Expedition of Hunain
Hayat Al-Qulub Vol. 1,
By: Allamah Muhammad Baqir Al-Majlisi
Shaykh Mufeed, Shaykh Tabarsi and other historians and tradition scholars have narrated that after the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet sent out detachments to various areas in the vicinity, summoning the Arab tribes to embrace Islam, but giving no orders to fight. Ghalib bin Abdullah was sent to Madlaj tribe; they said: “Neither do we rely on you nor live in your neighborhood.”
The people urged the Prophet to declare a war against them. The Holy Prophet (S) said: “They are led by a wise and intelligent man and many people of that tribe will be martyred on the way of Allah.” Amr bin Umayyah was sent to Bani Dail tribe to invite them to Islam but they also flatly refused.
Companions advised war against them also but the Prophet said that they will soon embrace Islam. Abdullah bin Suhail was sent to Maharib tribe and they embraced Islam. Some of them also visited the Messenger of Allah (S). Ibn Babawayh and Shaykh Tusi have narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that Khalid bin Walid was sent to Bani Mustaliq, a branch of Bani Khuzaimah against whom in his youth he was hostile, and to gratify that old enmity he killed many of them by trickery and took much of spoils, although they claimed to be Muslims.
he survivors came to the Prophet along with the letter of amnesty to the Prophet and complained about Khalid. The Prophet was highly offended at this. Khalid arrived with a lot of gold and other booty. The Holy Prophet (S) gave it all to Ali to make all possible reparations to the tribes. And raising his foot said, “Trample the method of Jahiliyya like this,” that is judge according to the law of Islam.
When Imam Ali (a.s.) reached there, he decided the matter according to divine law and after satisfying them, returned from there and the Holy Prophet (S) asked how did he fare. He replied: “First I paid the blood money for each deceased and in place of a fetus which was aborted, gave them a male or female slave. And I paid up all their damages.
Then I gave the remaining amount in lieu of their utensils in which their dogs drank water and in exchange of the ropes that their shepherds used. After that I gave something in lieu of the terror caused to their women and children and in lieu of unknown things. After that I divided the balance amount among them so that they may be sincerely pleased with you.
The Holy Prophet (S) said: “Since you paid them to make them pleased with me, I pray that the Almighty Allah be pleased with you. You are to me like Harun was to Musa except that there will no prophet after me. According to another tradition, he said: “O Ali, you have pleased me, may Allah be pleased with you. O Ali, you are the guide of my Ummah. O Ali, successful is one who loves you and who follows your practice and the worst enemy till Judgment Day is one who opposes you and who detests your practice.
Among the events of eighth Hijri it is narrated that Akrama, the son of Abu Jahl, became a Muslim and after the conquest of Mecca apostasied and ran away to Yemen. His wife took amnesty of the Prophet on his behalf. He returned and reconverted to Islam. It is narrated that the same year, the eighth of Hijrat, the Prophet sent Khalid to break Uzza, the greatest idols of the Quraish, and Amr bin Aas was ordered to break Sawa, the idol of Huzail and Saad bin Zaid was commanded to demolish Manat.
Battle of Hunain
Shaykh Mufeed, Shaykh Tabarsi and Ali bin Ibrahim etc. have narrated that the cause of the Battle of Hunain was that when the Prophet set out for Mecca he had on the basis of exigency said that he was going to attack Hawazins, who made great preparations for defense, and having made Malik bin Auf Nazari, their general, advanced, with all their families, cattle, and property, to the valley of Autas, where they encamped and engaged in festivities in anticipation of victory.
Among these was a blind old chief named, Warid bin Alsamah Hashmi, the chief of Hasham, who drew his hand over the ground where they had encamped, and asked what valley it was, and being told, he said it was a fine place to maneuver cavalry, as the ground was neither too rough nor soft. He than inquired why he heard the cry of horses, cows, sheep and children. They replied that Malik bin Auf had brought the families and property as an inducement for the men to fight bravely.
He than swore by the Lord of the Kaaba, that Malik was a mere sheep feeder and knew nothing of war. He called for him and endeavored to persuade him to send back the families and cattle, admonishing him that he was to contend with a powerful enemy, demanding if he ever knew a flying army stop for wives, children, and property? Malik rejected this wholesome counsel, telling the chief that he was very old and his understanding was impaired.
