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Some of the Well-Known Iranian Scholars and Statesmen

Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz

The famous Iranian Arabic scholar and poet, Abiwardi
On 20th of the Islamic month of Rabi al-Awwal in 507 AH, the famous Iranian Arabic scholar and poet, Abu'l-Muzaffar Mohammad bin Ahmad Abiwardi, died in Isfahan. In addition to poetry, he was an expert in Arabic and Persian languages, and was well-versed in history, hadith, lexicography, and calligraphy.
He wrote on various topics, and among his famous books are "Tabaqat al-Ilm", "Tarikh Abiward", and a critical work on genealogy titled "Qabsat al-Ajlan fi-Nasab Aal-e Abi Sufiyan", which deals with the dubious parentage of Abu Sufyan, Mu'awiyya and others . His poetry includes a moving ode in Arabic on the plight of Muslims in Syria and Palestine during the occupation of these lands by the Crusader invaders from Europe who had unleashed a bloody holocaust on the people. Here are a few verses from this elegy.
"We have mingled blood with flowing tears,
And there is no room left for pity
To shed tears is a man's worst weapon
When the swords stir up the embers of war,
Sons of Islam, behind you are battles in which heads rolled at your feet.
Dare you slumber in the blessed shade of safety!
Where life is soft as an orchard flower?
How can the eye sleep between the lids?
At a time of disasters that would awaken any sleeper!
While your Syrian brothers can only sleep,
On the backs of their chargers or in vultures' bellies!
Must the foreigners feed on our ignominy, while you trail behind!
The train of a pleasant life, like men whose world is at peace?
When blood has been spilt, when sweet girls must for shame
Hide their lovely faces in their hands!
When the white swords' points are red with blood, and the iron
Of the brown lances is stained with gore!
At the sound of sword hammering on lance
Young children's hair turn white,
This is war, and the infidel's sword is naked in his hand,
Ready to be sheathed in men's necks and skulls,
This is war, and he who lies in the tomb at Medina seems
To raise his voice and cry:"O sons of Hashem!
I see my people slow to raise the lance against the enemy:
I see the Faith resting on feeble pillars.
For fear of death the Muslims are evading the fire of battle,
Refusing to believe that death will surely strike them."
Must the Arab champions then suffer with resignation?
While the gallant Persians shut their eyes to their dishonor!

Saheb Ibn Abbad
On 16th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 326 AH, the famous vizier of the Iranian Buwaihid Dynasty of Iran and Iraq, Abu’l-Qasem Ismail Ibn Hasan Taleqani, known as Saheb Ibn Abbad, was born near Isfahan. He was a follower of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt and an outstanding writer, linguist, poet and statesman who held the post of prime minister for eighteen years and whose wisdom is still proverbial today.
He wrote mostly in Arabic on theology, history, grammar, lexicography, and literary criticism in addition to composing poetry. He learnt Hadith from his father and the holy Qur’an from his mother. He then went to Isfahan and studied under such great masters as Ahmad Ibn Farres ar-Razi and Abdullah Ibn Farres.
Saheb was a patron of scholars and poets, and respected jurists and theologians. He had a great library in the city of Rayy, today a suburb of modern Tehran, in which there were over 100,000 books. He wrote over 30 books including one on the Imamate, which proves the superiority of Imam Ali (AS) over others.
His other books include a Diwan or collection of poetry, a book on medicine, the 7-volume work on lexicography titled “al-Moheet”, and a treatise on the biography on Seyyed Abdul Azim al-Hasani, the great-great-grandson of Imam Hasan Mojtaba (AS), whose shrine is the main centre of pilgrimage till this day in Rayy, Tehran. It is said that this bibliophile had a mobile library which used to accompany him on his journeys.

