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Salatul Qada
Salatul Qada, refers to that Salat that is prayed after its time.
ISSUE 298: A person must recite the wajib Salat in its specified time, and in the event that without a valid excuse, the Salat is made qada, one has committed a sin, and must repent to Allah and perform the qada of that Salat.
ISSUE 299: In two instances, performing the qada of the Salat is wajib:
1. The wajib Salat had not been read in is proper time.
2. After the time of the Salat has passed, one realizes that the Salat that had been read was void.
ISSUE 300: Someone who has qada Salat to perform, must not take praying these Salat lightly, but it is not wajib that they be performed immediately.
ISSUE 301: It is not necessary that the qada Salat of the day be performed in order, unless that Salat that were at that time (mandatory) were to be performed in order; for example, if the Salatul zuhr and 'asr of one day become qada, these must be perfomed in their order, meaning Salatul zuhr first and then Salatul 'asr.
ISSUE 302: Someone who knows that he has qada Salat, but does not know the amount; for example, he does not know if he had four or five qada to make up, it suffices to go with the lower number.
ISSUE 303: If one knew the amount of qada Salat, but forgot the actual number, even if one prays the lesser number, it will be sufficient.
ISSUE 304: One is able to pray the qada Salat in jama'at, whether the Salat of the Imam of jama'at is ada or qada, and it is not necessary that one is praying the same Salat as the Imam; for example, if one has qada for Salatul fajr, it is no problem if this is prayed with the zuhr or 'asr of the Imam of jama'at.
ISSUE 305: If a traveller who must pray his Salat in qasr, makes his zuhr or 'asr or 'isha qada, he must make the qada up by praying two rak'at, even if he wishes to make them up when he is not travelling.
ISSUE 306: If when one is travelling, one wishes to make up the Salat that had not been made qada during a journey, that Salat of zuhr and 'asr and 'isha must be read as four rak'at (in full).
ISSUE 307: Salatul Qada can be read at any time, meaning one can even pray the qada of Salatul fajr in the afternoon or evening.

The Qada Salat of the Father
ISSUE 308: As long as a person is alive, no other person can read his Salat for him, even if he himself is unable to offer them.
ISSUE 309: After the death of the father, the Salat and fasting that were not performed by the father, even though he was able to perform the qada of, but because of transgressing (the laws of Allah) were not performed, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, become wajib for the oldest son to perform.

Salatul Jama'at
One of the matters that Islam has given a lot of importance to is the unity of the Islamic nation, and in order to maintain the protection and continuation of this unity, there is a special program laid out; and one of the specialities of this program is Salatul Jama'at.
In Salatul-Jama'at, one person who holds certain qualifications, stands in front of the congregation, and others line up in an organized fashion behind him, and altogether they recite the Salat.
The person who stands up in front of the jama'at, to lead the others in Salat is called the Imam of jama'at, and the people who are behind him, and are following him in Salat are called Ma'moom.

Importance of Salatul Jama'at
What has been mentioned continuously in the hadith about Salatul Jama'at is that it holds a great reward from Allah (SWT). We will now go into some of the rules of this very important act of worship, and point out some of the fine points of it.
ISSUE 310: Participating in Salatul Jama'at is mustahab for all Muslims, especially for those who live near a Masjid.
ISSUE 311: It is mustahab that one be patient so as to read his Salat in jama'at.
ISSUE 312: Even if Salatul Jama'at is not read right when the time sets in, it is still better than reciting the Salat individually (furada17 ) in its' prime time.

17 Rhe Salat that is read alone, not in jama'at is called Salatul Furada.
ISSUE 313: The Salat in jama'at that is read quickly and shorter is better than a furada Salat that is read slowly.
ISSUE 314: It is not proper that a person miss Salatul Jama'at without a valid reason.
ISSUE 315: It is not allowed to be present at Salatul Jama'at, if one considers it a trival matter (disregards it as being important).

Conditions for Salatul Jama'at
ISSUE 316: Once Salatul Jama'at has been established, the following conditions must be observed:
1. The ma'moom must not be in front of the Imam, and if there is more than one ma'moom, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, they should stand a little behind the Imam.
2. The standing place of the Imam must not be higher than the standing place of the ma'moom.
3. The distance between the Imam and ma'moom, and the gap between the rows must not be too much, and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the place of sajdah of the ma'moom and the place where the Imam is standing should not be more than one foot.
4. Between the Imam and ma'moom, and also between the rows, there should not be anything separating - like a wall or curtain or even a glass that would act as a divider - but if a curtain or things like this are used to separate the men from the women, it is not a problem.
ISSUE 317: The Imam of the jama'at must be baligh, and 'adil, and must know how to recite the Salat in the proper manner.