Warid, the old chief, then inquired for Kaab and Kalab tribes, their allies, and finding they had not joined the army, sighed at the ill fortune that brooded over them. He asked who had come from Hawazin tribes and was told that Amr bin Aamir and Auf Aamir have arrived. He said neither they can benefit or harm and wished he were young again, to engage in the ensuing battle and pay the debt of heroism.
When the Messenger of Allah (S) heard that the clans of Hawazins were assembled in the valley of Autas, he collected the tribes of Islam, incited them to sacred war, and gave them assurance of victory and help from the Almighty Allah, who would cause them to triumph over their enemies, whose property and children and women should fall into their hands.
The people were now eager for the contest, and preparation for the march were quickly made. The Prophet gave the great standard to Ali, and ordered all battalions entering Mecca to join their respective colors. The Prophet then marched with the ten thousand men he had led to Mecca, and a division of two thousand who had joined him at the city.
According to the report of Abil Jarud from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.), one thousand men belonged to Bani Sulaym tribe under the leadership of Abbas bin Mardas bin Salma, and the other half of the tribes of Mazniah. The Prophet’s army encamped on approaching the position of Hawazin.
Their commander in chief, Malik bin Auf, hearing of the Prophet’s advance, ordered his men to station themselves in front of their families and property, break their scabbards, and secreting themselves in ravines and behind the trees, await the Prophet’s advance and attack him on all sides while the morning was very dark, and put him to rout. This order was followed by the declaration that the Prophet never had encountered any who understood the art of war.
After the Morning Prayers the Prophet commenced his march down the valley of Hunain, which abounded in defiles and declivities. The Bani Sulaym who composed the vanguard of the Prophet army being simultaneously attacked on all sides by division of the Hawazins, gave way and fled, throwing the whole army, into disorder and flight, with the exception of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and the few companions of the Prophet, before whom the fugitives rushed without paying any regard to him.
Abbas held the bridle of the Prophet mule’s on the right, and Abu Sufyan bin Harith bin Abdul Muttalib on the left. The Prophet cried to the fugitives, “O company of Ansaris, where are you going! Come to me; I am Messenger of Allah (S)!” But no one turned back. Nasiba, the daughter of Mazinah, cast dust at the faces of the fugitives, saying, “From God and the Prophet whither do you flee!”
At length Umar passed her, to whom she said, “What is this which you do?” He replied, “Such is the providence of God.” The Prophet than ran his mule to Amirul Momineen (a.s.), who with drawn sword was bravely defending the Muslims standard that he held. As Abbas was a tall man with a powerful voice, the Prophet ordered him to ascend an adjacent hill and shout to the people, “Where are you going? O companions of Baqarah and companions of the allegiance of the tree!
The Messenger of Allah (S) is here!” The Prophet raised his hand towards heaven and said, “O Lord, to You belongs praise and intercession, and You are help.” At this juncture, Jibraeel descended and assured the Prophet that he had offered the prayer at which the sea was parted for Musa to save him from Firon. The Prophet ordered Abu Sufyan to give him a handful of sand, which he cast at the idolaters, saying, “Ugly be your faces!”
He then raised his head towards heaven and said, “O Lord, if this company should be destroyed, no one will serve You hereafter.” The Ansaris hearing the call of Abbas, returned, broke their scabbards, and crying, “Here we are!” passed the Prophet, but from shame did not approach him, and joined the standard of Ali. The Prophet asked Abbas who they were, and being told they were the Ansaris, the Prophet replied, “Now the furnace of war is hot!”
At that moment, angels descended to give the Muslims victory, and the Hawazins were routed and fled in all direction. The Muslims heard the clang of angelic arms in the air, but saw no one. Thus the Prophet triumphed over the idolaters, whose property, women and children fell into his hands. The Almighty Allah describes this battle in the following manner:
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“Certainly Allah helped you in many battlefields and on the day of (battle of) Hunain, when your great numbers made you vain, but they availed you nothing and the earth became strait to you notwithstanding its spaciousness, then you turned back retreating.”
According to traditions “many battlefields” imply that the Almighty Allah helped the Prophet on eighty occasions. Then the Almighty Allah says:
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“Then Allah sent down His tranquility upon His Apostle and upon the believers, and sent down hosts which you did not see, and chastised those who disbelieved, and that is the reward of the unbelievers.”
Regarding the word Sakina in the above passage, the Imam Reza (a.s.) observes that it is the name of a fragrant and agreeable wind of Paradise, which has a human form and attends to prophets.
