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Some of the Great Shia Ulama

Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz

The exegete of Holy Qur'an Ayatollah Mirza Khalil Kamarai
On October 10, 1984 AD, the exegete of Holy Qur'an, and university lecturer, Ayatollah Mirza Khalil Kamarai, passed away. He was a product of the Qom Seminary, and due to his opposition to the irreligious and despotic policies of the ruling regime, was detained and incarcerated in 1962 by the British-installed and US-backed Shah. Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, he started theology lectures at Tehran University. He has left behind several compilations in Persian and Arabic, including a complete exegesis of Holy Qur'an, and the book: "Onsor-e Shuja'at" (Element of Valour) on the exemplary life of Imam Husain (AS) and the Immortal Martyrs of Karbala.

Ayatollah Ashrafi Isfahani
On October 14, 1982 AD, the Friday Prayer Leader of the western Iranian city of Kermanshah, Ayatollah Ataollah Ashrafi Isfahani, was martyred by the MKO terrorists. Born in a religious family in Isfahan Province, after initial education in Isfahan city, at the age of 22, he moved to Qom where he studied for 23 years, and became a mujtahid. He then moved to Kermanshah, where following the historic uprising of 15th Khordad (June 4, 1963), he was appointed by the Father of the Islamic Revolution (RA), as his representative in this city.
Following the 1979 victory of the Islamic Revolution, he was appointed as Friday prayer leader of Kermanshah City. The Shah’s despotic regime detained and incarcerated him several times. Following the victory of Islamic Revolution, he was appointed the Friday Prayer Leader of Kermanshah. On hearing of his martyrdom, Imam Khomeini said: For long years I had known him, admired his calm, peaceful, and assuring spirit, as well as vast knowledge and good deeds.

Allamah Mohammad Hussein Kompani
On 5th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 1361 AH, the prominent Iranian religious scholar and Gnostic, Allamah Mohammad Hussein Kompani, passed away in the holy city of Najaf at the age of 65. He was born in the holy city of Kazemain near Baghdad and was well-versed in philosophy, Gnosticism, history, geography, poetry, and literature. His sharp mind and power of speech made him a prominent figure. He has left behind a large number of articles and journals. He has composed poems in praise of Holy Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) and the Infallible Ahl al-Bayt.

Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Khomeini
On October 22, 1977, on this day in 1977 AD, Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Khomeini, the elder son of the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (RA), was martyred in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq, by agents of Iran's Pahlavi regime, at the age of 47. He was born in the holy city of Qom, where he mastered Islamic sciences and reached the level of Ijtehad or independent reasoning on the basis of Holy Qur'an and the Prophet's hadith at the young age of 27 years.
For ten years he used to lecture at the Najaf Islamic Seminary, and was always alongside his father in the struggle against the despotic Shah’s regime. The martyrdom of Imam Khomeini's son accelerated the pace of the struggles of the Muslim Iranian people and brought about the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, a year and four months later.

The jurisprudent and hadith narrator, Tawous ibn Kaysan al-Yamani
On 7th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 106 AH, the jurisprudent and hadith narrator, Tawous ibn Kaysan al-Yamani passed away in Mecca. He was said to be of Persian stock from Hamadan and was a resident of Yemen. He has narrated the "munajaat" or whispered supplications to God Almighty of Imam Zayn al-Abedin (AS), the 4th Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He is held in esteem by both the Shi'ite and Sunni scholars. Famous Iranian Sunni compilers such as Bukhari, Muslim Nishapouri, Tirmizi, and others have recorded hadith on his authority.

