The Tyrant Abbasid Caliphs
mpiled by: Syed Ali Shahbaz
The Abbasids defeats the Omayyad tyrants
On 15th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa'dah in 132 AH, the Abbasids, after defeating the Omayyad tyrants, assembled all surviving male members of this Godless clan near River Jordan, tied them up, and made them lie underneath wooden planks on which they held a grand feast by stomping them to a torturous death.
The first Abbasid caliph is called "Saffah" (shedder of blood) because of the horrible vengeance he wreaked upon the Omayyads – even ordering the digging up of the graves of all their caliphs, including Mu'awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan, and burning their bones, saying he was punishing them for their crimes against humanity.
Construction Baghdad City
On July 30, 762 AD, a gigantic urbanization project started at the village of Baghdad, which in Old Persian means “God-given”, following its selection as the capital of the Abbasid caliphate by the tyrant Mansur Dawaniqi, who named it “Madinat as-Salaam” or City of Peace. A bitter enemy of the Household of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), he chose the location, 30 km from Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire, and commissioned the Barmakid Iranian family of viziers to carry out the project, supervised by the astrologers Naubakht Ahvaz, a Zoroastrian, and Mashallah, a Jew, who believed work should start in July under the sign of Leo, which is associated with fire and symbolises productivity, pride, and expansion. The city was designed as a circle about 2 km in diameter, and hence was called the "Round City".
The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian urban design, modeled on the Sassanid city of Gur in Fars, built 500 years earlier. Soon Baghdad became a centre of learning, as well as of vice and Arabian Nights debaucheries, until it was sacked in 1258 by the Mongol hordes of Hulagu Khan – a catastrophe from which it never fully recovered. Following the creation of Iraq as a country by the British last century, Baghdad became the capital of a modern state, and has gradually grown into a metropolis. Today, it is the second largest city in the Arab World after Cairo, the capital of Egypt, and the second largest city in Western Asia after Tehran, the capital of Iran.
Ibrahim bin Mahdi, stepbrother of the Abbasid caliph Haroun Rashid
On 7th of the Islamic month of Ramadhan in 224 AH Ibrahim bin Mahdi, stepbrother of the Abbasid tyrant caliph Haroun Rashid, died at the age of 62 years in Baghdad. Born of an African concubine and known as Ibn Shakla because of his dark complexion, he was proclaimed as caliph in Baghdad in 201 AH by the Abbasids in protest to the seemingly pro-Hashemite policies of the reigning caliph, his nephew Mamoun, in declaring the Prophet’s 8thInfallible Heir, Imam Reza (AS) as Heir Apparent of the realm. Two years later in 203 AH, with the crafty Mamoun’s return to Baghdad after martyring Imam Reza through poisoning in Tous, he resigned and spent the rest of his life as a singer and a musician. Ibn Shakla reportedly had a phenomenal vocal range.
Musa al-Hadi ibn Mahdi, the Fourth caliph of the Abbasid dynasty
On September 14,786 AD, Musa al-Hadi ibn Mahdi, the 4th caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty, died at the age of 23 under suspicious circumstances, after a reign of only a year and few months, and was immediately succeeded on the same day by his brother, Haroun Rashid, in what is known as the "Night of the three Caliphs" since Mamoun was also born on the eve of this occasion.
There are conflicting reports of his death, ranging from severe ulcer in the abdomen to poisoning and suffocation by slave girls on the orders of his own mother, the concubine Khayzarun, who was more attached to her younger son, Haroun.
Like the rest of the Abbasid usurpers, Hadi was a bitter enemy of the progeny of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). The most brutal incident of his short reign was the tragedy of Fakh near Mecca, where Hussain ibn Ali ibn Hassan, a descendent of the Prophet's elder grandson, Imam Hasan Mojtaba (AS), was martyred along with his brothers and followers, and their heads mounted on lances were taken to the caliph's court.
Among the few survivors, was Idris bin Abdullah, al-Hasani, who managed to escape to Egypt, where aided by Wadhih, a postal manager, he reached Morocco, and founded the Idrisi Shi'ite Muslim state that flourished for almost 200 years, independent of the Abbasid caliphate. Hadi tried to implicate the Prophet's 7th Infallible Heir, Imam Musa Kazem (AS), in the Fakh uprising but died before he could commit any other foul deed.
On September 13, 786 AD, Abdullah al-Ma'mun, the 7th caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty, was born (late in the night) to the tyrant Haroun ar-Rashid through his Iranian concubine, Marajil. Before his death in 809, his father had given him governorship of the eastern lands extending from Iran to Central Asia, with Marv in Khorasan as the seat of power.
Born to the tyrant Haroun's Iranian concubine Marajel, his capital was initially the Khorasani city of Merv (currently in the Republic of Turkmenistan). He earned lasting damnation for forcing Imam Reza (AS), the 8th Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), to come to Merv from distant Medina, as part of his plot to isolate the Ahl al-Bayt from the ummah. When the Imam's popularity tremendously grew among the people during his two-year sojourn in Khorasan, the crafty Mamoun martyred the Prophet's rightful heir in Tous through a fatal dose of poison.
Five years later in 813, he sent an army to Baghdad to attack and his kill his profligate elder step-brother, Amin, and proclaimed himself caliph. On 17th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 218 AH, the Abbasid caliph, Abdullah al-Mamoun, died near Tarsus in what is now southwestern Turkey, during a campaign against the Byzantine Empire, at 48 years of age, after a 24-year reign, four of which were spent in civil war against his step-brother, Amin – the rival caliph in Baghdad whom he eventually ordered killed. He died in Tarsus in what is now Turkey, a horrible death of unquenchable thirst despite drinking gallons of cool water.