Omar Ibn Khayyam, the prominent Iranian Muslim mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet
On 18th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa'dah in 439 AH, the prominent Iranian Muslim mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet, Ghiyas od-Din Omar Ibn Ibrahim Khayyam, was born in Nishapour, Khorasan, in northeastern Iran. He studied in Balkh, Samarqand and Bukhara, before joining the court of the Seljuq ruler, Malik Shah, as scientific advisor.
He set up an observatory in his hometown and led work on compiling astronomical tables. To him goes the credit of reforming the solar hijri calendar on the basis of the Spring Equinox, which is still in use in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and parts of Central Asia, the Caucasus, Iraq, Anatolia, and the Subcontinent. This calendar, known as Jalali, is more perfect than the Gregorian Christian calendar that was imposed on Muslim countries by the colonialists after World War 1.
Among Khayyam's works, his book on algebra was until the last century taught as textbook in Iran. In geometry, he reformed the generalities of Euclid and contributed to the theory of parallel lines.
His contributions to other fields of science included developing methods for the accurate determination of specific gravity. He is known to English-speaking readers for his "quatrains" (Rubaiyyaat), whose English translation was published in 1859 by Edward Fitzgerald, although in the Islamic east he remains the astronomer and mathematician that he was, rather than a poet, since whatever he composed of poetry were casual expressions during his rare leisure hours after strenuous scientific studies and experiments.
He died at the age of 85 and was buried in his native Nishapour in the courtyard of the shrine of Imamzadah Mahruq, a descendant of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).

The renowned Iranian Sunni Muslim authority on hadith, Mohammad ibn Eisa Tirmizi
On 13th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 279 AH, the renowned Iranian Sunni Muslim authority on hadith, Mohammad ibn Eisa Tirmizi, passed away. He was born and died in Bagh, near Tirmiz in Greater Khorasan (now in southern Uzbekistan near Afghanistan's border). He travelled widely to Kufa, Basra and Hijaz, in pursuit of knowledge. His teachers included Mohammad Bukhari, Muslim Naishaburi and Abu Dawoud Sijistani – all three of whom were renowned Iranian Sunni Muslim compilers of hadith.
Tirmizi, who became blind in the last two years of his life, is the author of "al-Jame' as-Sahih", popularly called "Sunan at-Tirmizi", one of the six canonical hadith compilations of Sunni Muslims. He has included in his compendium authentic narrations on the unrivalled merits of the blessed household of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), and has said that the term "Ahl al-Bayt" as used by God in the holy Qur'an (33:33) and by the Prophet in several hadith, is exclusive for Imam Ali (AS), Hazrat Fatema Zahra (SA), Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Husain (AS), and does not include the Prophet's wives, as some allege.
Tirmizi's grave is in Sherobad, 60 km north of Tirmiz, where he is popularly called Tirmiz Baba. Tirmiz is the hottest point in Uzbekistan with temperatures as high as 46 degrees centigrade, and the city traces its origin to Alexander's Greeks who called the place "thermos", meaning "hot".

The Iranian Sunni scholar and compiler of hadith, al-Qushayri Naishapuri, the author of “Sahih Muslim”
On 25th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 261 AH, the Iranian Sunni scholar and compiler of hadith, Abul-Hussain Muslim ibn Hajjaj al-Qushayri Naishapuri, the author of “Sahih Muslim”, passed away at the age of 55 years in his hometown Naishapur in Khorasan, northeastern Iran.
He was a student of the other famous Iranian Sunni Muslim hadith compiler, Mohammad bin Ismael Bukhari, and among his students was the third famous Iranian Sunni Muslim compiler of hadith, Mohammad bin Eisa Tirmizi. After travelling throughout Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, he settled down in his hometown Nayshapour where he first met Bukhari, with whom he would have a lifelong friendship.
Of the thousands of hadith he has collected in his "Sahih", 2000 are common with Bukhari's "Sahih". There are many hadith in “Sahih Muslim” on the merits of the Ahl al-Bayt including the unrivalled position of Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS) compared to the companions of the Prophet. He has mentioned that the term Ahl al-Bayt as referred to by God Almighty in ayah 33 of Surah Ahazab exclusively pertains to Imam Ali, Hazrat Fatema, Imam Hasan and Imam Husain (peace upon them) and does not include the Prophet’s wives.

