Mubtilat of Salat
ISSUE 252: From the time one says the Takbiratul Ihram and starts his Salat, until the end of the Salat, many actions become haram for him, and if any of these are performed during the Salat, the Salat will become void, for example:
Turning away from the Qiblah
Eating and Drinking
Breaking the form of the Salat
Adding or taking away anything from the arkan of Salat (These were explained in rule 194)16
The Rules of the Mubtilat of Salat Speaking
ISSUE 253: If the person who is praying intentionally says a word, even as much as a word that is only one letter, and if this word has a meaning in itself, the Salat is void.
16 To learn about more of the mubtilat of Salat, one can refer to tule 1135 in the Taudihul Masail.
ISSUE 254: If out of forgetfulness, the person praying says something because he did not realize that he is in the state of Salat, his prayer will not become void.
ISSUE 255: Coughing and sneezing does not make the Salat become void.
ISSUE 256: During the Salat, one must not greet someone another person, but if someone else says salam to the one praying, it is wajib to reply the salam, and the reply must be given just as the salam was originally given; for example if it is said: ( سلام عليكم ), the reply too must be (سلام عليكم) .
Laughing and crying for the affairs of the World
ISSUE 257: If the person praying Salat intentionally laughs out loud, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 258: Smiling during Salat does not make the Salat become void.
Turning away from the Qiblah
ISSUE 259: If one intentionally turns away a little bit from the Qiblah such that it would not be said one is facing the Qiblah, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 260: If due to forgetfulness or for a another reason, one turns away from the Qiblah, but (one has not turned so much so that) one's right side or left side (of the body) are facing the Qiblah, the Salat is correct. But if one turns (so much) so that the right side or left side of the body faces the Qiblah, and before the time for the Salat has expired, one remembers (that he turned away from the Qiblah), the Salat must be repeated, but if one realizes after the time of Salat has passed, it is not necessary to repeat the Salat.
ISSUE 261: If only the face is turned away from the Qiblah, but the body is still facing the Qiblah, then in the event that the neck has turned in the amount that one is able to see behind him, the rule of turning the body applies as mentioned in the previous issue.
Eating and Drinking
ISSUE 262: If the person praying, eats or drinks something in the amount that it would not be said that he is reciting Salat, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 263: If the person praying intentionally eats or drinks something, even if it does not break the form of the Salat, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the Salat will be void; whether or not the muwalat (succession) is disturbed, meaning, it is done in such a way that the people would not say that the Salat was prayed continuously or that the muwalat was not broken.
Changing the form of the Salat
ISSUE 264: If during the Salat, an action is performed that changes the form of the Salat; for example clapping, or jumping up in the air, or things like this, even if done out of forgetfulness, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 265: If during the Salat one remains silent in such an amount that it would not be said one is praying, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 266: Turning away from the wajib Salat (breaking the Salat) without a good reason, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, is haram; except in a state of helplessness, such as in the following cases:
To protect one's life
To protect one's property
To prevent injury to one's property or body
ISSUE 267: Breaking the Salat to pay back a loan for those people in the following conditions is not a problem:
While in the Salat, one is not able to pay back the loan.
The person who gave you the loan is requesting the loan back.
The time for Salat is not short, meaning that once the loan is paid back, there is still enough time available to recite the Salat.
ISSUE 268: Breaking the Salat to protect property that is not important, is makruh.
ISSUE 269: The following things are makruh during Salat:
1. Closing the eyes.
2. Playing with the fingers and hands.
3. Going silent while reciting al-Fatiha or the other Surah or dhikr, to listen to other conversations.
4. Any action which removes the attention or concentration.
5. Turning the face to the right or left a small amount (If moved a large amount, the Salat will become void).
Translation of the Adhan and Iqamah Translation of the Adhan
الله اَكْبر)% Allah is the Greatest
اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اِلاّ له I bear witness that there is no God except A lah
اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُوْلُ الله I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alah
حَيَّ عَلى الصَّاة Hurry to the Saat!
حَيَّ عَلى الْفَلحِ Hurry to prosperty!
حَيَّ عَلى خَيْرَ الْعَمَل Hurry to the best of acti ons!
الله اَكْبر Allah is the Greatest
لا الهَ الاّ الله There is no god, except Allah
Translation of the Iqamah
الله اَكْبر Allah is the Greatest
اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اِلاّ الله I bear witness that there is no god except Allah.
اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُوْلُ الله I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
حَيَّ عَلى الصَّلاةِ Hurry to the Salat!