Ali bin Ibrahim narrates that a man from Bani Nazar bin Muawiyah, called Shajra bin Rabia who became a prisoner of Muslims asked the Muslims where have the white-clad youths riding pie-bald horses gone and by whom the Hawazin were routed and slain, and in comparison with whom the Muslims were nothing. They replied, “Those were angels whom Allah sent to our aid.” All this was according to the report of Ali bin Ibrahim.
Shaykh Tabarsi relates that before the Prophet marched to Hunain, hearing that Safwan bin Umayyah had a hundred coats of mail, he sent to borrow them on the condition of paying their value if they were damaged. According to traditions from this instance, a pledge given for borrowed articles was made binding in Islamic law. The Prophet divided these coats of mail among his companions, and marched against Hawazin at the close of Ramadan, or beginning of Shawwal, in the eighth year of Hijrat.
Shaykh Mufeed has narrated that the Holy Prophet (S) set out with ten thousand men for the Battle of Hunain and as the Muslims were so numerous, they had no doubt of being victorious. Abu Bakr remarked, “This is a wonderful army, and we shall now triumph.” The Holy Prophet (S) said: “Our army has been struck with an evil eye. But the Almighty Allah willed them to know that victory did not depend on their numbers and arms, but on His own aid.
When therefore they engaged the enemy, they all fled with the exception of ten men, nine of whom were from Bani Hashim; the tenth, Ayman, son of Umm Ayman who fell a martyr. The Almighty Allah said regarding the unplaced remark of Abu Bakr:
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“…when your great numbers made you vain…”
And the believers that the Almighty Allah mentioned with the Prophet that He sent tranquility on them were Amirul Momineen (a.s.) eight persons from Bani Hashim. One was Abbas, who was to the right of the Prophet and Fazl bin Abbas was to the left; Abu Sufyan bin Harith, the cousin of the Prophet was not Muawiyah’s father Abu Sufyan, he was holding the mule’s saddle when it was disturbed; and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was in front of the Prophet slashing the idolaters and driving them away. Rabia bin Harith bin Abdul Muttalib, Abdullah bin Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib, Atba and Motab, sons of Abu Lahab were around the Prophet and all Ansar and Muhajireen had fled from there.
Shaykh Tusi has narrated through authentic chains from Naufal bin Harith bin Abdul Muttalib that on the day of the Battle of Hunain, all fled except seven sons of Abdul Muttalib: Abbas and his son, Fazl, Ali and his brother Aqil, Abu Sufyan, Rabia and Naufal, sons of Harith bin Abdul Muttalib. The Holy Prophet (S) had the sword drawn and mounted on Duldul was attacking the idolaters, reciting the following Rajaz: “I am the Messenger of Allah (S) without any doubt. I am the son of Abdul Muttalib.”
Harith bin Naufal said: “I heard from Fazl bin Abbas that when my father saw that all had fled and Imam Ali (a.s.) was also not visible, he said: “The son of Abu Talib has also deserted the Prophet in spite of all the feats he had shown in previous battles.” I said: “Don’t pass such remarks about your nephew.” He asked: “Is Ali present here?” I said: “Look ahead in the front row, how he is fighting with his sword, in that flying dust, his Zulfiqar flashing, scorching the idolaters.” My father said: “He is righteous and son of a noble, may his uncles be sacrificed on him.”
Fazl says: “That day Ali clove forty of the enemy exactly into two, each at a blow.” And Kulaini has narrated through authentic chains of narrators from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that on the day of Battle of Hunain Imam Ali (a.s.) eliminated forty daring men of the infidels.
Shaykh Tabarsi declares that when the Muslims fled, and the Prophet was left with only nine men about him, Malik bin Auf, the commander-in-chief of the Hawazin, rushed forward, shouting, “Show me Muhammad,” and seeing him, made a furious charge, and was met by Ayman Ibn Umm Ayman, whom he slew, but he could not force his horse against the asylum of prophecy. At that perilous junction, Kalah, the brother of Safwan bin Umayyah, shouted, “Now the sorcery of the Prophet is destroyed!” Safwan, who had not yet become a Muslim, ordered his brother to be silent, saying, “God break your jaws! It is better that a Quraishi should be our king than a Hawazini.”
Shaykh Tusi has narrated that when the Muslim army fled the battlefield it was yet dark; idolaters came out from ravines and bushes with weapons and the Prophet turned his luminous face towards the fugitives, beaming like the full moon, so that all saw him while he demanded what had become of the covenant they had made with Allah.