Az-Zamakhshari, the prominent Iranian Sunni Mu’tazalite theologian and exegete of the Holy Qur’an
On 27th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 467 AH, the prominent Iranian Sunni Mu’tazalite theologian and exegete of the Holy Qur’an, Abu’l-Qasim Mahmoud az-Zamakhshari, was born in Zamakhshar, Khwarezm. He lived most of his life in Bukhara, Samarqand, and Baghdad, and because of his long stay in Mecca near the Sacred Mosque that houses the holy Ka’ba, he was known as Jar-Allah or "God's Neighbour".
He was prolific writer in both Persian and Arabic, and is best known for “al-Kashshaaf”, a seminal commentary on the Qur'an, famous for its deep linguistic analysis of the ayahs, and which makes note of God’s revelation regarding the unsurpassed merits of the Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).
His other works include “Asaas al-Balaghah” on Arabic literature, “Moqaddamat-al-Adab” – an Arabic-Persian lexicon – and the voluminous “Rabi al-Abraar”, in which among other interesting information, he has exposed the doubtful parentage of Mu’awiyya the founder of the usurper Omayyad dynasty. Zamakhshari passed away in 538 AH.

The Islamic-Iranian mathematician and astronomer, al-Bouzjani
On 3rd of the Islamic month of Rajab in 388 AH, the Islamic-Iranian mathematician and astronomer, Abu'l-Wafa Mohammad ibn Mohammad ibn Yahya al-Bouzjani, passed away in Baghdad at the age of 60. He was born in in Bouzhgan (now Torbat-e Jam) in Khorasan in northeastern Iran. At the age of 19, he moved to Baghdad and remained there for the next forty years.
He made important innovations in spherical trigonometry, and his work on arithmetic for businessmen contains the first instance of using negative numbers in an Islamic text. He was the first to build a wall quadrant to observe the sky.
Bouzjani participated in an experiment to determine the difference in local time between his location in Baghdad and that of his famous contemporary, Abu Rayhan al-Berouni, who was living in Kath, Khwarezm, which is now part of the Central Asian Republic of Uzbekistan. The result was very close to present-day calculations, showing a difference of approximately 1 hour between the two longitudes.
The 3rd Lunar Inequality (the variation) was first discovered by Bouzjani, a fact admitted by the European scientist, Tycho Brahe, who often quotes this Iranian Islamic scientist's work. His "Kitab al-Majisti" (Almajest) covers numerous topics in the fields of plane and spherical trigonometry, planetary theory, and solutions to determine the direction of Qibla. The crater Abu'l-Wafa on the Moon is named after him. Bouzhaani wrote several books that have not survived, including “Tarikh-e Ilm al-Hesab” (The History of Calculus).

The Iranian philologist of Arabic,ad-Dinawari
On 15th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 276 AH, the Iranian philologist of Arabic, Abu Mohammad Abdullah bin Muslim ibn Qutaybah ad-Dinawari, passed away in Baghdad. He was born in Kufa in Iraq, while his father was from the Khorasani city of Merv in what is now Turkmenistan. Having studied hadith and philology he became qazi or judge in Dinawar, near Hamedan in western Iran, and afterwards a teacher in Baghdad. He was the first representative of the eclectic school of Baghdad philologists that succeeded the schools of Kufa and Basra. He is regarded by Sunni Muslims as an authority on hadith. Among his works are "Gharib al-Qur'an" on its lexical issues, "al-Imama wa al-Siyasa" in which he has exposed the deviation of the caliphate from its goals, and "ash-She'r wa'sh-Shu'ara" on poetry and poets.

The Iranian mystic and poet, Najm od-Din Zarkoub Tabrizi
On 15th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 712 AH, the Iranian mystic and poet, Najm od-Din Zarkoub Tabrizi, passed away. He is the author in Persian of the Futuwwat-Namah, on the rites of Jawan-mardi or chivalry into which Sufis are initiated for serving the cause of God and humanity.

The prominent Islamic scholar, Seyyed Abu-Torab Khwansari
On 17th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 1271 AH, the prominent Islamic scholar, Seyyed Abu-Torab Khwansari, was born in the central Iranian city of Khwansar. He was an authority on theology, jurisprudence, philosophy, and exegesis of Holy Qur'an. He has left behind numerous compilations, which prove his profound knowledge. Among his works, mention could be made of “Qasd as-Sabeel”, and “Mesbaah al-Salehin”. He passed away in 1346 AH at the age of 75 years.

