The Treaty of Hudaibiyya
On 29th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa'dah in 6 AH, God granted Islam and Muslims a Great Victory over the pagan Arabs with the signing of the Treaty of Hudaibiyya by Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). The holy Qur'an says in this regard in ayah number one of Surah Fath "Indeed We have opened for you a Manifest Victory."
It is worth noting that when the Prophet, along with some 1,400 unarmed Muslims, set out from Medina to perform the Umrah or the minor pilgrimage and reached within 20 km of the city of Mecca, the pagan Arabs breached their word and blocked his way at a place called Hudaibiyya. Negotiations took place between the two parties and it was decided that the Muslims would return to Mecca for now, but would be allowed to perform the pilgrimage next year.
A treaty was drafted specifying the terms of truce between the two sides and their allies, provided the clauses were not violated. Imam Ali (AS) acted as the scribe of the Prophet, who placed his seal and signature on the document despite the opposition to its contents by some of his so-called elder companions.
The Prophet, however, insisted on honouring the letter and spirit of the treaty, which was indeed a new and dynamic development in the Arabian Peninsula, and established the rapidly increasing Muslim community as the paramount power. The terms of the Treaty of Hudaibiyya were soon violated by the arrogantly ignorant Arab infidels, and two years later in 8 AH, the Prophet was commanded by God to march peacefully upon Mecca, which surrendered without bloodshed to the Muslims.
This was another milestone in the history of monotheism and led to the cleansing of the holy Ka'ba of the idols that the pagan Arabs had installed in Prophet Abraham's edifice to the One and Only God.