At this appeal they turned on the infields who were led on by a man mounted on a red camel and bearing a black flag on a spear. They slew every Muslim they overcome. The enemy advanced with great impetuosity, but black standard bearer, whose name was Abu Jardal, was met by Ali, who at one blow brought his camel to the ground, and with the next stroke clove him in two.
This put the Hawazin to rout, and the Muslims in turn pursued, led on by Ali, making great slaughter and taking many prisoners. Imam Ali (a.s.) went on fighting till he had killed forty infidels. After the sun had risen high, the Prophet ordered it to be proclaimed that no more of the enemy should be slain, nor any of the prisoners be put to death.
Ibn Alaku, a spy of Huzail tribe was taken a prisoner who had come to the Prophet on the day of the conquest of Mecca. Umar recognized him as a spy and had him killed; but when the Prophet learnt about it, he was very indignant at this disobedience. After that Humail bin Mamar was also killed while being a prisoner and the Prophet condemned Umar’s act. At last Umair bin Wahab came and asked the Prophet for forgiveness on behalf of the Ansar. Abu Bakr had displeased the Prophet at the beginning of the battle and in the end, Umar infuriated him.
Shaykh Tabarsi and Qutub Rawandi etc. have narrated that Shaibah bin Uthman bin Abi Talha Abdari was extremely inimical to the Prophet because Ali had killed eight standard bearers of his tribe in the Battle of Uhad. So he was always waiting for an opportunity to take revenge. But he was despaired on the day of the conquest of Mecca.
He joined the Battle of Hunain hoping to get a chance. He says: When Muslims fled, I came to the right side of the Prophet and saw Abbas and observed that he will not be deficient in defending his nephew. I came to the left and saw Abu Sufyan bin Harith and observed that he will not be deficient in helping his cousin. I came behind the Prophet and launched a blow but a flame came in between and was about to scorch me to death when I put my hand on my eyes.
But the Prophet called me, placed his hand on my chest and said: “O Lord, remove the Satan from him.” Now when I glanced at the Prophet deep love developed in my heart for him and I began to love him more than myself.” The Messenger of Allah (S) then said: “Shaibah, go and fight the idolaters.” He says: “I began to fight with such sincerity that even if my father had confronted me, I would have slain him too.”
After the battle, I came to the Prophet and he said: “Whatever the Almighty Allah intended about you was better than what you intended about yourself.” And whatever passed in my heart was known to none but me and the Holy Prophet (S) told me all about it and I embraced Islam as a result of it.
Shaykh Tabarsi has narrated from Saad bin Musayyab that a man from the infidel army told me: “When we confronted the Muslims they fled in a few minutes and we pursued them, till we reached the Messenger of Allah (S) who was astride the mule, Ashab. Some white-faced men addressed us and said: “Ugly be thy faces. Go away from here.” We turned back and the Muslims came out in our pursuit and we realized that they were angels.
It is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) through trustworthy chains on the day of the Battle of Hunain four thousands prisoners, and twelve thousands camels fell into the hands of Muslims besides other property. The Holy Prophet (S) sent the booty and captives to Jaranah under Budail bin Waraqa, while himself, with his army pursued the infidels, one hundred of whom are said to have been slain in the battle. And it is narrated from Zuhri that six thousand became prisoners and an unlimited number of properties and sheep, which Allah alone knows.
Shaykh Mufeed and Shaykh Tabarsi have narrated when the idolaters were defeated at Hunain they broke into two divisions and Arabs fled to Autas and Bani Thaqif to Taif, against both of which places the Prophet sent detachments. Malik bin Auf also went with them and they took refuge in the Taif fort.
The divisions under Abu Aamir Ashari and Abu Musa Ashari against Autas were successful after a sharp action in which Abu Aamir was killed. But the other, under Abu Sufyan bin Harb the accursed came back, saying that he was sent with those who could not even draw a bucket of water from the well. Upon this the Prophet himself immediately marched on Taif in Shawwal, which he took after a siege of more than ten days.