The Iranian Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Mir Seyyed Ali Fani Isfahani
On May 29, 1989, the Iranian Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Mir Seyyed Ali Fani Isfahani, passed away at the age of 74. He studied in his hometown Isfahan, where after attaining the status of Ijtehad; he left for holy Najaf in Iraq, where he stayed for 30 years lecturing on theology, jurisprudence, exegesis of Holy Qur’an, and ethics. He returned to Iran in 1973 and until his death 16 years later, he used to lecture in the seminary of holy Qom. He has left behind more than 80 books, on various topics, including “Exegesis of Surah Fateha”, and “Arb’ain Hadith”.

The prominent poet and religious scholar, “Adib Peshawari”
On May 30, 1930 AD, the prominent poet and religious scholar, Seyyed Ahmad Peshawari, known as “Adib Peshawari”, passed away in Tehran. He was born near Peshawar in what is now Pakistan. He came to Iran to attend the classes of Islamic scholars such as Mullah Hadi Sabzevari. He also studied literary and philosophical books and wrote Persian poetry. His firm faith in Islam and indifference toward worldly matters are clearly evident in his poems. He has compiled a Divan of poetry in Persian language, which is a masterpiece.

Abu Hatem Sahl ibn Mohammad Sijistani
On 21st of the Islamic month of Rajab in 248 AH, Abu Hatem Sahl ibn Mohammad Sijistani of Iran passed away. He was an expert in Qur’anic sciences, hadith, literary techniques and poetry. He was also involved in social affairs. Among his valuable compilations, mention can be made of “Akhlaq al-Insan”, and “E’raab al-Qur’an”.

The prominent Iranian Islamic scholar, Mullah Ali Nouri
On 22nd of the Islamic month of Rajab in 1246 AH, the prominent Iranian Islamic scholar, Mullah Ali Nouri, passed away. He was an expert in Islamic philosophy, and among his numerous compilations, mention can be made of “Havashiy-e Asfaar” on the famous Safavid-era philosopher’s famous work “al-Asfaar al-Arba”.

The prominent Iranian theologian and Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Seyyed Hussein Kouh-Kamarai
On 23rd of the Islamic month of Rajab in 1299 AH, the prominent Iranian theologian and Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Seyyed Hussein Kouh-Kamarai, passed away. He was a student in holy Najaf of Sheikh Morteza Ansari, and in turn groomed at least 800 Ulema. He has left behind numerous books on Islamic sciences.

Sultan Mo'iz od-Din Ahmad Sanjar, the last great ruler of the Iran-based Seljuqid Empire
On 25th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 479 AH, Sultan Mo'iz od-Din Ahmad Sanjar, the last great ruler of the Iran-based Seljuqid Empire that included Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and parts of Turkey and Central Asia, was born. As son of Malik Shah I, he ruled for 36 years, initially as sultan of Khorasan until he gained the rest of the territory upon the death of his brother Mohammad I. His capital was Naishapur, and in addition to internal revolts, he faced external invasions from beyond the River Jaxartes in Central Asia, especially from the Sultan of Kashghar in what is now China, and the Qara Khitai Turks against whom he suffered a devastating defeat near Samarqand and lost all territory east of the Jaxartes. Oghuz Turks from Khuttal and Tukharistan captured Sanjar and held him prisoner for three years. A year after release he died in Merv which is presently in Turkmenistan and was buried there.

The prominent Iranian Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Mohammad Baqer Fesharaki
On 26th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 1314 AH, the prominent Iranian Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Mohammad Baqer Fesharaki, passed away. He compiled almost thirty books, including “Adaab ash-Sharif”.

The prominent Islamic scholar, Hojjat al-Islam Mullah Mohammad Ashrafi
On 18th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 1220 AH, the prominent Islamic scholar, Hojjat al-Islam Mullah Mohammad Ashrafi, was born in northern Iran. He left for Najaf Seminary for completion of his studies, and soon became an authority on hadith, exegesis of the holy Qur'an, and philosophy. He passed away in the year 1315 AH. He has left behind valuable compilations, including the book "Asrar ash-Shahada".
On May 24, 1982 AD, the southwestern Iranian city of Khorramshahr was liberated from the yoke of the Ba'thist invaders by Iran's Muslim combatants in the heroic Bayt al-Moqaddas Operations, after a year and 8 months of occupation. It was a decisive victory that completely turned the tide of the imposed war against Saddam, thereby shattering the equations of his backers in the West and the East, including the Arab reactionary regimes of the Persian Gulf, which had bankrolled his aggression on Islamic Iran. This historic event is marked every year as “The Day of Resistance and Victory”.
On May 26, 1908 AD, oil was recovered for the first time in Iran in the Masjid Suleiman area in the southwest, at a 60-meter depth, with oil gushing up to a height of 25 meters. The Masjid Suleiman area is of paramount importance in regard to its mines and oil facilities and up to now more than 250 oil wells have been drilled. Iran also possesses the world’s second largest natural gas reserves as well. Oil seepages had been noted for centuries in Iran, where the oozings were used for such purposes as the caulking of boats and the binding of bricks.
On May 28, 1980, Iran's post-revolution Majlis (parliament) started its first 4-year term – a landmark event for the Islamic Republic of Iran. There are 290 MPs in the Majlis, elected by the people's direct vote. Religious minorities, such as Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians, have their own elected representatives. The Majlis as the Legislative Branch coordinates its policies with the other two branches of government – the Executive and the Judiciary.