حَيَّ عَلى الْفَلاحِ Hurry to prosperity!
حَيَّ عَلى خَيْرَ الْعَمَل Hurry to the best of actions!
قَدْ قامَتِ الصَّلاة The Salat is being established!
الله اَكْبر Allah is the Greatest
لا الهَ الاّ الله )% There is no god except Allah
Translation of the Salat
Allah is the Greatest
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين * الرحمن الرحيم * مالك يوم الدين
اياك نعبد واياك نستعين * اهدنا السراط المستقيم
سراط الذين انعمت عليهم غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الضالين
In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the Worlds * the Most Beneficent,
the Most Merciful * Master of the Day of Judgment * You alone we wor-
ship, and You alone we ask for help * Keep us on the straight path, the path
of those who have earned your blessings, not of those who have earned your
wrath, nor those who have gone astray.
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
قل هو الله احد الله الصمد لم يلد ولم يولد و لم يكن له كفوا احد
In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful
Say (0' Muhammad
He is Allah, The One * Allah, the Self-Existent * He
does not beget nor is He begotten * And there is nothing like Him.
Dhikr in Ruku
«سبحان ربي العظيم و بحمده»
Glory and praise be to my Lord, the Magnificent
Dhikr in Sujud
«سبحان ربي الاعلى و بحمده»
Glory and praise be to my Lord, the Highest
«سبحان الله و الحمد لله ولا اله الا الله و الله اكبر»
Glory be to Allah, and all praise belongs to Allah, there is no god except
Allah, and Allah is the greatest
Tashahhud and Salam
« اشهد ان لا اله الا الله وحده لا شريك له
واشهد ان محمدا عبده ورسوله
اللهم صل على محمد وال محمد »
I bear witness that there is no god except Allah,
the One who has no partners,
and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger.
0' Allah send Your blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad.
« السلام عليك ايها النبي و رحمة الله و بركاته
السلام علينا و على عباد الله الصالحين
السلام عليك و رحمة الله وبركاته »
Peace be upon you, 0' Prophet, and may the mercy of Allah
and His blessings be on you,
Peace be upon us, and on the Righteous servants of Allah,
Peace be upon you, and may the mercy of Allah and His Blessings be on
Sometimes, it is possible that the person performing the Salat has doubts in a part of the Salat; for example, he does not know if he read the tashahhud or not, or he does not know if one sajdah was performed or two sajdas, and sometimes one has a doubt in the number of rak'at recited; for example, one does not know if at that moment, one is in the third rak'at or fourth rak'at.
For doubts in the Salat, there are special rules of which the complete explanation is not possible in this book, but a concise and brief explanation of the types of doubts, and their respective rules is as follows:
Doubt in the Parts of the Salat
ISSUE 270: If the person praying has doubts in the performance of the parts of the Salat; meaning, one does not know if a part of the Salat was performed or not, then if the part after it has not yet been started, meaning one has not entered into the next state of the Salat, then one must perform that part (the one that was doubted). But, if after entering into the next part of the Salat, a doubt comes into the mind (about a previous action); meaning, one has already passed the (former) state, one should not pay attention to this type of doubt and should continue with the Salat, and ones' Salat will be correct.
ISSUE 271: If after the performance of one of the parts of Salat, one doubts in the correctness (of that part), meaning, one does not know if the part that was just performed was properly done or not, the doubt should not be paid attention to; meaning, that which has passed is correct, and the Salat should continue on, and the Salat will be correct.
Doubts that make the Salat void
ISSUE 272: If in the wajib two or three rak'at Salat, for example Salatul-Fajr or Salatul-Maghrib, one has a doubt in the number of rak'at recited, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 273: If one has a doubt between the first rak'at and more than the first rak'at; for example, between the first and second or the first and third rak'at, the Salat will become void.
ISSUE 274: If during the Salat, one does not know how many rak'at one has read, the Salat will become void.
Doubts that are Correct
ISSUE 275: In nine instances, if a person has doubts about the number of rak'at recited in a four rak'at Salat, the Salat will not become void, rather, one must think, and if one comes to a decision in which certainity or probability is reached that leans to a particular way, then one must go with that way of conclusion and finish the Salat (as usual); and if one can not come to a decision based on certainity or probability and remains in a state of doubt, one must act according to the rules that will follow, and the Salat will be correct.
From the nine instances, four of them occur more than the others, and we will explain only these four now. (To be familiar with this topic in more detail, please refer to the Taudhihul Masail, rule number 1208)
1. If after entering into the second sajdah, one doubts whether two rak'at have been recited or three rak'at, one must conclude that three rak'at have been performed and thus pray one more rak'at, and then finish the Salat, and after the Salat, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, read one rak'at of Salatul Ihtiyat standing.