Ayatollah Dr. Seyyed Mohammad Husseini Beheshti
On October 23, 1928, the revolutionary Iranian thinker and statesman, Ayatollah Dr. Seyyed Mohammad Husseini Beheshti, was born in the city of Isfahan, central Iran. He grew up in a religious and academic family and at the age of 18, he enrolled at the famous Islamic Seminary in the holy city of Qom where he studied under leading ulema, including the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (may his soul rest in peace). He also continued his academic studies at the university and obtained PhD in philosophy.
He was active in political and cultural activities as well, and was involved in the historic 15th Khordad uprising of June 5, 1963, led by Imam Khomeini. Later he spent several years at the Islamic Centre in Hamburg, Germany, to promote the teachings of Islam. Ayatollah Beheshti’s fluency in German, English, and Arabic languages highly assisted him in his efforts to promote Islam in Germany and Europe.
He returned to Iran in 1971 and continued his struggles against the dictatorial Pahlavi regime, thus playing a vital role in the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, following which, he was assigned key posts, the last of which was Chief Justice. Ayatollah Beheshti actively countered the deviated currents through logic and reasoning. He achieved martyrdom, along with 72 prominent Iranian officials, when a bomb planted by MKO terrorists exploded.
He wrote several books, including "God in View of Islam"; "Banking and Islam’s Financial Laws"; and "Role of Faith in Mankind’s Life". Describing him, Imam Khomeini said: “Martyr Beheshti lived and died in oppression; since he was a thorn in the eyes of the foes of Islam.”

The Imami scholar, Yahya ibn Ahmad al-Hilli
On 9th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 689 AH, the Imami scholar, Yahya ibn Ahmad al-Hilli, passed away in Iraq. He was a cousin of the famous researcher, Muhaqqeq al-Hilli, who in turn was the maternal uncle of the celebrated scholar, Allamah Hilli. Among his works is “Nuzhat an-Nazzer”.

Mullah Ja’far Shariat-Madaar Astarabadi
On 10th of the Islamic month of Safar in 1263 AH, the prominent Iranian scholar, Mullah Ja’far Shariat-Madaar Astarabadi passed away in Tehran at the age of 66 and his body was taken to holy Najaf in Iraq for burial. He was a product of the famous Islamic Hawzah. He returned to Iran, while the Iraqi city of Karbala was besieged by the Ottoman General Davoud Pasha. He was also highly skilled in Arabic literature and was an accomplished poet. Among his books, mention could be made of "al-Masabih" on principles of Islamic Jurisprudence.

Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Abdul-Hadi Shirazi
On 10th of the Islamic month of Safar in 1382 AH, the Source of Emulation, Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Abdul-Hadi Shirazi, passed away. He was a product of the famous Najaf Seminary and learned Islamic sciences under prominent lecturers such as Akhound Khorasani and Allameh Yazdi, attaining the level of ijtehad. He has left behind a number of works, including a book named “Daar al-Islam”.

The leading revolutionary ulema of Iran's Constitutional Movement, Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabai
On 19th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 1257 AH, one of the leading revolutionary ulema of Iran's Constitutional Movement, Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabai, was born. In cooperation with Ayatollah Seyyed Abdullah Behbahani, he launched his struggle against the suppressive and autocratic rule of Qajarid dynasty. He was also a prominent scientist in addition to being an erudite Islamic scholar. He groomed numerous prominent students in line with development of Islamic sciences and teachings.

Ayatollah Akhound Mullah Mohammad Kazem Khorasani
On 20th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 1329 AH, Ayatollah Akhound Mullah Mohammad Kazem Khorasani, one of the prominent ulema and pioneers of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran, passed away. He was a product of famous Islamic seminary of holy Najaf, in Iraq, and his teachers included the celebrated Ayatollah Sheikh Morteza Ansari Dezfuli. His famous work ‘Kifayat al-Osoul’ on principles of jurisprudence is still taught at Islamic seminaries in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain, India, Pakistan, and elsewhere.

Ayatollah Sheikh Abbas Qommi
On 23rd of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 1359 AH, the celebrated researcher and religious scholar, Ayatollah Sheikh Abbas Qommi, passed away in the holy city of Najaf, in Iraq at the age of 65. He was born in the holy city of Qom in Iran where he learned Islamic sciences before leaving for Iraq for higher religious studies. He wrote many outstanding works, and his magnum opus is the “Mafatih al-Jenaan” (Keys of Paradise) – a collection of prayers, supplications and related topics. Mention could also be made of his excellent work on Islamic chronology titled “Waqa’e al-Ayyam” as well as "Safinat al-Behar", which literally means a ship sailing through the monumental Islamic encyclopedia “Behar al-Anwaar” (Oceans of Lights), of the celebrated Safavid era scholar, Allamah Mohammad Baqer Majlisi.