Iranian philosopher and Sufi writer, Fakhr od-Din Ibrahim Iraqi
On June 10, 1213 AD, Iranian philosopher and Sufi writer, Fakhr od-Din Ibrahim Iraqi, was born in Hamadan, western Iran. He spent many years in Multan, (present day Pakistan) as well as in Konya and Toqat in present day Turkey. He was highly educated in both theology and literary disciplines and not only knew the Holy Qur'an, hadith and its exegesis, but also Persian and Arabic literature.
In Multan he became a disciple of the Head of the Suhrawardi Sufi Order, Shaikh Baha od-Din Zakariyya, married his daughter, and stayed for twenty-five years. He then traveled first to Mecca and Medina, and later visited Konya, where he became a good friend of the famous Persian mystical poet, Mowlana Jalal od-Din Rumi.
He also met Sadr od-Din Qunawi, who helped to shape him intellectually, as Shaikh Baha od-Din Zakariyya had shaped him spiritually. After Rumi's death, he moved to Toqat, at a time when there was much upheaval on the Byzantine border. The local ruler did not like him because of his influence over the people; so he fled to Cairo in Egypt. Later he settled in Damascus where he eventually died at the age of 78.
His writings include “Lama’at” (Divine Flashes). His Diwan has been published in Iran under the title of “Kulliyaat-e Iraqi”. Another of his works is the “Ushshaq-Namah” written during his stay in Multan and dedicated to the vizier Shams od-Din Juwayni.

Fadhl ibn Sahl Sarakhsi
On 2nd of the Islamic month of Sha’ban in 202 AH, Fadhl ibn Sahl ibn Zaadaan Farrukh Sarakhsi, the powerful Iranian prime minister of Mamoun (the 7th self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime), was slain under mysterious condition while in the bathhouse of the city of Sakakhs, which today straddles the Iran-Turkmenistan border.
Known for his craftiness in devising the plan to force Imam Reza (AS), the 8th Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), to leave Medina and come to Mamoun’s capital in the Khorasani city of Merv (presently in Turkmenistan), he was entrusted with both the military command and civilian administration with the title Dhu’r-Riyasatayn (Possessor of the Two Commands).
A convert to Islam from Zoroastrianism, Sahl and his brother, Hassan, were instrumental in consolidation of the caliphate of Mamoun, whose mother was Iranian. Sahl was the de facto ruler of the caliphate until the year before his death, having played a crucial role in the civil war between Mamoun and his brother Amin.
According to the historian Ibn Atheer, he was suspected of being a follower of the Prophet’s Household and was thus murdered – probably on the orders of Mamoun. Following his death the public turned against Mamoun, who pleaded with Imam Reza (AS) to use his influence to calm down the agitators.