He sent some men with Imam Ali (a.s.) to destroy whatever he could lay his hands on and to destroy all the idols. Khatham tribe came with a huge army and attacked early in the morning and a stalwart Shahab from them challenged the Muslim army. Imam Ali (a.s.) set out to fight him but Abul Aas bin Rabi volunteered to get rid of him, but was restrained by Ali (a.s.) who said: “If I am killed you take over the command.” The people of Taif, on being conquered, become Muslims. The Holy Prophet (S) recited the Takbir and spoke at length with Amirul Momineen (a.s.) in isolation.
Shia and Sunni have through many channels narrated from Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari that when the Messenger of Allah (S) was conferring with Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Umar came and said: “You talk secretly to him and keep us aloof?” the Messenger of Allah (S) said: “I am not telling him the secrets, the Almighty Allah is.” Umar returned infuriated saying: “This is also like he said on the day of Hudaibiya that we will enter Masjidul Haram, but we returned from there without it.” The Holy Prophet (S) said: “I never said that we will enter it the same year.”
Thus Nafih bin Ghilan came out from the Taif fort with some people of Thaqif. The Messenger of Allah (S) sent Amirul Momineen (a.s.) to fight them. They met at the Valley of Dajj and Nafih was killed. Idolaters fled from there and some persons housed in the fort were overawed and they came out to embrace Islam.
Shaykh Tabarsi etc. have narrated that during the siege, a group of slaves came out of the fort and converted to Islam, one of them being Abu Bakra, slave of Harith Kaldah. Another was Mambas, whose real name was Masjah. The Holy Prophet (S) named him Mambas. There was one named Darzan, slave of Abdullah bin Rabi. When at last the people of Taif embraced Islam, they requested the Prophet to return their slaves. The Holy Prophet (S) said: “No, it is not possible, because they have been freed by the Almighty Allah.”
Shaykh Mufeed has narrated from Abdur Rahman bin Auf that the Messenger of Allah (S) laid siege to Taif for ten or seventeen days; then one day the Holy Prophet (S) mounted a horse when it was very hot climate, and said: O people, I am your intercessor and your chief. Our promised place is Kauthar. I advise you to be nice to my progeny and my Ahlul Bayt (a.s.).
By the one in whose hands is my life, it is obligatory on you to establish prayer and pay the Zakat or I will send on you one who is from me and is like my soul, who will kill you and make your children captives. Some thought that he implied Abu Bakr and some expected him to be Umar, but the Messenger of Allah (S) held the hand of Imam Ali (a.s.) and said: “This is the one.”
Shaykh Tusi has narrated through authentic chains of narrators from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that when the Holy Prophet (S) concluded the Hawazin expedition and came to the forts of Taif and laid siege to the people of Dajj for some days, they sued for peace with some conditions, which the Prophet accepted and returned to Mecca. Their messengers came to the Prophet and said: “We accept Islam but please excuse us from prayer and Zakat.”
The Messenger of Allah (S) said: “It is not a religion that has no prayer, by the one in whose hands is my life, it is obligatory on you to establish the prayer and pay the Zakat, otherwise I will send such a man to you who is like my self. He will cut off your heads and make captives of your sons.” Then he held the hand of Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) and said: “He is the one I am talking about.” When they returned to Taif and reported the conversation, they agreed to pray, pay Zakat and agreed to fulfill all the conditions laid by the Prophet.
Then the Messenger of Allah (S) said: “No one will disobey me from my Ummah, but that I will throw an arrow of God to him.” “Who is the arrow of God?” asked they. “Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.), when I sent him on an expedition, I saw Jibraeel to his right, Mikaeel to his left. And an angel walked ahead of him and a cloud shaded him till the Almighty Allah helped that beloved of mine.”
Qutub Rawandi has narrated that when the Messenger of Allah (S) besieged the people of Taif, Uyyana bin Hasan said: “Please permit me to go and talk to the people of the fort.” The Prophet accorded the permission. He said: “Do you guarantee my safety, that I may discuss some points with you?” Abu Mahjan recognized him and said: “Come in.”
When he stepped inside he said: “May my parents be sacrificed on you, your condition has pleased me. There is none like you among the Arabs. By Allah there is none like you among the companions of Muhammad.” Uyyana said: “You have sufficient stocks and we have less space of camping. Be patient, do not surrender the fort to him.” And he went away from there. Bani Thaqif said to Abu Mahjan: “We did not like his coming here and we fear that he will report all our weaknesses to Muhammad.”
