The founder of the Iranian Buwaiyhid dynasty of Iran-Iraq-Oman, Moez od-Dowlah
Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz
On 13th of the Islamic month of Rabi as-Sani in 356 AH, the founder of the Iranian Buwaiyhid dynasty of Iran-Iraq-Oman, Abu’l-Hassan Ahmad Ibn Bouya Daylami, titled Moez od-Dowlah, died in Baghdad and was buried in the graveyard of the Quraish, adjacent to the holy shrine of Imam Musa al-Kazem (AS), the 7th Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He and his two brothers, named Ali and Hassan, consolidated gains in Iran, and when fighting broke out in Khuzestan and Iraq, Ahmad restored order later gained control of Baghdad without a struggle in 334 AH. He took charge of the administration of the Abbasid Caliphate by taking the position of Amir al-Umara. The Caliph Al-Mustakfi also gave Ahmad the honorific title of "Moez od-Dowla". His elder brother Ali was given the title of 'Emad od-Dowla", while the younger brother Hassan, who had gained control of northern Iran, gained the title of "Rokn od-Dowla".
During his 22-year rule Moez of-Dowlah, who was a follower of the Ahl al-Bayt, publicly commemorated the historic 18th of Zilhijja, the day Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) on the orders of God Almighty had proclaimed Imam Ali (AS) as vicegerent at Ghadir-Khom near Mecca in the year 10 AH, while returning from his Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage. Next Moez od-Dowla declared as day of public mourning the Day of Ashura or 10th Moharram on which in the year 61 AH, the Prophet’s grandson, Imam Husain (AS) was tragically martyred along with most of his family members and companions in Karbala.
On 16th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal in 338 AH Ali ibn Buyeh Daylami, titled Emad od-Dowlah, the founder of the Buwaiyhid dynasty of Iran-Iraq-Oman, died. He first entered the services of the Iranian Samanid dynasty of Bukhara in Central Asia under Nasr II, and later joined Makan, who ruled Gorgan and Rayy as a governor of the Samanids. He managed to occupy a high position and gained army commissions for his two younger brothers, Hassan and Ahmad.
When Makan rebelled against the Samanids by seizing Khorasan, and was subsequently attacked by Mardavij the Ziyarid prince; Ali along with his brothers switched sides. Soon he was granted rule over Karaj, near modern Tehran. When warned of Mardavij's plan to eliminate him, Ali with a small number of Daylamite troops sought to expand his position. Moving against the heretical Khurramites, who controlled the surrounding mountains, he gained control of the region, and in order to further secure his position, decided to take control of Isfahan, then under control of the Abbasid governor Yaqut. However, Mardavij's appearance forced him to abandon Isfahan. Ali now took Arrajan, a city between Fars and Khuzestan, and after a series of battles, entered Shiraz, the capital of Fars. Mardavij continued to pose a threat but before he could invade Khuzestan, he was assassinated. Bolstered by many of Mardavij's Turkish mercenaries that had joined him, as well as the collapse of Ziyarid control over central Iran, Ali decided that Isfahan should be taken and sent his brother Hassan to accomplish this.
After Hasan took Isfahan, Ali sent his other brother Ahmad to take Kerman. Ali next sent Ahmad to Khuzestan, from where he entered Iraq, and finally Baghdad, and was given the title of Mo’iz od-Dowla by the Abbasid caliph, who then conferred on Ali the title of Emad od-Dowla and on Hassan the title of Rokn od-Dowla. Buwaiyhid rule over Iran and Iraq lasted for 110 years. The dynasty patronized scholars and built many architectural monuments in addition to encouraging development of science and technology. They also reconstructed on a grand scale the shrines of the Ahl al-Bayt in Najaf and Karbala.
He also ordered that on the walls of mosques and other main buildings of Iraq and Iran curses should be written against the Omayyad usurper Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan and other enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt. This practice was emulated in Aleppo and parts of Syria and what is now south-central Turkey by Sayf od-Dowla, the ruler of the Hamdanid Dynasty. Moez od-Dowla’s elder brother Ali who was in control of central and southern Iran was given the title of Emad od-Dowla, while the younger brother Hassan, who had gained control of northern Iran, took the title of Rokn od-Dowla. Buwayhid rule lasted over a century in Iran and Iraq and was a period of great cultural revival and emergence of outstanding religious scholars.Buwayhid rule lasted over a century in Iran and Iraq and was a period of great cultural revival and emergence of outstanding religious scholars.