A crafty and articulate person, his greatest cardinal sin was the martyring of Imam Reza (AS), the 8th Infallible Successor of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWA), through a fatal dose of poisoned grapes, after inviting him to Khorasan and forcing him to accept being his heir, although the Imam was almost twenty years his senior.
The Abbasid caliph, Mu'taz
On 26th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 255AH, the Abbasid caliph, Mu'taz was removed from power after a rule of 3 years and 6 months during which this tyrant martyred through poisoning, Imam Ali al-Hadi (AS), the 10th Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He was a pawn in the hands of the Turkish guard and an inefficient fratricidal thug who killed his own brothers. His excesses so enraged the Turkish officers that they finally decided to depose him. They first beat him with clubs and kicked him; then dragging him by his torn robes outside; they left him in the scorching heat of the midsummer sun of Samarra. He was then shut up in a room alone without food or water; and after three days the wretched caliph died at the age of 24.
The tyrannical Abbasid caliph Mutawakkil
On 3rd of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 247 AH, the tyrannical Abbasid caliph Mutawakkil was murdered by his own son, Mustansir, with the help of some Turkish guards. Named Ja'far on birth to the Caliph Mutasim's Greek concubine, Qaratis, he is often called the "most infidel" of Abbasid rulers, and on several occasions he desecrated the holy shrine in Karbala of the Chief of Martyrs, Imam Husain (AS) – the grandson of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). As an avowed enemy of the Ahl al-Bayt, he left no stone unturned to persecute the Prophet's progeny. He also forced the Prophet’s 10th Infallible Successor, Imam Ali an-Naqi (AS) to leave Medina and come to his new capital Samarra, where the Imam was virtually placed under house arrest. A heavy drunkard he flouted all Islamic rules during his fourteen years in power.
The 17th caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime, al-Muktafi Billah
On 13th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa'dah in 295 AH, the 17th caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime, al-Muktafi Billah, died at the age of 33 after a reign of over six years. He was the son of the previous ruler, al-Mu'tadid, by a Turkish slave-girl. He started on a good note by abolishing his father’s secret prisons – the terror chambers of Baghdad – and gaining popularity through acts of generosity. It was during his rule that the Carmathian sedition emerged, while hostilities continued with the Greeks, who were able to ravage the coasts of Syria at pleasure, both by land and sea. The Byzantine legions led by ten golden crosses, each followed by 10,000 men, swept devastation and captivity along the Muslim shores. In Egypt, he however, met with success by sending a force to end the 37-year secession of the province under the Tulunids, the descendants of the Central Asian Turkic slave, Ahmad bin Tulun. In the last years of his reign he gave himself up to pleasure and as his health deteriorated was confined to the sickbed for several months before his death.
Muqtadar Billah, the 18th caliph of the Abbasid Dynasty
On 27th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 320 AH, Muqtadar Billah, the 18th caliph of the usurper Abbasid Dynasty, was killed by his slave guard after a 25-year misrule that bankrupted the state and increased the people's misery, while the Byzantines felt emboldened to attack at will and occupy large territories in Asia Minor or what is now Turkey. The killing of this caliph, who spent all his time with musicians and dancers in the harem, had been foretold by the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (AS) in one of his prophecies.
The 26th caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty, Abdullah Ibn Ahmed al-Qa'im bi-Amrillah
On 13th of the Islamic month of Shabaan in 467 AH, the 26th caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty, Abdullah Ibn Ahmed al-Qa'im bi-Amrillah, died in Baghdad after a nominal reign of 45 years. During the first half of his long reign, hardly a day passed in the capital without turmoil, because of the insubordination of the Turks against the last of the rulers of the Iranian Buwayhid dynasty. Meanwhile, a new wave of Turkish conquerors from Central Asia, under Toghrul Beg Seljuqi, were casting eyes on Iraq, after sweeping across Iran and overrunning Armenia, Anatolia and Syria. Toghrul, on the pretext of travelling to Mecca for pilgrimage to the holy Ka'ba, entered Iraq with a heavy force, and was acknowledged as Sultan by the puppet caliph, who conspired to replace the Buwayhids, during whose rule, both Arabic and Persian, had flourished in Iraq.
Mustarshid-Billah, the 29th caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty
On 16th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 529 AH, Mustarshid-Billah, the 29th caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty, after a reign of 17 years, was killed by assassins, believed to be hired by the Seljuqid sultan, Mas’oud, who resented the caliph’s bid to assert his independence in political affairs.
When Mustarshid launched a military campaign against Mas'oud near Hamadan in western Iran, he was deserted by his troops, taken prisoner by the Sultan, and pardoned on promising not to quit his palace any more. Left in the royal tent, however, in the Sultan's absence, he was found murdered,
Al-Mustansir-Billah, the 36th and penultimate caliph of the Abbasid dynasty
On 10th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani in 640 AH, al-Mustansir-Billah, the 36th and penultimate caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty, died in Baghdad after a reign of 16 years. His lasting contribution was the founding of the Mustansiriyya Madrasah on the banks of the Tigris. A monumental water-powered alarm clock that announced the appointed hours of prayer and the time both by day and by night was installed in its entrance hall.
The original building which survived the Mongol invasion that in 1258 AD threw the Abbasid caliphate into the dustbin of history is now part of the modern al-Mustansiriya University.