2. If after entering into the second sajdah, one doubts whether two rak'at have been recited or four rak'at, one must conclude that four rak'at have been performed and finish the Salat, and after the Salat, one should stand up and read two rak'at of Salatul Ihtiyat.
3. If a doubt occurs between the third and fourth rak'at during any part of the Salat one must conclude that one has performed four rak'at and finish the Salat, and after the Salat read one rak'at of Salatul Ihtiyat standing or two rak'at sitting.
4. If a doubt occurs between the fourth and fifth raka'at while standing, one must immediately sit down, read the tashahhud and salam (finish the Salat), and read one rak'at of Salatul Ihtiyat standing or two rak'at sitting.
ISSUE 275: Doubts that must not be paid attention to:
In mustahab Salat
In Salatul Jama'at
After the salam in Salat
After the time of Salat has passed
ISSUE 276: If one doubts during the mustahab Salat on the number of rak'at recited, and if the higher side makes the Salat void; for example, in the nafilah of fajr, one doubts having read one rak'at or two rak'at, either way one decides to go with this doubt, the Salat will be correct; but if going the higher way makes the Salat void, then one must decide on the lesser of the number; for example a doubt occurs between two and three rak'ats, one should act upon two rak'at.
ISSUE 277: In Salatul Jama'at, if the Imam of the jama'at doubts in the Salat the number of rak'at already recited, but the ma'moom (those following the Imam) do not have any doubts, and they (somehow) are able to inform the Imam of which rak'at they are in, then the Imam of the jama'at must not pay attention to his doubt, and the same goes for the ma'moom if he has a doubt, but the Imam of the jama'at does not have any doubts, then the same way that the Imam of the jama'at reads his Salat, one can follow him, and (the Salat) will be correct.
ISSUE 278: If after the salam of the Salat, one doubts if one's Salat was correct or not; for example, one doubts if the ruku' was performed or not, or after the salam of a four rak'at Salat, one doubts if four rak'at were read or five rak'at, one should not pay attention to one's doubt; but if leaning either way in the doubt makes the Salat void; for example, after the salam of the four rak'at Salat, one doubts if three rak'at were read, or five rak'at, the Salat is void.
ISSUE 279: If after the time of Salat has passed, one doubts if the Salat was read or not, or one has a small doubt that the Salat was not read, it is not necessary to read the Salat (again); but if before the time has passed, one doubts if the Salat was read or not, or one has a small doubt that the Salat was not read, that Salat must be read, rather, even if one has a small doubt that the Salat was read, it (still) must be read.
ISSUE 280: If one of the doubts that makes the Salat void comes up, one must ponder (on that doubt) a little bit, and in the event that nothing comes to mind and the doubt remains, one is able to break the Salat; but it is better than one should think to such an extent so as to not break the form of Salat, or (one should think to such an extent) so that one does not lose hope over establishing certainity or a probable conclusion.
ISSUE 281: In the event that Salatul Ihtiyat becomes wajib, for example, a doubt occurs between the third and fourth rak'at, then right after the salam, without doing anything to break the appearance of the Salat, or without committing one of the things that make the Salat void, one must stand up, and without adhan or iqamah, immediately make a niyyat for Salatul Ihtiyat, recite the Takbiratul Ihram, and read Salatul Ihtiyat.
ISSUE 282: The difference between Salatul Ihtiyat and the other Salat:
The niyyat must not be pronounced with the tongue.
There is no recitation of the (second) Surah and no qunut (even if the Salatul Ihtiyat is two rak'at).
According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the Surah al-Fatiha must be recited quietly.
ISSUE 283: If one rak'at of Salatul Ihtiyat becomes wajib, after the sajdahs, the tashahhud and salam must be read; and if two rak'at have become wajib, the tashahhud and salam must not be read after the first rak'at, rather, one more rak'at must be performed (without a Takbir to start the second rak'at), and at the end of the second rak'at, the tashahhud and salam should be read.
ISSUE 284: In the event that sajdah sahw becomes wajib; for example, a doubt occurs between the fourth and fifth rak'at, in the state of sitting after the salam of the Salat, one must go directly into sajdah and reciting the following:
(بسم الله و بالله السلام عليك ايها النبي و رحمة الله وبركاته))% then sit up, go back into sajdah and once again recite the above dhikr, sit back up, then recite the tashahhud and salam.