Ayatollah Reza Madani Kashani
On 24th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 1412 AH, prominent religious leader, Ayatollah Reza Madani Kashani, passed away in his hometown Kashan. The Leader of Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, paid glowing tributes to this scholar for his grooming of students and compilation of valuable books in Persian and Arabic, including the 4-volume "Barahin al-Hajj".

Ayatollah Allamah Seyyed Mohammad Hussein Tabatabaei
On November 14, 1981 AD, the philosopher and famous exegete of the holy Qur’an, Ayatollah Allamah Seyyed Mohammad Hussein Tabatabaei, passed away at the age of 80. He was born in an academic and religious family in the city of Tabriz, northwestern Iran. Following completion of preliminary studies, he learned Islamic sciences and Arabic language, and after studying in holy Najaf, Iraq, where he attained the rank of Ijtehad, he returned to Iran and taught at Islamic seminaries. He was an innovative philosopher and an expert mathematician, in addition to being an Islamic Gnostic. He was also well versed in literature and theology and steeped in spiritual values.
He wrote several works in philosophy and Islamic sciences, including “The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism” and the famous 20-volume exegesis in Arabic titled “al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an”, which has been translated into English language as well.

Shaikh Hassan Ibn Zain od-Din
On 1st of the Islamic month of Moharam in 1011 AH, the scholar Shaikh Hassan Ibn Zain od-Din, passed away at the age of 52 in his homeland Lebanon. He was the son of the famous Shaheed Thani (Second Martyr), and was a product of the Najaf Seminary in Iraq. He wrote the famous book “Ma’alem al-Usoul”. In Lebanon he groomed numerous students.

Ayatullah Seyyed Mohammad Hussein Fazlollah
On November 16, 1935 AD, the famous Islamic scholar of Lebanon, Ayatullah Seyyed Mohammad Hussein Fazlollah, was born in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq, to the scholar Abdur-Raoof Fazlollah. After 21 years of studying under prominent ulema, including Ayatollah Shaikh Mujtaba Ali Lankarani of Iran, he settled in Lebanon, where he was active in social, cultural, religious and political affairs. He established several schools, orphanages, hospitals and libraries. He firmly opposed the illegal Zionist entity and stood against US hegemonic designs on Lebanon, for which the Americans and the Israelis tried several times to assassinate him. He breathed his last on July 4, 2010 at the age of 74 in Beirut.

The prominent Iranian scholar Mullah Ahmad Fazel-e Naraqi
On 5th of the Islamic month of Moharram in 1310 AH, the prominent Iranian scholar Mullah Ahmad Fazel-e Naraqi, passed away. He was born in Azarbaijan Province, northwestern Iran, and studied at the famous seminary of holy Najaf in Iraq under such great scholar as Sheikh Morteza Ansari. Following his return to Iran, he groomed a large number of students. He has left behind numerous books on various topics including an exegesis of the holy Qur’an.

The famous Islamic scholar Sharif Razi
On 6th of the Islamic month of Moharram in 406 AH, the famous Islamic scholar Seyyed Mohammad Ibn Hussain al-Musawi al-Baghdadi, better known as Sharif Razi, passed away at the age of 47. He was a child prodigy. Along with his elder brother, Sharif Murtaza, he was a student of the celebrated scholar Shaikh Mufid. He was also a poet and a symbol of selflessness and devotion in his social activities.
He wrote several books on a wide variety of topics such as exegesis of the holy Qur’an, theology, history, Arabic literature, and hadith. His fame, however, rests on his compilation of the book “Nahj al-Balaghah” (Highway of Eloquence), which contains the sermons, letters, and maxims of the Commander of the Faithful, the Prophet’s First Infallible Successor, Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS). The book is testimony to the Imam’s unparallel eloquence which is considered, even by non-Muslim Arabic scholars, to be next only to God’s Revealed Word, the holy Qur’an. His other works include: "Haqa’eq at-Tanzeel", and "Mu’jazaat al-Qur’an".

Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hadi Milani
On 7th of the Islamic month of Moharram in 1313 AH, the Prominent Source of Emulation, Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hadi Milani, was born in the holy city of Najaf, in Iraq. He mastered the sciences of the day including the Arabic and Persian languages at the famous seminary of the holy city, at which he became an outstanding instructor, grooming a large number of students, most of whom became prominent figures. He was a picture of piety and passed away at the age of 82. He wrote several books in various fields.

The prominent Iranian religious scholar, Ayatollah Mameqani
On 18th of the Islamic month of Moharram in 1323 AH, the prominent Iranian religious scholar, Ayatollah Shaikh Mohammad Hassan Mameqani, passed away. He lived a life of piety, having attained the status of Ijtehad – or independent reasoning based on the Holy Qur’an and Prophet’s Hadith. He has left behind a large number of valuable compilations in jurisprudence, including Zara'eq al-Ahkaam and "Mujalladaat al-Bashari". He has also written an annotation on the famous jurisprudential book "al-Makaseb" of Ayatollah Sheikh Morteza Ansari.

The prominent Iranian religious scholar, Allamah Mullah Mahdi Naraqi
On 23rd of the Islamic month of Moharram in 1209 AH, the prominent Iranian religious scholar, Allamah Mullah Mahdi Naraqi, passed away. He was born in Naraq near Kashan and after preliminary studies, left for the holy city of Najaf in Iraq for higher seminary studies. On his return to Iran, he joined the seminary of Isfahan where for thirty years he studied and taught. Mullah Mahdi Naraqi mastered jurisprudence, theology, philosophy, astronomy, and mathematics. He also learnt Hebrew and Latin languages in order to communicate with Jewish and Christian scholars. He wrote several books including the famous "Jame-os-Sa’adat", which is on ethical topics.

Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Reza Golpayegani
On December 8, 1993 AD, the Source of Emulation, Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Reza Golpayegani, passed away. He was born in the city of Golpayegan in Isfahan Province, and started his studies by learning the holy Qur'an. Thereafter, he studied Islamic sciences under prominent ulema including Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Haeri, the reviver of the Qom Seminary, which later Grand Ayatollah Golpayegani made his base. For years he groomed a large number of scholars. He was a staunch supporter of the Islamic Revolution, and always defended the ideals of Imam Khomeini (RA) through issuing statements. He also founded numerous schools and hospitals in Iran and abroad, and has left behind numerous books on Islamic sciences.

The Imami scholar Mohsin Ibn Ali Qazi Tannoukhi
On 25th of the Islamic month of Moharram in 354 AH, the Imami scholar Mohsin Ibn Ali Qazi Tannoukhi passed away. He was a master of Arabic literature and wrote a fitting reply on the God-endowed merits of the Holy Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt by rejecting the superficial eulogy composed by Ibn Mo’tazz on the forged superiority of the Abbasids.

Ayatollah Seyyed Abdul-Hussain Dastghaib
On December 10,1981 AD, the prominent religious scholar and Friday Prayer Leader of Shiraz in southern Iran, Ayatollah Seyyed Abdul-Hussain Dastghaib, was martyred by a MKO terrorist while on his way to the venue of the weekly Friday Prayer. He was a product of the famous seminary of holy Najaf in Iraq where he attained the status of Ijtehad, that is, independent reasoning based on the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith. In addition to teaching Islamic sciences, he campaigned against the despotic regime of the British-installed and US-supported Shah and was detained several times.
Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Dastghaib was elected to the Assembly of Experts as the representative of Shiraz, and was assigned to lead the Friday Prayer in this city by the Founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Imam Khomeini (RA). This prominent religious scholar has left behind a large number of valuable writings, including an exegesis of several surahs of the holy Qur'an.