Connecting or Joining in Salatul Jama'at
ISSUE 318: In each rak'at, one is able to join in with the Imam between the qira'at and ruku', therefore, if one does not reach the Imam when he is in ruku', one must wait until the next rak'at to join in, and if one reaches the Imam in ruku', it will count as being one rak'at having been read.
ISSUE 319: Various instances where one can join the Salatul Jama'at:

First Rak'at
1. During the Qira'at: The ma'moom must not read al-Fatiha and the second Surah, and the rest of the actions are performed with the Imam.
2. In ruku': The ruku' and the rest of the actions are performed with the Imam.

Second Rak'at
1. During the Qira'at: The ma'moom must not read al-Fatiha and the second Surah, but follows the Imam in qunut and ruku' and sajdah. When the Imam of the jama'at is reciting the tashahhud, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must sit up partially18, and if this Salat is a two rak'at Salat, one must read one more rak'at on his own and then complete the Salat. But if the Salat is a three or four rak'at one, then in the second rak'at, would be the third rak'at of the Imam, the Surah al-Fatiha and the second Surah must be read (even if the Imam is reading the tasbihat), and when the Imam of the jama'at finishes his third rak'at and stands up for his fourth rak'at, the ma'moom after the two sajdahs must read the tashahhud, and then stand up for his third rak'at, and in the final rak'at of the Salat, when the Imam of the jama'at reads the tashahhud and salam to finish the Salat, one must stand and read one more rak'at.

18 This action of sitting up partially is called tajafi.
2. In ruku': The ruku' is performed with the Imam of the jama'at, and the rest of the Salat is performed as was previously mentioned.

Third Rak'at
1. During the Qira'at: In the event that one knows that if one joins the jama'at, there will be time to read Surah al-Fatiha and the second Surah, or even time to read Surah al-Fatiha alone, then one is able to join the jama'at, and one must read al-Fatiha and the second Surah or just the Surah al-Fatiha. However, if one knows that one does not have ability to read the Surahs, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must be patient until the Imam of the jama'at goes into ruku', and then join the Salat.
2. In Ruku': In the event that one wants to join during ruku', the ruku' must be performed with the Imam, and the recitation of al-Fatiha and the second Surah is dropped, and the rest of the Salat will be performed, as was previously explained.

Fourth Rak'at
1. During the Qira'at: Joining in the fourth rak'at has the same ruling as joining in the third rak'at, and at the time when the Imam of the jama'at is sitting in his final rak'at getting ready to recite the tashahhud and salam, the ma'moom is able to get up and continue the Salat on his own, or he is also able to sit up partially (as was explained previously) and wait until the tashahhud and the salam of the Imam of the jama'at are finished, and then get up (and continue with his Salat).
2. In Ruku': The ruku' and the sajdahs are performed with the Imam (at this point the fourth rak'at of the Imam will be the first rak'at of the ma'moom), and then the rest of the Salat will be performed, as was previously explained.

The Rules of Salatul jama'at
ISSUE 320: If the Imam of the jama'at is reading one of the daily Salat, one can follow the Imam in any of the daily Salat; therefore, if the Imam is reading Salatul 'Asr, the ma'moom is able to read his Salatul Zuhr, and if after the ma'moom has finished reading Salatul Zuhr, and then the Salatul Jama'at becomes established, one is able to read Salatul 'Asr with the Salatul Zuhr of the Imam of the jama'at.
ISSUE 321: The ma'moom is able to read his own Salatul Qada' with the Salatul Ada of the Imam, even if it is the qada' Salat of another daily Salat; for example, if the Imam of the jama'at is reading Salatul Zuhr, the ma'moom is able to read the qada' of Salatul Fajr.
ISSUE 322: Salatul Jama'at can be established with a minimum of two people, one being the Imam, and one being the ma'moom, except in the cases of Salatul Jumu'ah, and Salatul 'Eid Fitr and Qurban.
ISSUE 323: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the mustahab Salat can not be read in jama'at, except for the Salat to pray for rain19 and the Salat on the day of 'Eid ul-Fitr and 'Eid ul-Qurban.
ISSUE 324: The Ma'moom must not say the Takbiratul Ihram before the Imam, rather according to Ihtiyat Wajib, he must not say the Takbiratul Ihram until the Imam has completely finished his.
ISSUE 325: The Ma'moom must recite everything in the Salat himself, except for al-Fatiha and the (second) Surah. However, if the first or second rak'at of the Ma'moom coincides with the third or fourth rak'at of the Imam, then the two Surahs must be recited.

