The prominent Iranian Shafe段 scholar, Abdul-Malik bin Abdullah al-Juwaini
Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz
On 25th of the Islamic month of Rabi as-Sani in 478 AH, the prominent Iranian Shafe段 scholar, Abdul-Malik bin Abdullah al-Juwaini, passed away at the age of 59 in Neishapour, Khorasan. He was known as Imam al-Haramayn because of his sojourn in the two holy cities of Mecca and Medina, where he was in self-exile due to his jurisprudential and theological differences with the Hanafi School, which the Seljuq Turks were promoting after conquering Iran.
Born in a scholarly family in Bushtaniqan near Neishapour, he was known for his gifted intellect in Islamic legal matters. In his days, the teachings of the Shafe'i School were closely linked to Ash'arite theology. The Seljuq ruler, Tughril Beg, who styled himself as a Mu稚azili-Hanafi adherent, forbade Juwaini from teaching.
After several years in exile in Hijaz and Tihamah, Juwaini was invited back to teach at Neishapour by the Shafe段 vizier, Khwaja Nizam ol-Molk Tousi, the founder of the Madrasa-e Nizamiyya. He was the teacher of the famous Iranian Sufi scholar, Abu Hamed Mohammad Ghazali, and wrote several books.