Abu Mahjan said: “I know him better than you. There is none among us more inimical to Muhammad even though he is among their forces.” So when he came to the Prophet he said: “I told them to embrace Islam, by Allah, Muhammad will not move from here till you don’t surrender. So seek his amnesty and thus I threatened them much.” The Messenger of Allah (S) said: “You are lying, you spoke to them in such and such manner.” Companions condemned him and he sought divine forgiveness and promised not to repeat such a thing.
Shaykh Tabarsi has narrated that the Prophet conferred with his companions about the people of Taif. Salman Farsi said: “O Messenger of Allah (S). I think you should aim a catapult at the fort.” The Prophet accepted the proposal and a catapult was prepared and loaded with skin full of oil. The people of the fort burnt the catapult and their trees were burnt in retaliation.
Sufyan bin Abdullah Thaqafi called out from the fort and announced: “Why are you destroying our property? All this will be yours if you are victorious. And if you are not victorious, have mercy for the sake of God and leave our properties intact.” The Holy Prophet (S) replied: “Leave them for the sake of Allah.”
It is mentioned in one report that the Holy Prophet (S) laid siege to Taif for around thirty days and after that he returned. Then the people of Taif came and embraced Islam. Shaykh Tusi has narrated through authentic chains of narrators from Abu Zar that the Messenger of Allah (S) said that when the messengers of people of Taif arrived and I said that they must establish prayer and pay Zakat or “I will send to them one who is like my self, who loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger love him.
He will strike off your heads,” companions craned their necks in anticipation but I held aloft the hand of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and said: “He is the one.” Abu Bakr and Umar said: “I have never seen this excellence in anyone.”
Shia and Sunni scholars have mentioned that Imam Ali (a.s.) said on the Shura along with his other merits that: I adjure you before Allah, did the Messenger of Allah (S) say about anyone that: Bani Waliya should refrain from hostilities or I will send to them who is like my self. His obedience is my obedience and his disobedience is my disobedience.
One who will make them obey through the sword.” All Shura members said: “None of us is like that.” Then he said: I adjure you before Allah, is there anyone among you like me, to whom the Prophet spoke secretly on the day of the Battle of Taif and Abu Bakr and Umar had told him: “You speak to Ali in secret and conceal it from us.” And the Prophet had told them: “I did not say anything of my own. The Almighty Allah had ordered me to do so.” All said: “None of us is like that.”
Shaykh Tusi etc. have narrated that after this conquest, the Prophet retired with his army to Jaranah, where he divided the booty taken at Hunain among his Quraish followers and the Arabs, and gave none, or very little to the Ansaris. His reason for such a division was to attach firmly to him those who had recently become Muslims.
For this purpose he gave a hundred camels to Abu Sufyan bin Harb, and the same number to his son Muawiyah. Several other individuals, like Hakim bin Kharam of Bani Asad, Nazar bin Harith, Alaa bin Khalid Thaqafi, Harith bin Hasham and Jubair bin Motam and Malik bin Auf, al-Qama bin Alaqa, Aqra bin Habis, Uyyana bin Hasan enjoyed the same share.
A poet, Abbas bin Mardas, receiving only four camels was so enraged that he complained to the Prophet by chanting an extemporaneous ode. The Prophet hearing this, ordered Ali to go and cut out Abbas’s tongue. Accordingly he led away the confounded man, who earnestly asked him if he really intended to cut out his tongue.
“I shall obey the prophet’s order,” replied Ali, who now led him into the camel-yard and bade him take four camels and rank with the Muhajireen, or hundred camels be classed with those that had received that number. At Ali’s advice he contented himself with taking four camels.
Some Ansaris were also much offended at his division of spoils, and said, “the Prophet was for us in the day of his necessity, but now, when he has gained his own kindred to his cause, he forgets us.” On being informed of these reproaches, the Prophet ordered the Ansaris to be assembled by themselves, when he came to them in anger, attended only by the Amirul Momineen (a.s.), and thus addressed them: “When you were all on the brink of Hellfire, did not Allah through me give you salvation? and when you were at swords’ points with each other, did not the Almighty Allah, through the blessing of my presence, inspire union and love in your heart?” To which they responded, “Yes, you were few and degraded when I came to you, and now, through my influence, you have become numerous and honorable.”
In the way he enumerated the many favors he had conferred upon them. As they continued silent after he had concluded his address, he said, “Why do you not answer me?” they replied, “What answer can we give, O Messenger of Allah (S)? All our fathers and mothers be your sacrifice! all that we enjoy is from you.” The Prophet replied, you might indeed say to me, “your people charged you with falsehood and expelled you from among them, but we acknowledged your truth and gave you an asylum, you came to us fearful, and we gave you assurance.”
