Prominent Shia Ulama
Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz
The Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Mullah Habibollah Sharif Kashani
On 23rd of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani 1340 AH, the Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Mullah Habibollah Sharif Kashani, passed away at the age of 78 years. He reached the status of Ijtehad at the young age of 18 years. In addition to focusing on scientific and ethical issues, he also participated in political affairs. He has left behind a large number of compilations, including “Asraar al-Aarefin”.
The Islamic scholar, Shaikh Jamal od-Din Meqdad Hilli al-Asadi
On 26th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani in 826 AH, the Islamic scholar, Shaikh Jamal od-Din Meqdad Hilli al-Asadi, passed away in holy Najaf. He was a student of the First Martyr (Shahid Awwal), Mohammad ibn Makki, and was an outstanding jurisprudent himself. Known popularly as Fadhel Meqdad, he groomed many scholars and wrote several books, including “Ayaat al-Ahkam”. The most important book written by him is “Kanz al-Irfan”, in which he has listed all those ayahs of the Holy Qur’an which form the basis of Fiqh, and had deduced from them several rules of Islamic jurisprudence. There are several books written in the same vein by both Shi’ite and Sunni scholars, but “Kanz al-Irfan” stands out prominently as one of the best, if not the best.
The Iranian Islamic scholar, Mirza Abu'l-Hassan Azarbaijani Meshkini
On 27th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani in 1358 AH, the Iranian Islamic scholar, Mirza Abu'l-Hassan Azarbaijani Meshkini, passed away in Baghdad. He attended the classes of prominent ulema and was an expert in theology, jurisprudence, and exegesis of Holy Qur'an. Among his valuable compilations, mention can be made of “Hashiyeh bar Makaseb”, which is an annotation of Ayatollah Shaikh Morteza Ansari's famous work "al-Makaseb".
The Iranian theologian and literary figure, Mirza Mohammad ibn Soleiman Tonekaboni
On 28th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani in 1302 AH, the Iranian theologian and literary figure, Mirza Mohammad ibn Soleiman Tonekaboni, passed away. He has left behind numerous books, including “Qessas al-Ulema” on the biographies of prominent Islamic scholars. This book has been published on several occasions in Iran. Among his other works, mention can be made of “al-Fawa'ed fi Usoul ad-Din” which is a collection of poems about the principles of religion.
90 members of the family of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Mohsin al-Hakeem detained by the repressive B’ath minority regime of Saddam
On May 10, 1983 AD, the repressive B’ath minority regime of Saddam, detained 90 members of the family of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Mohsin al-Hakeem, and martyred six of them. Two year later, 10 other family members of Grand Ayatollah Hakeem were martyred. Saddam's policy was to demoralize and terrorize Iraq's Shi'ite Arab majority, especially since the Late Grand Ayatollah's son, Seyyed Mohammad Baqer al-Hakeem had set up in exile in Tehran, the Supreme Assembly of the Islamic Revolution of Iraq.
The prominent Iranian Islamic scholar of the Safavid era, “Mohaqqiq Khwansari”
On 1st of the Islamic month of Rajab in 1098 AH, the prominent Iranian Islamic scholar of the Safavid era, Hussain ibn Mohammad, popularly known as “Mohaqqiq Khwansari” passed away. He was an expert in jurisprudence, theology, and other Islamic sciences. He groomed numerous students. Among his valuable works, mention could be made of a translation of the Holy Qur'an into Persian along with annotations. In the field of jurisprudence, he wrote "Mashareq ash-Shomous", which is in fact a splendid elucidation of the book titled “Durou" written by the First Martyr (Shahid Awwal).
The Iranian Arabic philologist, Hassan bin Abdullah Sirafi
On 2nd of the Islamic month of Rajab in 368 AH, the Iranian Arabic philologist, Hassan bin Abdullah Sirafi, passed away in Baghdad. He was among the childhood teachers of Seyyed Radhi, the famous scholar and compiler of the “Nahj al-Balagha”, which is a collection of the sermons, letters and maxims of Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS). Once the child Radhi had a lively discussion with him on the wrong track the caliphate took after Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).
The great scholar, Grand Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi
On May 13, 1891 AD, the great scholar, Grand Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi, issued the historic Fatwa against the 50-year tobacco concession given to the British Talbot Company by King Nasser od-Din Shah Qajar of Iran. Following the Fatwa of Mirza Shirazi issued from his base in Samarra, Iraq, the Iranian people, including courtiers and the wife of the Shah, refrained from purchase, sale and usage of tobacco, forcing the government to cancel the accord. This again proved the strength of the Muslim Iranian people led by the ulema.
The prominent Islamic scholar, Seyyed Hussain Khwansari
On 8th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 1191 AH, the prominent Islamic scholar, Seyyed Hussain Khwansari, passed away. He groomed numerous students; some of whom became the leading ulema of their day, such as Allamah Bahr al-Oloum. He has left behind numerous books.
The prominent Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Sadreddin Sadr
On 14th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 1299 AH, the prominent Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Sadreddin Sadr, was born in the holy city of Kazemain in Iraq. After mastering Arabic literature and mathematics he attended the Najaf Seminary for higher studies, and soon attained the status of Ijtehad.
At the age of 32 years he took up residence in the holy city of Mashhad, in Khorasan, northeastern Iran, and stayed for some 17 years, before returning to Iraq. He was invited to Qom by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Ha'eri, whom he succeeded as head of the Qom Seminary. He was an accomplished poet in Arabic, and composed a moving elegy on the desecration of the Baqie Cemetery by Wahhabi vandals. Among his valuable compilations, mention could be made of “Mukhtasar Tarikh al-Islam” (A Concise History of Islam).