The renowned Iranian scholar, poet and mystic, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
On 2nd of the Islamic month of Sha’ban in 396 AH, the renowned Iranian scholar, poet and mystic, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, was born in Heart, which is now in Afghanistan, but was then an integral part of Khorasan. He was a commentator of the holy Qur'an, a compiler of hadith, and known for his oratory and poetic talents in Arabic and Persian.
He wrote several books on Islamic mysticism and philosophy. His most famous work is "Munajat Namah", which is considered a masterpiece of Persian literature. His exegesis on the holy Qur'an is titled "Kashf ul-Asrar", and was compiled in 10 volumes by his disciples after his death. He used to avoid the company of the rich, powerful and the influential. Abdullah Ansari was a direct descendant of the Prophet's companion and host in Medina, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari.
He died in 1088 in his hometown Herat. He is the ancestor of the line of the Heravi Khwajavi in Iran, who once dominated Khorasan and eastern Iran. Some of his descendants moved to the Subcontinent. Among them was Hakim Shaikh Ilm ud-din Ansari, better known as Wazir Khan, who was a governor of the Mughal Emperors in Multan, in what is now Pakistan.
He is best known for having built the famous Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore. His other prominent descendent was Qutb ud-din Ansari who founded the famous Firangi Mahal school of religious thought and education, near Lucknow in India. He passed away in 481 AH.

The acclaimed Persian poet and mystic, Sana'i Ghaznavi
On 11th of the Islamic month of Sha’ban in 529 AH, the acclaimed Persian poet and mystic, Abu’l-Majd Majd od-Din ibn Adam Sana'i Ghaznavi, passed away in Ghazni in what is now Afghanistan at the age of 62. He was connected with the court of the Ghaznavid king, Bahram Shah, who ruled for 35 years.
When accompanying the king on a military campaign to India, Sana’i met the Sufi teacher Lai-Khur, and immediately quit Bahram Shah's service as a court poet, even though he was promised wealth and the hand of the king's daughter in marriage. He now started serving the people and criticized in his poems the unjust and corrupt rulers. He was a trend-setter in the style of Persian poetry.
His most important work is “Hadiqat-al-Haqiqah” (Walled Garden of Truth) which is in the form of odes, reflecting his ethical and Gnostic thoughts. Among his other works, one can mention “Ilahi Namah” and “Tariq at-Tahqiq”. He has written some excellent panegyrics in praise of Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS), the First Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). For the past nine centuries Sana'i has had a tremendous influence on Persian literature, and along with Shaikh Farid od-Din Attar, was regarded by Mowlana Jalal od-Din Rumi as an inspiration.

Abdur-Razzaq Samarqandi, the Iranian ambassador to the Deccan (Southern India)
On 12th of the Islamic month of Sha’ban in 847 AH, Abdur-Razzaq Samarqandi, the Iranian ambassador to the Deccan (southern India) ended his year-long stay in Hampi at the court of the Raja of Vijaynagar. He was sent from the then Iranian capital, Herat (presently in Afghanistan), by the ruler Shahrukh (son and successor of the fearsome Turkic conqueror Amir Timur), on a three-year mission, mostly to the court of the Zamorin of Calicut (Kozikhode in Kerala).
The major Muslim power in the Deccan at that time was the Bahmani Empire founded by a family of Iranian origin. Abdur-Razzaq Samarqandi wrote an account of his mission and travels in the famous Persian book “Matla us-Sa’dain wa Majma’ ul-Bahrain”. The book details the culture of southern India and the influence of Persian on the people and their different arts, as well as the presence of tens of thousands of Iranians in the various kingdoms of the Deccan, including Muslim and Hindu.

The eminent Iranian astronomer and mathematician, Jamshid Kashani
On June 22, 1429 AD, the eminent Iranian astronomer and mathematician, Ghiyas od-Din Jamshid Kashani, died under suspicious circumstances in Samarqand at the age of around 50. He was born in Kashan and went to Samarqand at the invitation of the Timurid scientist-ruler, Ologh Beg, to set up the famous observatory. He produced a Zij entitled the “Khaqani Zij”, which was based on Khwaja Naseer od-Din Tusi's “Zij-e Ilkhani”.
He also produced tables on transformations between coordinate systems on the celestial sphere, such as the transformation from the ecliptic coordinate system to the equatorial coordinate system. He wrote the book “Sullam as-Sama” on the resolution of difficulties met by predecessors in the determination of distances and sizes of heavenly bodies such as the Earth, the Moon, the Sun and the Stars. He also invented a mechanical planetary computer which he called the Plate of Zones, which could graphically solve a number of planetary problems, including the prediction of the true positions in longitude of the Sun and Moon, and the planets in terms of elliptical orbits; the latitudes of the Sun, Moon, and planets; and the ecliptic of the Sun.
In one of his numerical approximations of "P" (pronounced pie), he correctly computed 2 P to 9 sexagesimal digits. This approximation of 2 P is equivalent to 16 decimal places of accuracy. This was far more accurate than the estimates earlier given in Greek mathematics of 3 decimal places by Archimedes, Chinese mathematics of 7 decimal places by Zu Chongzhi and Indian mathematics of 11 decimal places by Madhava of Sangamagrama. The accuracy of Jamshid Kashani's estimate was not surpassed until Ludolph van Ceulen computed 20 decimal places of "P" nearly 200 years later.