At this, the whole company wept aloud, and the old men came to the Prophet kissed his blessed hands, and feet, and knees saying, “We are satisfied to have God and his Prophet; do what please with our own property.” He then said, “you were vexed with me for dividing the plunder among those that have recently embraced Islam, in order to attach them firmly to the faith, and make them your efficient coadjutors, while to you belonged the more excellent riches of the faith.
Are you not content that others should take the sheep and camels, while the Prophet is your portion?” He then declared the Ansaris peculiarly his own, the ark of his mysteries, and said if all the world were to go to one valley, and the Ansaris to another, he would certainly continue with them. He concluded by imploring pardon for them and their posterity.
Kulaini and Ayyashi has narrated through good chains of narrators from Zurarah that Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) was asked about the meaning of the phrase:
“…and those whose hearts are made to incline (to truth)…”
Imam (a.s.) said
: “Those who adopted monotheism and gave up idol worship and confessed to the dictum of: There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, in spite of the fact that they continued to doubt whatever the Prophet liked for them so the Almighty Allah ordered His Prophet to make them incline to faith through wealth and good turns so that Islam becomes good and they remain steadfast in are religion they have embraced.
Doubtlessly on the day of Battle of Hunain, the Holy Prophet (S) went out of his way to please people like, Abu Sufyan bin Harb and Uyyana bin Hasan like the chiefs of Arabs and Mudhir tribe but Ansaris were dissatisfied with this and they gathered around Saad bin Ubadah. So the Holy Prophet (S) brought them to Jaranah. Saad bin Ubadah asked permission to speak and then said that if the distribution of booty was according to divine instructions, it was all right and if not, the Ansaris were not prepared to accept it.”
The Prophet asked them if what their chief was saying was claimed by all of them and they assented. Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) says: Since that day the light of their faith decreased. And the Almighty Allah fixed a portion for those inclined to faith. The following year the Ansaris received a very large share of plunder, more than twice the booty of Hunain.
And many groups embraced Islam. The Holy Prophet (S) recited a sermon and said
: “Whatever I said was better or what you said? A booty equal to the booty of Hunain has come to me and a large number of people have embraced Islam. By the one in whose hands is the life of Muhammad, I would like to pay a 100 camels to everyone in order to attract them to Islam.”
Ayyashi has narrated that on the day of the Battle of Hunain, an Ansari objected to the Prophet’s method. A companion said
: “You utter such nonsense about the prayer?” Then he came to the Prophet and reports the talk of that Ansari.”
The Messenger of Allah (S) said
: “My brother, Musa was harassed more by the people but he observed patience for the sake of Allah. On the day of the Battle of Hunain, the Prophet gave a hundred camel to each of those who were inclined to faith.
Shaykh Mufeed, Shaykh Tabarsi and all Shia and Sunni tradition scholars have narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri etc. that on the day of the Battle of Hunain, when the Messenger of Allah (S) was dividing the booty, when Zulkhaisra from Bani Tamim came to him and said
: “O Messenger of Allah (S) be just in distributing.” The Messenger of Allah (S) said: “Woe be on you, if I don’t practice justice, who will?”
Umar bin Khattab said
: “O Messenger of Allah (S), allow me to strike off his head.” The Holy Prophet (S) said: “Let it be, he will rise with a group whose prayers you will consider superior to yours whose fasts you will consider superior to yours. They will be constantly reciting the Qur’an but it will not go beyond their throat. They will go out of Islam like an arrow leaves the bow.
Their sign is that a black man will lead them whose arms will have flesh protruding. He will rise against the best company of men.” Abu Saeed said
: “I testify having heard this from the Messenger of Allah (S) and testify that I was with Amirul Momineen (a.s.) in the Battle of Khawarij. Imam Ali (a.s.) told us to search for one whom the Prophet had indicated and he was found among the dead.
Shaykh Tabarsi has narrated that on the day of Battle of Hunain the Prophet was distributing the booty and after it was done, he mounted and set out from there.
People ran with him and beseeching him for more till they stopped him under a tree and pulled his robe off his shoulders. He said
: “People, give my robe back. By the one in whose hands is my life, if I were to get as much booty as there are trees on the earth, I will give it all to you and you will not find me miserly then he plucked a hair from a camel and told them that he was not enriched by the spoil they had taken to the amount of that hair, except the fifth, which belonged to him, and even this he would give up to them.