The Iranian scholar and scientist, Shaikh Mullah Tostari
On 26th of the Islamic month of Moharam in 1023 AH, the Iranian scholar and scientist, Shaikh Mullah Abdullah Ibn Hussain Tostari, passed away. He was a student of the celebrated scholar, Moqaddas Ardabili of holy Najaf, and after reaching the rank of Ijtehad – or independent reasoning based on Holy Qur’an and Prophet’s Hadith – he taught at Isfahan’s Seminary and groomed numerous students, including the Mullah Mohammad Taqi Majilis, the father of the famous Allamah Mohammad Baqer Majlisi. Sheikh Abdullah Tostari has left behind a large number of valuable compilations, including the books: “Khawas al-Qur’an” and "Jam'e al-Fawa’ed". He is not to be confused with another great scholar of the same name, Abdullah Tostari, who flourished earlier in the time of Shah Tahmasp.

The renowned Muslim scholar, Ayatollah Mullah Ali Kani
On 27th of the Islamic month of Moharam in 1306 AH, the renowned Muslim scholar, Ayatollah Mullah Ali Kani, passed away in Tehran. He mastered Arabic literature and learned Islamic sciences, especially theology at the seminary of holy Najaf in Iraq, under the celebrated Ayatollah Shaikh Morteza Ansari. On attaining Ijtehad – independent reasoning on the basis of the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith on modern issues – he returned to Iran, and took an active role in the struggle against the despotism of Qajarid kings. He authored several books.

The prominent Iranian religious scholar, Mullah Abdullah Shushtari
On 13th of the Islamic month of Moharram in 1021 AH, the prominent Iranian religious scholar, Mullah Abdullah Shushtari, passed away. He was a product of the famous seminary of holy Najaf in Iraq and on returning to Iran, he groomed a great many scholars. He lived a life of piety and asceticism and adopted a simple lifestyle. He has written a large number of books and at the same time was active in social affairs, sparing no efforts to solve people's problems.

Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Ali Araki
On November 28, 1994 AD, the Source of Emulation, Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Ali Araki, passed away at the age of 103. Born in the central Iranian city of Arak, he learned Islamic sciences under prominent ulema of his era as of the age of 11 years. Among his teachers were Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Haeri, and Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Taqi Khansari. For several years he taught at the Qom Seminary, grooming a large number of students. Grand Ayatollah Araki presented the most complicated scientific topics in simple forms. He was a supporter of the Islamic Revolution and greatly respected Imam Khomeini (RA).

The prominent Islamic scholar and narrator of Hadith, Seyyed Sadreddin Musawi Ameli
On 14th of the Islamic month of Moharram in 1263 AH, the prominent Islamic scholar and narrator of Hadith, Seyyed Sadreddin Musawi Ameli, passed away in the Iranian city of Isfahan. He was born in the Jabal Amel region of Lebanon. He left for Iraq at a young age and after completion of his studies in the holy city of Najaf, he honed his skills in theology, jurisprudence and Hadith. He has left behind a comprehensive compilation on jurisprudence and its principles. He also has a book on grammar in which he has extensively quoted from the holy Qur'an.

The Iranian religious scholar, Dr. Mohammad Mofattah
On December 17, 1979 AD, the Iranian religious scholar, Dr. Mohammad Mofattah, attained martyrdom at the hands of terrorists at the age of 51. He studied at the Islamic seminary in holy Qom, while continuing his academic studies at Tehran University, from where he obtained PhD in philosophy. He later lectured at Tehran University, and was active against the Shah’s despotic regime.
Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution, he was appointed as Dean of the Faculty of Theology at Tehran University. Martyr Mofattah was one of the pioneers of unity between the seminaries and universities. Hence, this day has been named as The Day of Unity between Seminaries and Universities.

Ayatollah Mirza Mohammad Ali Shahabadi
On 4th of the Islamic month of Safar 1434 in 1984 AD, senior Iranian religious leader, Ayatollah Mirza Mohammad Ali Shahabadi, passed away in Tehran at the age of 77. He was an accomplished scholar in the field of philosophy and Gnosticism and groomed numerous students at the Qom Seminary. Among his prominent students was the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (RA). Ayatollah Shahabadi wrote a large number of books and treatises including "al-Insaan wa’l-Khateraat".

Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Ma’soumi
On 5th of the Islamic month of Safar in 1372 AH, the religious scholar, Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Ma’soumi, passed away in Behbahan, southern Iran at the age of 84. He was a product of the famous Islamic seminary of the holy city of Najaf in Iraq, where he reached the status of ijtehad. His works strongly defend the tenets of Islam and the interests of Muslims. He has left behind a large number of books, including “Sharh-e Lum’a”, and “Nejat al-Ebaad”.

Ayatollah Mir Seyyed Mohammad Modarres Najafabadi
On January 4, 1939 AD, Ayatollah Mir Seyyed Mohammad Modarres Najafabadi passed away at the age of 62. He studied preliminary sciences in his hometown near Isfahan, before leaving for Iraq for higher studies in the famous seminary of holy Najaf. On his return to Isfahan, he taught for more than thirty years, grooming a large number of students, some of them which became prominent scholars. Among his works is the famous annotation titled “Hashiya ala Kefayat al-Osoul”.

Prominent Iranian religious leader, Ayatollah Hussain Ghaffari
On December 27, 1974 AD, prominent Iranian religious leader, Ayatollah Hussain Ghaffari, attained martyrdom in the dungeon of the Shah's despotic regime. He led a simple life, and through writing books and publication of a magazine, exposed the crimes of the British-installed and US-backed Shah against the nation. A brilliant orator, his speeches revealed to the people the widespread corruption of the Pahlavi regime. As a result he was frequently detained by the regime, which tortured him to death this day.

The combatant Iranian religious leader, Mirza Ali Aqa Siqqat-ol-Islam Tabrizi
On December 30, 1911 AD, the combatant Iranian religious leader, Mirza Ali Aqa Siqqat-ol-Islam Tabrizi, was martyred by the invading Russian forces. He played an important role in Tabriz, as an activist of the Constitutional Revolution. He resolutely struggled against the occupation of parts of northwestern Iran in the Caucasus by Czarist Russia, while guiding and leading people to this end. The Russians, who considered him an opponent, kidnapped and martyred him.

The prominent Indian Islamic scholar, Allamah Mir Hamed Hussain Musavi
On 18th of of the Islamic month of Safar in 1306 AH, the prominent Indian Islamic scholar, Allamah Mir Hamed Hussain Musavi, passed away in Lucknow at the age of 60. He was well versed in theology, hadith, and other Islamic sciences. He devoted his entire life to research and writing books, for which he travelled the Islamic world and browsed through the libraries. He has left behind a large number of works, his magnum opus being the voluminous book, “Abaqaat al-Anwaar” on the merits of the blessed Ahl al-Bayt, as mentioned in the holy Qur'an by God Almighty and the Hadith of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).

The prominent religious scholar of Iraq, Sheikh Baqer Kazemaini
On 18th of of the Islamic month of Safar in 1326 AH, the prominent religious scholar of Iraq, Sheikh Baqer Kazemaini, passed away at the age of 68. He was born in the holy city of Kazemain near Baghdad and completed his studies in the famous seminary of the holy city of Najaf under prominent ulema of his era, including Iran's Ayatollah Sheikh Morteza Dezfuli Ansari. He has left behind a large number of books, including “Mizan al-Haq”.

Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Morteza Langeroodi
On 19th of the Islamic month of Safar in 1383 AH, the Source of Emulation, Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Morteza Langeroodi, passed away at the age of 77. He was born near the city of Langerood on the Caspian Sea coast of Gilan Province in northern Iran. After studying in Qazvin and benefitting later from the classes of senior ulema, such as Ayatollah Tonekaboni, he went to Iraq for higher studies at the famous seminary of holy Najaf, where he attended the classes of Ayatollah Mirza Hussain Na'ini for several years, until he attained the status of Ijtehad. He taught for some time in Najaf before returning to Iran to teach for long years at the seminary in the holy city of Qom. He authored several books.

