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The Fatemid Ismaili Shi段te general, Jowhar as-Saqali

Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz
On 17th of the Islamic month of Sha鍛an in 358 AH, the Egyptian capital Fostat was conquered by the Fatemid Ismaili Shi段te general, Jowhar as-Saqali, ending the rule of the Ikhshid Turkic governors of the Abbasid caliphate of Baghdad. Jowhar, who was originally a Greek from the island of Sicily, off the coast of Italy, immediately started the construction of a new capital nearby in Egypt for the planned move of the Fatemid caliph, al-Mu段z, from Mahdia in what is now Tunisia, the then capital of the Fatemid Empire, which at its peak extended from the northwest African coast of the Atlantic Ocean in present day Morocco to Syria and the Hijaz including the holy cities of Mecca, Medina, and Bayt ol-Moqaddas.
It also included several islands in the Mediterranean Sea, especially Sicily. Jowhar named the new capital, 殿l-Qahera, or the Victorious. He also built the al-Azhar Mosque and School in honour of the famous epithet 殿z-Zahra of Prophet Mohammad痴 (SAWA) daughter, Hazrat Fatema (SA). Jowhar and the Fatemids restored the full form of the Azaan or call for the daily prayers, from the minarets of al-Azhar and other mosques, by bearing testimony to the vicegerency of Imam Ali (AS) after the Prophethood of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).
The phrase 塗ayya ala khayr il-amal which means 塗asten to the best of deeds, and which was dropped from the Azaan by the second caliph, was also revived. The Fatemids ruled Egypt for two centuries.

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