirs of the Salat too.
ISSUE 200: Qiyam means standing. The person praying must be standing still when he says the Takbiratul Ihram, and when he is reciting the Surahs.
ISSUE 201: If one forgets to perform ruku', and after the qira'at goes directly to sajdah, but before actually being in sajdah he remembers that he had not performed ruku', he must stand up completely, then go to ruku', and then perform the sajdah (and continue with the Salat).
ISSUE 202: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the person reciting Salat, at the time of Standing must stand with both feet on the ground; but it is not necessary that the weight be equally distributed on both feet, thus if more weight is applied to one foot, it is not a problem.
ISSUE 203: Someone who is not able to stand and pray, even so much as with the help of a cane or leaning against a wall, must pray sitting facing the Qiblah, and if he is not able to pray sitting, then he must pray lying down.
ISSUE 204: After ruku', it is wajib that one stand up completely, then go into sajdah, and if intentionally, one leaves out the standing, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 205: In the first and second rakat of the daily Salat, one must first recite Surah al-Fatiha, and then one other complete Surah from the Qur'an (for example Surah al-Tawhid).
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين الرحمن الرحيم مالك يوم الدين
اياك نعبد و اياك نستعين اهدنا السراط المستقيم
سراط الذين انعمت عليهم غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الظالين
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
قل هو الله احد الله الصمد لم يلد ولم يولد ولم يكن له كفوا احد
And in the third and fourth rak'at, one must only recite Surah al-Fatiha once or Tasbihat al-Arbah once, but it is better to recite Tasbihat al-Arbah three times.
« سبحان الله و الحمد لله و لا اله الا الله و الله اكبر »
The Rules of Recitation (Qira'at)
ISSUE 206: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, in the third and fourth rak'at of the Salat, the Surah al-Fatiha or the tasbihat must be recited quietly.
ISSUE 207: In Salatul Zuhr and 'Asr, the qira'at of the first and second rak'at, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, must be recited quietly.
ISSUE 208: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, in Salatul Fajr, Maghrib and 'Isha, boys and men must recite Surah al-Fatiha and the other Surah in the first and second rak'at out loud, and as for girls and women, if a nonـmahram cannot hear their voice, they too can recite out loud, but if a nonـmahram can hear their voice, they must according to Ihtiyat Wajib recite quietly.
ISSUE 209: If in the places where it is wajib to recite out loud, one intentionally recites the Salat quietly, or in place of where it is wajib to recite quietly, one intentionally recites the Salat out loud, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the Salat will become void. However, if this is done out of forgetfulness, or due to not knowing the rule, the Salat will be correct.
ISSUE 210: If during the recitation of al-Fatiha or the other Surah, one realizes he has made a mistake, for example, instead of reciting out loud, he was reciting quietly, it is not necessary that the amount that was read wrong be repeated.
ISSUE 211: A person must learn how to pray the Salat so that he does not make any mistakes, and if someone can not at all learn how to recite the entire of Surah al-Fatiha, he must at least learn that amount that he is able to and recite that. But if that amount is so insignificant, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, he must learn an amount of the rest of the Qur'an that he is able to, and recite this in addition (to the amount of al-Fatiha that he has
learnt). If he is not able to do this, then he must recite tasbih (in addition to what he knows of the Surah al-Fatiha). But for the person who can not learn a Surah, it is not necessary that he recite something else in its place, and according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, he should pray his Salat in jama'at.
ISSUE 212: In every rak'at after the qira'at, the person praying must bend an amount with the intention of ruku' such that the tips of the fingers of the hand can be placed on the knees ـ and this action is called ruku' ـ and it is wajib that while in this position of ruku', dhikr should be recited.
ISSUE 213: Whatever dhikr recited in ruku' is sufficient, but it should not be less than:
three times or
(سبحان رب العظيم و بحمده)
once, but it is better that these dhikr should be recited.
ISSUE 214: While reciting the dhikr in ruku', the body must be stationary.
ISSUE 215: If before one has fully bowed down into the position of ruku' and the body has become stationary, the dhikr is recited, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 216: If before finishing the wajib dhikr, one intentionally lifts one's head up from ruku', the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 217: In every rak'at of the wajib and mustahab Salat, one must perform two sajdah after the ruku'.
ISSUE 218: Sajdah refers to placing the forehead on the ground with the intention of performing sajdah, and when in sajdah, it is wajib that the palms of both hands, the knees, and the tips of both the big toes are all placed on the ground, and it is also wajib that while in sajdah, dhikr is recited.
ISSUE 219: Whatever dhikr is recited in sujud is sufficient, but according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it must not be less than:
three times or
(سبحان ربي الأعلى و بحمده)
once, and it is better that these dhikr should be recited.
ISSUE 220: While reciting the dhikr in sujud, the body must be stationary.
ISSUE 221: If before one's forehead has reached the ground and the body has gone into a stationary position, intentionally, the dhikr of sajdah is recited, the Salat will become void. If this is done due to forgetfulness, the body must first be made stationary, and then the dhikr must once again be recited.
ISSUE 222: After completing the recitation of the dhikr in the first sajdah, the person must sit up and once the body is completely stationary, one must again go into sajdah.
ISSUE 223: If before finishing the dhikr, intentionally, the person who is praying comes out of sajdah, his Salat will become void.