The prominent Iranian Islamic scholar, Sheikh Ja’far Shushtari
On 20th of the Islamic month of Safar in 1303 AH, the prominent Iranian Islamic scholar, Sheikh Ja’far Shushtari, passed away. His power of speech, piety, and strong memory was known to all. He was an accomplished jurisprudent and spent all his life, guiding people and carrying out religious duties. He groomed a large number of students and has left behind numerous books, including “Usoul ad-Din” (Fundamentals of Religion).

The prominent Muslim scientist and theologian, Shaikh Bahai
On 21st of the Islamic month of Safar in 1051 AH, the prominent Muslim scientist and theologian, Baha od-Din Mohammad Ibn Hussain al-Ameli, known popularly as Shaikh Bahai, completed the writing of the book “Meftah al-Falah” (Keys to Welfare). This excellent manual of prayers and supplications has been translated several times into Persian. The best translation is the one undertaken over three centuries ago by the migrant Iranian scholar to the court of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Haiderabad-Deccan in India, Ali bin Tayfour Bastami, and recently printed in Iran. Among the translations in Iran mention could be made of the one done by Sadra-e Tabrizi. The Arabic text of “Meftah al-Falah” has been published several times in Iran, Lebanon, and Egypt.

The prominent Iranian religious scholar, Mullah Hussein-Ali Toiserkaani
On 29th of the Islamic month of Safar in 1286 AH, the prominent Iranian religious scholar, Mullah Hussein-Ali Toiserkaani, passed away in the central Iranian city of Isfahan. He was highly knowledgeable in sciences such as theology and jurisprudence. He lectured for long years and groomed many students. One of his most important books in theology is "Kashf al-Asraar", which has been compiled in eleven volumes. He has left behind other books, such as “Osoul-e Aqa'ed”, and “Makarem al-Akhlaaq”.

Iranian Islamic scholar, Seyyed Mohammad Baqer Rashti
On 2nd of the Islamic month of Rabi al-Awal in 1260 AH, the Iranian Islamic scholar, Seyyed Mohammad Baqer Rashti passed away. He is the author of several books.

The Iranian historian and researcher, Hojjat al-Islam Ali Davani
On January 7, 2007 AD, the Iranian historian and researcher, Hojjat al-Islam Ali Davani, passed away at the age of 78. He was born in the vicinity of the city of Kazeroun, in southern Iran, and at the age of 14 left for the seminary of holy Najaf in Iraq, for learning Islamic sciences. He returned to Iran five years later. He continued his studies under prominent figures, such as Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hussain Boroujerdi, and the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (RA), attaining the status of Ijtehad. He was an expert on Islamic history and wrote 110 books and numerous articles in this regard. His books include "The Movement of Iranian Ulema", which is in ten volumes. He was compiling the "Alawid Encyclopedia" when death overtook him.

The prominent Iranian religious scholar, Shaikh Mohammad Baqer Aqa Najafi Isfahani
On 23rd of the Islamic month of Safar in 1301 AH, the prominent Iranian religious scholar, Shaikh Mohammad Baqer Aqa Najafi Isfahani, passed away at the age of 67. After completing his studies in Islamic sciences in Isfahan, he went to Iraq for higher studies at the famous seminary of the holy city of Najaf. On returning to Iran, he taught at the Isfahan seminary, grooming numerous students and writing a number of books. He maintained a high social influence and attached paramount importance to promotion of virtue and prevention of vice. For this reason, he was highly popular. He has left a large number of compilations, including the books “Lubb al-Fiqh”, and “Lubb al-Osoul”.

The acclaimed Iranian poet, Khwaja Jamaleddin Salman Saveji
On 12th of the Islamic month of Safar in 778 AH, the acclaimed Iranian poet, Khwaja Jamaleddin Salman Saveji, was born in Saveh (west of modern Tehran). He father was a patron of literature and had an administrative job at the Mongol Ilkhanid court. He became an accomplished scholar and earned reputation as a prominent poet. He has composed poems in different styles. His poetical talents were such that the renowned Persian Poet, Hafez, has praised his poetry. A glance at Salman’s poetry makes one realize that he also had mystic tendencies. His collection of poems includes religious theme including praise of Almighty God and Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).

The prominent Iranian philologist of the Arabic language and exegete of the Holy Qur’an, Mohammad ibn Ahmad al-Azhari al-Harawi,
On 13th of the Islamic month of Safar in 370 AH, the prominent Iranian philologist of the Arabic language and exegete of the Holy Qur’an, Mohammad ibn Ahmad al-Azhari al-Harawi, passed away at the age of 88 in his hometown Herat, in what is now Afghanistan, but which until less than two centuries ago was a part of Iran’s Khorasan. While on the Hajj pilgrimage at the age of 30, he was captured by Arab tribes and learned their accent in captivity, using this accent and dialect in his book. He also attended the classes of prominent ulema in Baghdad and later returned to Herat. His most important book is "Tahdhib al-Lugha", spread over 15 volumes on philology in which he has frequently cited the unmatched eloquence of Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS) and quoted some of the sermons of the Imam, decades before Seyyed Radhi compiled the “Nahj al-Balagha”. He has also left behind books on the exegesis of Holy Qur’an and Hadith.

The prominent scholar Hussain bin Abdullah bin Ibrahim al-Ghaza’eri
On 15th of the Islamic month of Safar in 411 AH, the prominent scholar Hussain bin Abdullah bin Ibrahim al-Ghaza’eri, passed away. He is considered an authority on hadith, and was among the teachers of the famous scholar and founder of the Najaf Islamic Seminary, Shaikh at-Ta’efa Abu Ja’far Tusi.

The Iranian Islamic astronomer, Abu-Ma'shar Ja'far ibn Mohammad al-Balkhi
On 19th of the Islamic month of Safar in 171 AH, the Iranian Islamic astronomer, Abu-Ma'shar Ja'far ibn Mohammad al-Balkhi, was born in the Khorasani city of Balkh, which is presently in Afghanistan. He spent most of his life in Iraq, especially in Baghdad and died in the city of al-Wasit. He used numerous sources written in Pahlavi, Arabic, Sanskrit, Syriac, and Greek. Based on his viewpoint, all sciences have a divine origin, and the signs of God’s revelation are observed in every science. He has left behind a large number of books; the most important of which include “al-Mudkhal al-Kabir”. He wrote a number of practical manuals on astrology that profoundly influenced Muslim intellectual history and, through Latin translations, that of Europe. Some of his works used by Roger Bacon and others are "Kitab ad‐Dalalaat ala'l‐Ittesalaat wa‐Qiranaat al‐Kawakeb" (Book of the Indications of the Planetary Conjunctions), and "Kitab al‐Milal wa'l-Duwal" (Book on Nations and Dynasties)

The famous Iranian statesman and man of letters, Abu’l-Qasem Ismail Ibn Hasan Taleqani
On 24th of the Islamic month of Safar in 385 AH, the famous Iranian statesman and man of letters, Abu’l-Qasem Ismail Ibn Hasan Taleqani, known as Saheb Ibn Abbad, passed away at the age of 58. He was a staunch follower of the Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) and served as the Grand Vizier to the Buwaiyhid Dynasty of Iran-Iraq-Oman for 18 years. He wrote mostly in Arabic on theology, history, grammar, and lexicography, in addition to literary criticism and composing of excellent Arabic poetry. He learnt Hadith from his father and the holy Qur’an from his mother. He then went to Isfahan and studied under such great masters as Ahmad Ibn Fars Razi and Abdullah Ibn Fars. Saheb Ibn Abbad was a patron of scholars and poets, and respected jurists and theologians. He had a great library in the city of Rayy – a suburb of modern Tehran today – in which there were over 100,000 books. He authored over 30 books including one on the Imamate, or divinely-decreed leadership, which proves the superiority of Imam Ali (AS) over others. His other books include a Diwan of poetry, a book on medicine, the 7-volume work on lexicography titled "al-Moheet", and a treatise on the biography on Seyyed Abdul Azim al-Hasani, the great-great-grandson of Imam Hasan Mojtaba (AS), whose shrine is the main centre of pilgrimage till this day in Tehran.

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