The Iranian agent of the usurper Abbasid regime, Abu-Muslim Khorasani
On 25th of the Islamic month of Sha’ban in 137 AH, the Iranian agent of the usurper Abbasid regime, Abu-Muslim Khorasani, whose string of military victories against the Omayyads, starting from Khorasan and continuing all the way up to Syria, resulted in regime change, was killed by his own masters, who feared his growing power might pose a danger to their newfound caliphate.
The Abbasids and their agents had deceived the masses, especially the Iranian Muslims, through their slogan of restoring power of the Islamic state to its rightful owners, the progeny of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), but after exterminating the Omayyad usurpers and even digging up their graves and burning the bones of the dead caliphs, including those of Mu’awiyya ibn Abu Sufyan, they usurped the power themselves.
As part of the elaborate propaganda to mislead the masses, Abu Muslim, who launched his uprising against the Omayyads in Balkh, actually on behalf of Abu’l-Abbas as-Saffah (the blood-shedder), shortly after the martyrdom in Jowzajan of Yahya ibn Zayd ibn Imam Zayn al-Abedin (AS), ordered his followers to wear black, brought down from the gallows the headless corpse of the young martyr, buried it, and instructed the naming of boys born that year in Khorasan as Yahya. This led to the mass popularity of the uprising and decisive victories against the hated Omayyads.
In the meantime, the Prophet’s 6th Infallible Heir, Imam Ja’far Sadeq (AS), on being offered the caliphate by one of the victorious generals of the uprising, coolly burned the letter without opening it, thereby implying that such dubious political authority that depends upon the whims and inclinations of unprincipled elements, is definitely not the God-given “wilaya” which he already possessed. Thus, Mansour Dawaniqi, on succeeding his brother Abu’l-Abbas as-Saffah as the second caliph of the usurper Abbasid dynasty, had Abu-Muslim Khorasani murdered.

Al-Muhallabi, the literary patron and able vizier of the founder of the Iranian Buwaihid Dynasty
On 27th of the Islamic month of Sha’ban in 351 AH, Hassan ibn Mohammad al-Muhallabi, the literary patron and able vizier of the founder of the Iranian Buwaihid Dynasty of Iran-Iraq-Oman, Moiz od-Dowla Daylami, passed away in Oman during a military expedition at the age of 65. The Buwaihids were devout followers of the Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).
Hassan was one of the last members to achieve renown from the famous clan of the Muhallabids that traced its lineage back nine generations to the army commander Muhallab ibn Abu Sufra, who despite being the son of Abu Sufra – the loyal Omani supporter of Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS) – changed sides, along with his opportunistic sons, as per the political situation between the Omayyads, the Zubayrids, and the Abbasids, and suffered ignominious ends.
Hassan al-Muhallabi, who was master of both the Arabic and Persian languages, started life as an administrator in Ahvaz, who on catching the attention of the Buwaihid vizier, Abu Ja’far Saimuri, became attached to the court of Moez od-Dowla, and later on his patron’s death succeeded him as vizier. He was an accomplished poet as well.

