Some Important Events in the Islamic History
Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz
The Battle of Badr
On March 13, 624 AD, the pagan Arabs of Mecca lost the Battle of Badr, which they had imposed as the first armed encounter upon Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). With God’s help the poorly armed Muslim defenders, numbering only 313, emerged victorious against the more than a thousand fully armed Arab aggressors. The hero of the battle was the Prophet’s dearest first cousin, Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS), who subsequently became his son-in-law, and was later proclaimed by him as vicegerent on the express commandment of God Almighty at the historic gathering of Ghadeer-Khom.
The Battle of Jamal
On 10th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal in 36 AH, the Battle of Jamal took place near Basra in Iraq, between the forces of Islam, led by the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (AS) and the seditionists led by Talha and Zubayr. The Imam, who was the First Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), won a decisive victory after his efforts to persuade the seditionists to return to the fold of Islam failed. Both Talha and Zubayr were killed along with 13,000 seditionists. Imam Ali (AS) magnanimously pardoned the rest and even allowed Ayesha, the erring wife of the Prophet, who had joined the seditionists, to return in peace and respect to Medina. The Prophet had warned Ayesha during his lifetime against committing the fatal mistake and sin of opposing his divinely-decreed vicegerent, Imam Ali (AS).
Mus'ab ibn Zubayr and Ibrahim ibn Malek Ashtar
On 13th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal in 72 AH, Mus'ab ibn Zubayr and Ibrahim ibn Malek Ashtar were killed in a battle fought near Balad in Iraq at a place called Miskan, by the Omayyad forces of Abdul-Malik bin Marwan, who subsequently took control of Iraq and the next year sent forces to attack Mecca and kill Abdullah ibn Zubayr the rival caliph, after desecrating the holy Ka'ba.
The governor of Egypt, Mohammad bin Abu Bakr
On 15th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal in 38 AH, the governor of Egypt, Mohammad bin Abu Bakr, who was one of the loyal disciples of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS), was martyred by the Godless Omayyad invader Amr bin Aas. Although a son of the self-styled 1st caliph, on growing up he never considered his father’s rule legitimate, and was a staunch supporter of the divinely-decreed rights of the Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). His grave is said to be in Cairo. His grave is said to be in Cairo. The crafty Omayyad ruler, Mu'awiyah bin Abu Sufyan also martyred through poisoning, the new governor of Egypt, the famous Malek Ashtar while he was on his way to take up the new post. The epistle of Imam Ali (AS) to Malek Ashtar is regarded till this day as the finest treatise on social justice for the masses.
Mu’awiyyah II, the son and successor of the Godless Yazid, abdicated the caliphate
On 25th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal in 64 AH, Mu’awiyyah II, the son and successor of the Godless Yazid, abdicated the caliphate, 40 days after the death of his tyrannical father, the perpetrator of the tragedy of Karbala. The young Mu’awiyyah, who unlike his blasphemous father and grandfather, was an upright person, went on the pulpit of the main mosque of Damascus, and with eyes full of tears, recounted the evil and sacrilegious deeds of his father, Yazid, in martyring Imam Husain (AS), in imprisoning the Prophet’s household; in desecrating the Prophet’s Mosque and Shrine in Medina following the massacre of Muslims at Harrah, and in profaning the sanctity of the holy Ka’ba.
He also recounted the evil deeds of his grandfather Mu’awiyah ibn Sufyan, the accursed founder of the Omayyad dynasty, in revolting against the rule of justice of Imam Ali (AS), in seizing the caliphate from Imam Hasan (AS), and in shedding the blood of Muslims. When his kinsman, the mischievous Marwan ibn al-Hakam told him that since he does not want to rule, he should handover the choice of caliph to a council, he replied: I have not tasted the fruits of the caliphate, so why should I experience its bitterness (through such a decision). Soon after his abdication he died under mysterious circumstances, while the aging Marwan seized the caliphate by marrying Yazid’s wife.