ISSUE 224: If while reciting the dhikr in sajdah, intentionally, one of the seven parts of the body is lifted off the ground, the Salat will become void. However, if one is not reciting any dhikr and one of the seven parts, with the exception of the forehead, is lifted up and placed back on the ground, it is no problem.
ISSUE 225: If along with the big toe, other toes are placed on the ground, it is no problem.
ISSUE 226: When in sajdah, the person praying must place his forehead on the ground or on something that comes from the ground that is neither edible, or wearable; like wood, or the leaf of a tree.
ISSUE 227: Performing sajdah on things like minerals; for example gold and silver and aqiq and firoza is not correct.
ISSUE 228: Performing sajdah on things that come from the earth which are food for animals like grass and straw or hay is not a problem.
ISSUE 229: Performing sajdah on paper, if it is from one of those things permissable to perform sajdah on, or if it is made from cotton or wool, is not a problem.
ISSUE 230: The best thing to perform sajdah on is the dirt from the grave of Hadhrat Sayyid ashـShohada ('a), and after this, in the following order:
ISSUE 231: If during the first sajdah the turbah sticks to the forehead, it must be removed before the second sajdah is performed.
The responsibility of one who can not perform
Sajdah in the normal way
ISSUE 232: Someone who is not able to make his forehead reach the ground, must bend as must as possible and then lift the turbah up, place it on the forehead, and perform sajdah in this way, but the palms of the hands, the knees and the big toes of the feet must be placed on the ground as usually would be done in sajdah.
ISSUE 233: If one is not able to bend for sajdah, one must sit and with his head make the indication of sajdah, but according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, the turbah should be lifted up so that it can be placed on the forehead.
The Wajib Sajdah of the Qur'an
ISSUE 234: In four Surahs of the Qur'an there are ayats of sajdah that if a person reads one of these ayats, or if he hears someone else recite one of these ayats, once the ayat is finished, one must immediately go into sajdah.
ISSUE 235: The Surahs that contain an ayat of wajib sajdah are:
Surah 32 as-Sajdah / Ayat 15
Surah 41 al-Fusilat / Ayat 38
Surah 53 an-Najm / Ayat 62
Surah 96 al-Alaq / Ayat 19
ISSUE 236: If one forgets to perform the sajdah, whenever one remembers he must perform the sajdah.
ISSUE 237: If the ayat of sajdah is heard over a tape recorder or things like this (CD, computer, etc...), the sajdah is not wajib.
ISSUE 238: If one hears the ayat of sajdah over a speaker, it is wajib to perform the sajdah.
ISSUE 239: If one hears the ayat of sajdah over the radio, in the event that the radio program is live (meaning the reciter is in the radio reciting the ayat), once the ayat is completed and the radio broadcasts it, the sajdah is wajib; but if the radio plays the ayat of sajdah from a tape of the Qur'an, the sajdah is not wajib.
ISSUE 240: It is not wajib to recite a dhikr while in this sajdah, but it is mustahab.
ISSUE 241: In the second rak'at, and at the end of the wajib Salat, after the second sajdah one must sit, and in a state of complete stillness, recite the Tashahhud:
اشهد ان لا اله الا الله وحده لا شريك له و اشهد ان محمدا عبده و رسوله
اللهم صلي على محمد و ال محمد
ISSUE 242:8 In the final rak'at of the Salat, after the tashahhud, the salam must be recited, and after this, the Salat will come to an end. It is mustahab to recite
( السلام عليك أيّها الني ورحمة الله و بركاته )
, and according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, one should add
(ورحمة الله و بركاته)
, but if one says this salam, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must also say.
ISSUE 243: The Salat must be read in the following sequence: Takbiratul Ihram, Qira'at, Ruku, Sujud, and in the second rak'at after sujud, tashahhud must be recited, and in the final rak'at, after the tashahhud, the salam must be recited.
ISSUE 244: Muwalat means that each action must be performed one after the other without a gap between the actions.
ISSUE 245: If someone places such a gap between the actions of Salat, that it would not be said one is reciting Salat, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 246: Extending the ruku' and sujud and reading the long Surahs of the Qur'an do not break the Muwalat of the Salat.
ISSUE 247: In the second rak'at of Salat after the recitation of Surah al-Fatiha and the other Surah, before going to ruku', it is mustahab to recite qunut; meaning the hands are lifted up in front of the face, and dua' and dhikr is recited.
ISSUE 248: Whatever dhikr recited in qunut is sufficient, even as much as ( سبحان الله ) and one is also able to recite the following dua':
( ربنا اتنا فى الدنيا حسنة و في الأخرة حسنة و قنا عذاب النار )
Ta'qib refers to the recitation of dhikr and dua', and the recitation of the Qur'an after the Salat.
ISSUE 249: It is better that while in the state of ta'qib, one is facing the Qiblah.
ISSUE 250: It is not necessary that the ta'qib be recited in arabic, but is is better that those dua' that are mentioned in the appropriate books are recited.
ISSUE 251: One of the things in the ta'qib of Salat that has been highly recommended to recite is the tasbih of Hadhrat Fatimah az-Zahra' ('a), which is as follows: ( الله اكبر ) )%
34 times, then ( الحمد لله ) times, then ( سبحان الله ) )%