The famous Iranian Sunni Muslim scholars and exegete of the holy Qur'an, Al-Shahrestani
On 30th of the Islamic month of Sha’ban in 548 AH, the famous Iranian Sunni Muslim scholar and exegete of the holy Qur'an, Mohammad Ibn Abdul-Karim Shahrestani, passed away at the age of 81 in his hometown Shahrestan in Khorasan, northeastern Iran. In the city of Nishapur he studied under different masters who were all disciples of the Ash`ari theologian al-Juwayni.
At the age of thirty, he went to Baghdad to pursue theological studies and taught for three years at the famous Nizamiyya Academy, before returning to Khorasan, where he worked as Deputy Chancellor for Sultan Sanjar, the Seljuq ruler. He wrote several important works, such as “al-Milal wa'n-Nihal” (The Book of Sects and Creeds), which presents the doctrinal points of view of religions and philosophies that existed up to his time.
This book is one of the earliest systematic studies of religion and is noted for its scientific approach. Another of his famous works is the exegesis "Mafatih al-Asraar wa-Masabih al-Abraar" (The Keys of the Mysteries and the Lamps of the Righteous), which introduces the Qur’an and gives a complete commentary on the first two Surahs.
In this book, pointing to the confused events of the days of the 3rd Caliph, Osman Ibn Affan, concerning the compilation of the Qur’an, Shahrestani says: We should study why (Imam) Ali Ibn Abi Taleb (AS) was not approached for compilation of the Qur'an? Was he not a greater authority than Zayd Ibn Thabit in transcribing the Qur'an (as well as its memorization and familiarity with its contents)? Did he not possess a better knowledge of Arabic and its grammar than Sa'eed Ibn Aas? Was not (Imam) Ali Ibn Abi Taleb (AS) considered closer to the Prophet of Allah (SAWA) than any of the sahabah? Why did they (Abu Bakr and Omar) reject the first ever copy of the Qur'an compiled by (Imam) Ali (AS) immediately after the passing away of the Prophet?

The acclaimed Iranian Shafe’i jurisprudent, Mohammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir Naishapuri
On 29th of the Islamic month of Sha’ban in 318 AH, the acclaimed Iranian Shafe’i jurisprudent, Mohammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir Naishapuri, passed away in holy Mecca at the age of 77. Born in Naishapur in Khorasan, after mastering hadith and Qur’anic sciences, he travelled to Hejaz where he spent the rest of his life in Mecca, as Shaikh al-Haram.
He was well versed with the differing opinions amongst the scholars of hadith, and wrote several books, the largest of which was titled “al-Mabsout”, which has not survived. He abridged this voluminous work as “al-Awsat”, but only a few volumes of it have been found, and even fewer printed. He further abridged this book into a still smaller version titled “al-Ishraaf”, which is regarded as the best book of its kind, since he briefly mentions it all the different opinions regarding each topic and occasionally mentions the opinion he prefers.

Ibn Sina, the prominent Iranian Islamic genius
On 1st of the Islamic month of Ramadhan in 428 AH, Abu Ali Hussain Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina, the prominent Iranian Islamic genius, who was a physician, mathematician, philosopher, and astronomer, passed away at the age of 58 in the western Iranian city of Hamedan. He memorized the Holy Qur'an at a young age and then mastered logic, astronomy, and geometry, to such an extent that at the age of 18, he was considered an authority in all the sciences of his day.
Due to successful medical treatment of the Samanid King, Nouh ibn Mansour, he was allowed to use the large royal library at Bukhara. He was a genius, who because of his political views and religious tendencies in favour of the Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), found himself persecuted by Sultan Mahmoud of Ghazna. Known as Avicenna to medieval Europe, his works were translated into Latin and for several centuries were taught at most western universities. Among his valuable books, mention can be made of the book: “Shafa” on philosophy; and “al-Qanoun fi't-Tibb” on medicine.

The acclaimed grammarian of Arabic, Abu Ali al-Farsi al-Fasawi
On 17th of the Islamic month of Rabi al-Awwal in 377 AH, the acclaimed grammarian of Arabic, Hassan bin Ahmad, known popularly as Abu Ali al-Farsi al-Fasawi, passed away in Baghdad. He was attached to the court of the famous Buwaiyhid ruler of Iran-Iraq, Azud od-Dowla Daylami.

The Iranian Shafei jurisprudent and scholar, Taher ibn Abdullah Abu Tayyeb at-Tabari
On 20th of the Islamic month of Rabi al-Awwal in 450 AH, the Iranian Shafei jurisprudent and scholar, Taher ibn Abdullah Abu Tayyeb at-Tabari, died in Baghdad at the age of 102. He was born in Amol, in the Caspian Sea province of Mazandaran. He traveled widely to acquire knowledge, before settling in Iraq, where he held classes in different fields. He was the Chief Judge of Baghdad until his death. Among his books, mention could be made of "Jawab fi's-Sama" and the 10 vol. work titled "al-Ghena wa't-Ta'liqat al-Kubra fi'l-Furu".

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