Abu’l-Hussain Bajkam al-Makaani, the Turkic military commander of the usurper Abbasid regime
On April 21, 941 AD, Abu’l-Hussain Bajkam al-Makaani, the Turkic military commander of the usurper Abbasid regime, was killed in Iraq in a skirmish with Kurd brigands during a hunting expedition in Iraq. Originally a slave of a senior official of the Alid (Seyyed) Dynasty of Tabaristan, Makaan ibn Kaki, who took care of the young Bajkam's training and education, he showed his gratitude by adopting his patron's name (Makaan) as his surname (Makaani).
Bajkam then entered the service of Mardavij, the founder of the Ziyarid dynasty of northern Iran, and after his assassination in 935, joined the Abbasids of Baghdad. In Iraq, he rapidly rose from Saheb ash-Shurta (Chief of the Police) to Amir al-Umara (Chief Commander), increasing his influence over the Caliphs ar-Raazi and al-Muttaqi. Bajkam was challenged by various opponents, including his predecessor as Amir al-Umara, Ibn Ra'eq, the Basra-based al-Baridis, the Hamadanids of Mosul and Syria, and the Buwaiyids of Iran. He was ruthless and power-thirsty and his death led to a void in central power, resulting in a period of instability in Baghdad, until the Buwaihid Amir, Moiz od-Dowla Daylami brought Iraq under his control.
Abdul-Mo'men ibn Ali al-Koami, the founder of the Muwahhedeen State in Morocco and Andalusia
On 10th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani in 558 AH, Abdul-Mo'men ibn Ali al-Koami, the founder of the Muwahhedeen or Monotheists' State in Morocco and Andalusia, died. His capital was Marrakesh and he made relentless efforts to expand his territories in Spain across the Strait of Gibraltar, and in the east till the borders of Egypt.
Al-Mustansir-Billah, the 36th and penultimate self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty
On 10th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani in 640 AH, al-Mustansir-Billah, the 36th and penultimate self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty died in Baghdad after a reign of 16 years. His lasting contribution was the founding of the Mustansiriyya Madrasah on the banks of the Tigris.
A monumental water-powered alarm clock that announced the appointed hours of prayer and the time both by day and by night was installed in its entrance hall. The original building which survived the Mongol invasion in 1258 AD that threw the Abbasid caliphate into the dustbin of history is now part of the modern al-Mustansiriyya University.
The 8th caliph of the Fatemid Ismaili Shi’ite Dynasty of Egypt, Syria and North Africa
On 17th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani in 420 AH, the 8th caliph of the Fatemid Ismaili Shi’ite Dynasty of Egypt, Syria and North Africa, Mohammad Ibn az-Zahir al-Mustansir, was born in Cairo and eight months afterwards was declared to succeed his father. He ascended the throne on 15th Sha’ban, 427 AH at the age of 7 years. His period of caliphate lasted for 60 years and four months, the longest of all the caliphs, either in Egypt or elsewhere in any Islamic state. The Fatimid rulers, who first established themselves in Mahdia in Tunisia, claimed descent from Ismail, the son of Prophet Mohammad’s (SAWA) 6th Infallible Successor, Imam Ja’far as-Sadeq (AS).
They soon shifted their seat of power to Egypt and established the city of Cairo, where they built the famous Islamic academy, al-Azhar, as a derivative of “az-Zahra” (the Radiant), the epithet of the Prophet’s Immaculate Daughter, Hazrat Fatema (SA). During their rule, they publicly revived in the “Azan” the original phrases of the daily call to prayer: “Ash-hado anna Amir al-Momineen Aliyan Wali-Allah” (I testify that the Commander of the Faithful, Ali, is the Friend of God), and “Hayya ala khayr-il-amal” (hasten towards the best of deed). The Fatimid caliphate lasted for 270 years, and at its height, in addition to Egypt, it included varying areas of the Maghreb (North Africa), Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz.