Some of the Omayyad and the Abbasid Caliphs
Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz
Waleed I, the 6th self-styled caliph of the usurper Omayyad regime
On 15th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal in 96 AH, Waleed I, the 6th self-styled caliph of the usurper Omayyad regime, died, after a rule of ten years, a year after martyring through a fatal dose of poison the Prophet’s 4th Infallible Successor, Imam Zain al-Abedin (AS). During his rule the Arab Empire reached its zenith from southern France in the west to the River Indus in the Subcontinent in the east, but it was devoid of any Islamic spirit, and based on tyranny, discrimination, plunder of people’s property, and persecution of the progeny of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), although to deceive Muslims, Waleed built the mosque of Bayt al-Moqaddas, renovated the Omayyad Mosque of Damascus, and carried out expansion of the Prophet’s Mosque – albeit by seizing the homes of citizens.
Hisham ibn Abdul-Malik, the 10th self-styled caliph of the usurper Omayyad regime
On 6th of the Islamic month of Rabi as-Saani in 125 AH, Hisham ibn Abdul-Malik, the 10th self-styled caliph of the usurper Omayyad regime, died after an oppressive rule of 20 years over an empire stretching from Spain and southern France in the west to the borders of China and India in the east. Hisham was the murderer of Imam Mohammad Baqer (AS), the 5th Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He also brutally martyred the 5th Imam's younger brother, Zaid ibn Ali and had the body mutilated after taking it out from the grave. Hisham was notorious for his misery, despite accumulating a vast treasure that his troops brought as loot from different parts of Africa, Europe, and Asia. He was succeeded by his nephew, Waleed, who refused to give him any shroud or burial, saying Hisham has left no legitimate and lawful income, and whatever he had collected was through plunder and seizure. Seven years after him, the Omayyad dynasty was thrown into the dustbin of history with the rise of the equally oppressive Abbasid usurpers.
The tyrant Haroun Rashid, the 5th self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime
On March 24, 809 AD, the tyrant Haroun Rashid, the 5th self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime, died in the city of Tous in Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, after a rule of 23 years, during which he killed over 60 descendants of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), especially the 7th Infallible Leader, Imam Musa Kazem (AS), who was the victim of a fatal dose of poison in the prison of Baghdad. Born in Rayy (today a southern suburb of Tehran), where his father, Mahdi al-Abbasi was the governor, Haroun's mother was a Yemeni concubine of dubious character, named Khayzaran. He died while trying to crush a rebellion in Kabul against his illegal rule that stretched from the borders of India and China to North Africa, and was succeeded by his two sons – Amin in Baghdad and Mamoun in Marv, Khorasan.
The Abbasid caliph, Muntasser-Billah
On 5th of the Islamic month of Rabi as-Sani in 248 AH, the Abbasid caliph, Muntasser-Billah, died mysteriously after a reign of less than a year, and was succeeded by his cousin Musta'in, who was raised to the caliphate by the all-powerful Turkic Slave Guard. Muntasser himself was the choice of the Turkish guard as caliph following the killing of his father, the Godless Mutawakkel, whose most blasphemous act was demolition of the holy shrine of Imam Husain (AS) in Karbala. During his brief rule, Muntasser reversed the policies of his cruel father by allowing pilgrimage to the shrine of the Martyr of Karbala, and returning the orchard of Fadak to the descendants of Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Husain (AS).
Mu’tazid-Billah, the 16th self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime
On 23rd of the Islamic month of Rabi as-Sani in 289 AH, Mu’tazid-Billah, the 16th self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime died at the age of 46 after a 10-year reign, during which he reversed the anti-Islamic policies of his uncle and predecessor, Mu’tamed, the murderer of Imam Hasan al-Askari (AS), the 11th Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). Son of the regent Muwaffaq, he showed respect for the Prophet’s progeny and ordered the public cursing of the Omayyad caliphs (especially Mu’awiyya ibn Abu Sufyan and Yazid), and the disclosure of their anti-Islamic acts and misdeeds, from pulpits during the Friday Prayers. He also suppressed the Kharijites (renegades) for their acts of terrorism against Muslims, and was very harsh with them and other rebels; while sending presents and large sums of money to the semi-independent Alawid ruler of Tabaristan on the Caspian Sea coast of Iran because of his being a venerable descendent of the Prophet. The Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (AS), in his prophecies had foretold about Mu’tazid.
Qaher-Billah, the 19th self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime
On 5th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal in 322 AH, Qaher-Billah, the 19th self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime, was deposed after only two years of rule, and when in the state of drunkenness he refused to abdicate, his eyes were blinded, and he was cast into prison. Eleven years later he was freed, and was sometimes seen in beggar's rags and wooden sandals – a sad contrast to his high-sounding title “al-Qaher-Billah”, which means "Victorious by the Will of God." He died in poverty in 339 AH at the age of 54, six years after his release from prison and 17 years after losing the caliphate. The caliphate was given to Qaher-Billah when his profligate brother Muqtadir-Billah was deposed, beaten and killed by the courtiers, who feared that the latter’s son might avenge his father's death.
Qaher turned out to be even worse, and went to every excess of cruelty and extortion. He even tortured his stepmother, that is, the mother of Muqtadir to squeeze wealth from her. He then walled alive his nephew, the son of Muqtadir, in order to remove any rival. Qaher was succeeded by a nephew who survived, named Raazi-Billah, who during his 7-year rule returned the vast orchard of Fadak to the direct descendants of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). Fadak was the personal property of the Prophet and was situated north of Medina near Khaybar. The Prophet had given it in his lifetime to his only daughter, Hazrat Fatema Zahra (SA), who used its revenues for the upkeep of the poor and destitute Muslims. After the Prophet passed away, the new regime in Medina seized Fadak by coining a spurious hadith that Prophets do no leave inheritance and whatever they leave is the property of Ummah, despite Hazrat Fatema's memorable defence of her rights by citing the ayahs of the holy Qur'an which speak of Prophet Solomon inheriting Prophet David, and Prophet Yahya inheriting Prophet Zachariah. In the subsequent years, Fadak was returned and retaken several times.