And if you have taken even a needle from it wrongly, you must return it as it will make you liable for Hell. An Ansari came with a string saying that he had taken it to sew the sheet of his camel. The Holy Prophet (S) said
: “I leave my share in it.” That man said: “When the matter is so sensitive, I will leave it.” And he returned the thread.
In the month of Zilqad the Holy Prophet (S) marched back to Mecca, and performed the rites of Umrah. He appointed Maaz bin Jabal and according to another report, appointed Itab bin Usaid as the governor of Mecca and left Maaz bin Jabal with him to instruct the people in faith.
Ibn Babawayh has narrated through authentic chains of narrators from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the Prophet was never in greater danger than at Hunain, for most of the nomadic tribes were opposed to him in that battle.
Shaykh Tabarsi etc. have narrated that a daughter of his nurse, Halima was there taken prisoner, and on being brought to the Prophet, said she was his sister, the daughter of his nurse, and that she was now a prisoner. He spread his cloak for her to sit on, and conversed with her for a long time, asking her many question. He did not take as much notice of her brother, assigning as a reason, that the daughter had been more dutiful to her parents than brother.
Shaykh Tabarsi has narrated that when some delegations from Hawazin came to the Prophet and embraced Islam and said
: “People from our clan are taken prisoners and you know what trouble has afflicted us. So please do us a favor with regard to them, may Allah bless you. Zuhair bin Surd stood up to speak: “O Messenger of Allah (S) if we had nursed Harith bin Abi Shimr or Noman bin Manzar and they had overcome us, they would have indeed done much favor on us and they are much better than you people.
These camps house your maternal aunts and their daughters in captivity. We don’t want money. Please free our women and children. Many of their prisoners had already been distributed among the companions. When his sister interceded on their behalf of the Messenger of Allah (S) said
: “I have given up my share and the share of the sons of Abdul Muttalib; but you apply in my name for those who are in share of other Muslims, perhaps they will also free them.”
After Noon Prayer, Halima’s daughter began to canvass for her prisoners, which was immediately accepted by the Muslims and her people were released. But Afra bin Habis and Uyyana bin Hasan refused: “This community had taken many of our women prisoners, so we will not free their women prisoners. So lots were drawn for their shares and the Prophet prayed to Allah to decrease their shares. One got a servant from Bani Aqil and another got a servant from Bani Numair.
When they received their share they also gave up the claims. But regarding the women who were distributed first, the Holy Prophet (S) said
: “Whoever gives up his share will get six shares from the next booty that we receive.” All freed their women and children. Then Halima’s daughter asked for amnesty for Malik bin Auf and the Prophet accepted. He came to the Prophet who returned his belongings and also gave him a hundred camels.
It is narrated that on the day the Holy Prophet (S) distributed prisoners in Autas Valley, he had it announced that pregnant women be not taken to bed, till the time of their deliveries and non-pregnant women must also not be touched till they have had one menstrual cycle.
It is narrated that the Holy Prophet (S) married Malika Kandia in the eighth year of Hijrat. Her father was killed on the day of the conquest of Mecca. Some of the Prophet’s wives said
: “Are you not ashamed to marry a man who killed your father?” That unfortunate woman despised the Prophet and he separated from her.
The same year, in the month of Zilhajj, Ibrahim, the son of the Prophet by Mariya, was born. His midwife was Abu Rafe’s wife, freed slave girl of the Prophet. She told her husband that a son is born to the Prophet. Abu Rafe conveyed the good news to the Prophet who gave her a slave in reward and named his newborn son, Ibrahim. Seven days after the birth, the Prophet performed Aqiqa, gave the customary entertainment, shaved his son’s head and buried the hair, giving its weight in silver to the poor.
Ansar women competed with each other to nurse him, so the Holy Prophet (S) chose Umm Barda binte Manzar bin Zaid. It is said that in the same year, his adopted daughter, Zainab died; and he sent Kaab bin Umair on an expedition to Shaam, who, with his party, were all slain. He also sent Uyyana bin Hasan to Bani Ambar and he defeated them and took their women as prisoners.
 Abu Sufyan bin Harith bin Abdul Muttalib
 Surah Taubah 9:25
 Surah Taubah 9:26
 Surah Taubah 9:25
 Surah Taubah 9:60