ISSUE 285: When someone travels, that person must reduce the four rak'at Salat to a two rak'at Salat (meaning Qasr), with the condition that the journey is no less than eight farsakh, and one farsakh, according to Islamic Law, is a little less than 5 ½ kilometers.
ISSUE 286: If a traveller whose Salat is prayed in full, goes from a place, such as his hometown (watn), to another place and then returns, and the total travelling distance of the trip is at least eight farsakh, his Salat will be prayed as qasr; for example, if it is four farsakh going (and thus, four farsakh returning), or if going is three farsakh, and returning is five farsakh.
ISSUE 287: For someone who travels from his home place (watn), the moment that the Salat must be read in qasr is from that minimum distance that he goes away so that the people of his city can no longer see him, and the sign of this is that he does not see the people of that city, and in the event that he wishes to read the Salat before having travelled this amount, it must be read in full.
ISSUE 288: Someone who travels from a place other than his home place (watn), for example, he stayed in a place for ten days and for this period of time, read his Salat in full, now if he travels from this place, in that way he has left this place of residence with the intention of travelling, his Salat will be qasr.
ISSUE 289: If a person travels to a place, and there are two roads to that place, and one road is less than eight farsakh and the other road is eight farsakh or more, then if one takes the road that is eight farsakh or more, the Salat must be read as qasr, and if one takes the road that is less than eight farsakh, the Salat must be prayed in full. For example, if one goes from his home place (watn) to a village that has two roads leading to it, and the first
road is four farsakh and other one is three farsakh, then if one takes the first road and returns from that road, the Salat during the travel and at that village will be prayed in qasr. But, if one goes by the second road, and returns by another road, or goes by the second road, and returns by that road, because the complete trip is less than eight farsakh, the Salat on this trip and at that village will be full.
ISSUE 290: In the following examples of journeys, the Salat will be recited full:
1. If before travelling eight farsakh, one passes through one's watn and stops there, or one stays for ten days in one place.
2. From the beginning, one does not have the intention to travel eight farsakh, and without the intention starts a journey; for example, someone is in search of another person who has gone missing.
3. During the journey, one makes the intention to return from the trip, such that before reaching to the point of four farsakh, he changes his mind to continue.
4. One whose job or profession is travelling; for example, the driver of a train, and those drivers who travel out of the city by car, and Pilots, and Sailors (whose profession is travelling).
5. Someone whose job or work is in another place and once every day, or every two days, travels to that place and returns; for example, students who go to another city to study, and return back (to their own city).
6. Someone who is travelling for haram purposes; for example, the journey of someone who travels to commit a haram act.
ISSUE 291: In the following places, the Salat will be prayed in full:
In one's hometown (warn).
In a place where one is staying for ten days, or knows that one will be forced to stay there for ten days.
In a place where one stays for 30 days in a state of doubt; meaning, it was not clear than one will stay or leave, and one stayed in this state for 30 days, and did not go to any other place, then in this event, after 30 days one must recite the Salat in full.
Where is one's Home place (Watn)?
ISSUE 292: Watn is a place where the person by his own will, chooses to live in; sometimes that place is where he was born, and (sometimes) it is the watn of his father and mother, and (sometimes) he himself has chosen that place to live in.
ISSUE 293: If someone has the intention to stay in a place for a small period of time that is not his original watn, and then go to another place, that place will not be counted as his watn.
ISSUE 294: If someone goes to a place that was previously his watn, but now he has turned away from that place; meaning, one has decided that he will not return there with the intention to live, he must not recite his Salat in full, even if he has not chosen another place for himself as his watn.
ISSUE 295: The traveller who is on his way returning to his watn, until he has not entered his watn, must pray his Salat as qasr; and the same goes for the traveller who wishes to stay at a place for ten days, until the time that he reaches that place, he must pray his Salat as qasr.
The intention of ten days
ISSUE 296: The traveller who had made the intention of staying in a place for ten days, if he stays for more than ten days in that place, then as long as he has not travelled (from this place), his Salat must be prayed in full, and it is not necessary that he make the intention that he will be staying for another ten days.
ISSUE 297: If a traveller who had made the intention to stay at a place for ten days, abandons this idea, or becomes uncertain that he will stay at that place or if he will go to another place, then:
1. If before reading a four rak'at Salat, he turns back from his intention or he has not made up his mind, then he must pray his Salat in the form of qasr (two rak'at).
2. If after reading one four rak'at Salat, he turns back from his intention or does not make up his mind, for the time he is at that place, he must recite his Salat as full.