19 This Salat is called Salatul Istisqa'

Salatul Jumu'ah
One of the weekly gatherings of the Muslims is Salatul Jumu'ah, and on the day of Jumu'ah (Friday) the Muslims are able to read Salatul Jumu'ah in place of Salatul Zuhr, which is in fact better than reading Salatul Zuhr.
As for the benefits of this Salat, it suffices to mention that a Surah of the Qur'an has been mentioned in regards to this Salat, and the Mo'minin have been invited to be present in the Salat of Jumu'ah.

How to read Salatul Jumu'ah
ISSUE 326: Salatul Jumu'ah is a two rak'at Salat, just like Salatul Fajr, except that it contains two khutbah (speeches) performed by the Imam of Jumu'ah before the Salat takes place.
ISSUE 327: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the Imam of Jumu'ah must read Surah al-Fatiha and the second Surah in a loud voice.
ISSUE 328: In Salatui Jumu'ah, it is mustahab that in the first rak'at after al-Fatiha, Surah Jumu'ah be recited, and in the second rak'at after al-Fatiha, Surah Munafiqun be recited.
ISSUE 329: It is to perform two qunut in the Salatul Jumu'ah, one in the first rak'at before the ruku', and one in the second rak'at after the ruku'.

The Conditions for Salatul Jumu'ah
ISSUE 330: The following points must be observed in Salatul Jumu'ah:
All the points that must be followed in Salatul Jama'at, must also be followed in Salatul Jumu'ah.
The Salat must be recited in Jama'at and it is not correct if read individually.
The minimum amount of people taking part in Salatul Jumu'ah is five people, meaning one Imam and four ma'moom.
Between two Salatul Jumu'ah, there must be a minimum distance of one farsakh. (A unit of measure equal to approximately 5.4 Kilometers or 3.4 miles)

The responsibility of the person making Salatul Jumu'ah
ISSUE 331: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the ma'moom must listen to the Jumu'ah khutbah.
ISSUE 332: While the Imam is giving the Jumu'ah khutbah, it is makruh to speak, unless it does not prevent one from hearing the khutbahs; and in the event that it does prevent one from hearing the khutbahs, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permissable.

Salatul Ayat
ISSUE 333: One of the other wajib Salat is Salatul Ayat, which becomes wajib with the occurance of natural events such as: Lunar Eclipses, Solar Eclipses, and Earthquakes - even if it these do not scare people - according to Ihtiyat Wajib, Salatul Ayat must be read. Also for lightning and thunder, and for Yellow and Red Cyclones, in the event that most of the people become frightened by them, Salatul Ayat must be read too.

How to pray Salatul Ayat
ISSUE 334: Salatul Ayat consists of two rak'at and each rak'at has five ruku'. Before each ruku'. Surah al-Fatiha and one other Surah from the Qur'an must be recited, such that in the two rak'ats, ten Surah al-Fatiha and ten of another Surah must be read. However, one is also able to break up the second Surah into five parts and before each ruku', read one part of the broken Surah; and in this way, in the two rak'ats, two Surah al-Fatiha and two other Surahs of the Qur'an will be recited.
In this next part, we will explain how Salatul Ayat can be prayed by breaking up Surah al-Qadr:

First Rak'at
After the Takbiratul Ihram, Surah al-Fatiha must be read, and then:

( بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحيم * اِنّا اَنْزَلَناهُ في ليلة القدر )

One will then stand up, and say:
( وما ادراك ما ليلة القدر)
and go back into ruku'.
Once again, one will stand up and say:
(ليلة القدر خير من الف شهر)

Once again, one will stand up and say:
( تنزل الملائكة والروح فيها باذن ربهم من كل أمر)
And go into ruku'.
From the ruku', one will stand up, and recite:
(سلام هي حتى مطلع الفجر)
, and then go into ruku'.
Once one comes back up from ruku', one will go into sajdah and after performing the two sajdahs, will get back up and perform the second rak'at.
Second Rak'at
The second rak'at is to be performed just as the first rak'at, and then the tashahhud and salam is to be recited to bring the Salat to an end.

The Rules of Salatul Ayat
ISSUE 335: Only the people who live in the area where one of the natural events occur, need to pray Salatul Ayat, and the Salat does not become wajib on those living in other areas.
ISSUE 336: If in the first rak'at of Salatul Ayat, one reads Surah al-Fatiha and the other Surah five times, and then in the second rak'at, reads Surah al-Fatiha and breaks up the second Surah in five parts, the Salat will be correct.
ISSUE 337: It is mustahab that after the second ruku', the fourth ruku', the sixth ruku', the eighth ruku' and the tenth ruku', that qunut be performed, and even if one qunut if performed after the tenth ruku', this (too) is sufficient.
ISSUE 338: Each of the ruku' in Salatul Ayat is a rukn, and if intentionally or unintentionally something is taken out or added to it, the Salat will become void.

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