Some of the Renowned Islamic Erudites
Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz
On 6th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 786 AH, the Arabic poet and hadith scholar, Ismail Ibn Mohammad Ibn Bardis, passed away. Born in Ba'lbak in what is now Lebanon, he pursued higher studies in Damascus under prominent scholars before visiting several Islamic lands. He embarked on a career of teaching, and was known for his frank views. He wrote several books including “Kashf an-Neqaab Amma Rawa ash-Shaykhaan lil-As-haab"
On 12th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 384 AH, the famous literary figure and poet, Ibrahim as-Sabi, passed away. Born in Baghdad, he was highly skilled in the techniques of poetry and literature. He was also an authority on mathematics, astronomy, and geometry. Among his valuable compilations, mention can be made of “A Treatise in the Science of Trigonometry”, and “A Treatise in the Science of Astronomy”. He was affiliated to the court of Iranian Buwaihid rulers of Iraq and Iran.
On 13th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 911 AH, the famous jurisprudent Shaikh Zayn od-Din al-Juba'i al-Ameli, known as Shaheed Thani (Second Martyr), was born in Jabal Amel in Lebanon. He is believed to have some connection with Tous in Khorasan, because he occasionally signed his name as "at-Tousi ash-Shami" – the second part pertaining to Greater Syria since Lebanon like Palestine and Jordan is actually a part of Syria. He visited Egypt, Hijaz, Damascus, Bayt al-Moqaddas, Iraq and Istanbul in pursuit of knowledge and studied under both Sunni and Shi'ite Muslim ulema. He became a Mujtahid at the age of 33 and taught at the Nooriyah Islamic School according to the five schools of Islamic jurisprudence, that is, Ja'fari, Hanafi, Shafei, Maliki and Hanbali. Apart from proficiency in jurisprudence, he was well versed in theology, philosophy, Gnosis, medicine and astronomy. He was a man of piety, known for his austere way of life. His students have recorded in his biography that he maintained his family by selling wood that he cut during the nights, and then sat to teach during the day. Some pseudo ulema adverse to Islamic unity, conspired against him, labeled false accusations, and complained to the Ottoman Sultan. In Rajab 65 AH, he was brutally beheaded on his way to see the Sultan, and a shrine was built by Turkmens on the site as they realised his stature. His assassin was killed on the Sultan's orders. He is the author of several books, but his greatest work is the commentary he wrote on the jurisprudential manual "Lum'at-ad-Dimashqiyya" (The Damascene Glitter) of the First Martyr, Mohammad Jamal od-Din al- Makki al-Ameli, titled "ar-Rawdhat-al-Bahiyah ft Sharh al-Lum'at-ad- Dimashqiyya" (The Beautiful Garden in Interpreting the Damascene Glitter).
On 13th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 1323 AH, the prominent Islamic scholar, Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Taha, passed away at the age of 83. Born in holy Najaf in Iraq, he acquired knowledge under the prominent Islamic scholar, Sheikh Morteza Ansari Dezfuli. He was a polymath in theology, principles of theology, hadith, and exegesis of the Holy Qur'an. He has left behind several books, including an Annotation on "Ma'alem al-Osoul".
On 15th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 3 AH, the eminent Islamic poet and preacher, Abu at-Tufail Amer Kan’ani, was born. As a steadfast follower of Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS), his poems are in praise of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) and the blessed Ahl al-Bayt.
On 16th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 510 AH, the hadith scholar and historian, Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Azraq al-Fareqi, was born in the Miyafareqin region of what is now southeastern Turkey. He travelled widely, becoming familiar with social state of the masses, their customs, and the historical developments of the said regions. These journeys are recorded in his magnum opus titled "Tarikh al-Fareqi", which is a general history with special focus upon the author's native region of Miyafariqin and Amed. He died in 577 AH at the age of 67 years.
On 18th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 598 AH, the prominent theologian, Mohammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Idris al-Hilli, passed away at the age of 55. Born in the Iraqi city of Hilli, he was a child prodigy and became a prominent theologian at a fairly young age. He believed that selecting the right path is the duty of every sane and grown up person, and anyone who does not make use of this blessing of the intellect has committed a self-destructive blunder. Among the valuable books written by this great Islamic scholar is "as-Sara’er".
On 21st of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 354 AH, the Iranian Sunni Muslim compiler of hadith, Abu Hatem Mohammad ibn Hibban al-Basti, from Bast in Khorasan, passed away. He was a Shafe'i hadith specialist, and the actual name of his compilation is "at-Taqasim wa'l-Anwa", which is commonly referred to as "Sahih ibn Hibban". Many Sunni scholars regard it next only to the "Sahihs" of the two other prominent Iranian Sunni Muslim hadith compilers, Bukhari and Muslim, while the prominent Egyptian scholar, Jalal od-Din Suyuti, places it fourth after Ibn Khuzayma Naishapuri's Sahih, and above the hadith collection of the five other Iranian Sunni Muslim authorities – that is, Ibn Maja Qazvini, Abu Dawoud Sijistani, Abu Isa Tirmizi, Ahmad ibn Shu’ayb Nasai, and Hakem Naishapuri. It is interesting to note that despite mentioning some of the unsurpassed merits of the Ahl al-Bayt or blessed household of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), all these Sunni Muslim hadith authorities, who were Iranians, failed to have any direct contact with the Infallible Imams or their disciples.
On August 29, 2003 AD, Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Baqer al-Hakim was martyred at the age of 64 years, along with at least 125 other Muslims, while stepping out of the holy shrine of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS) in Najaf after leading the Friday Prayer in its courtyard, due to a bomb blast carried out by US-backed Salafi and Ba’thist terrorists. Son of the Late Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Mohsin al-Hakim, he was active against the repressive Ba’th minority regime, suffering bouts of imprisonment, before seeking asylum 1980 in the Islamic Republic of Iran, where he headed the Supreme Assembly for the Islamic Revolution of Iraq (SAIRI) in exile. On 12 May 2003, he had returned to Iraq after 23 years in exile, and was greeted by thousands of admirers from Basra till his hometown Najaf, where became active in the struggle against the American occupation of the country.
On 24th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 211 AH, the Sunni Muslim compiler of hadith, Abdur-Razzaq San'ani, passed away in Yemen at the age of 85. He was from San‘a, and traveled to Mecca, Medina, Syria and Iraq for study. It is obvious that he failed to approach the Infallible Imams of the Prophet's Household for authentic hadith, contenting himself with the narrations handed down from the Sahaba, though he has admitted some of the merits of the Ahl al-Bayt. He went blind in the last years of his life. He was a memorizer of the Holy Qur'an, and his work on hadith is titled "Musannaf Abdur-Razzaq".
On 24th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 1151 AH, the pious scholar Mir Mohammad Hussain Ibn Mohammad Saleh, passed away. He was the maternal grandson (daughter’s son) of the celebrated scholar, Allamah Mohammad Baqer Majlisi. Among his works, mention could be made of “Miftah al-Faraj”.
On 25th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 536 AH, the hadith scholar and author, Ahmad Heravi, passed away. He was one of the prominent lecturers of the Nezamiyyah Academy in the Khorasani city of Balkh, which is in present day Afghanistan. His most renowned student was Rashid od-Din Watwaat, the prominent Iranian literary figure. He also lectured for a while in Baghdad while returning from the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca.
On 25th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 681 AH, the Spanish Muslim Arabic grammarian and Islamic law expert, Abdur-Rahman bin Abdullah as-Suhayli, died at the age of 73 in Marakesh, three years after coming to Morocco on the invitation of the Almohad sultan, Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur. He was born in Fuengirola, which was known as Suhayl during Muslim rule in Spain. He wrote books on Arabic grammar and Islamic law. He is especially well known as an Islamic scholar by his commentary on the Prophet's biography by Ibn Hisham.
On 9th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 394 AH, the renowned Iranian Ismaili Shi'ite scientist, philosopher, poet, author and traveler, Naser Khosrow, was born in Qobadian in northeastern Khorasan, which is now part of modern Tajikistan. He memorized the Holy Qur'an while still a child, and in addition to philosophy, learned a wide variety of natural sciences, such as medicine, mathematics, astronomy and astrology. He was fluent in several languages, and besides his native Persian, mastered Arabic, Hebrew, Greek, Turkish and the Indian vernaculars of Sindh and Punjab. He joined the Ghaznavid court as secretary, but following a major development in his thoughts, shunned politics, and after a while started on a long journey to Egypt to meet the Fatemid caliph. During the over six years he spent in travel until his return home, he visited the different cities of Iran, Iraq, Syria, Arabia, and Egypt, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina four times. He penned his travels in the famous book titled "Zaad al-Musafereen", which is also known as "Safar-Namah" or Travelogue that contains an interesting description of the peoples, the customs, the conditions, and geographical factors of the lands he visited. Naser Khosrow has composed some very fine odes in Persian in praise of Imam Ali (AS), the First Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He died in 481 AH at the age of 87 years.
On 15th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 252 AH, Seyyed Abdul-Azim al-Hasani, a prominent descendant of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), was martyred in Rayy, where his shrine, in what is now the southernmost suburb of the Iranian capital, Tehran, is a site of pilgrimage for people from all over the world.
A pious scholar of repute, he was fifth in descent from the Prophet's elder grandson and 2nd Infallible Heir, Imam Hasan Mojtaba (AS). His genealogy reads: Abdul-Azim Ibn Abdullah Ibn Ali Iin Hassan Ibn Zayd Ibn Imam Hasan (AS). Born in Medina in the last years of the life of the Prophet's 7th Infallible Heir, Imam Musa al-Kazem (AS), he had the honour of companionship of the 8th, 9th and 10th Infallible Imams – Imam Ali ar-Reza (AS), Imam Mohammad al-Jawad (AS), and Imam Ali al-Hadi (AS).
He was sent as a missionary to Iran to enlighten the people about the teachings of the Ahl al-Bayt. Because of severe persecution of the Prophet's progeny by the tyrannical Abbasid caliph, Mutawakkel, he carried out his activities with precaution, spending the days in fasting and nights in worship.
Often he used to visit the grave of Hamza, a son of the 7th Imam in an orchard outside the city, and willed that he be buried nearby on his death. Among the books authored by him was a collection of the eloquent sermons of the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali ibn Taleb (AS), predating by over one-hundred-and-fifty years the compilation of the “Nahj al-Balagha”.
On 15th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 275 AH, the prominent Iranian Sunni Muslim compiler of hadith, Abu Dawud Sulayman Ibn al-Ash'as Sijistani, passed away in Basra at the age of 73. Born in Sistan, in eastern Iran, he studied in Herat, Balkh, Marv, and Naishapur – the famous centres of learning in Khorasan – before travelling to Rayy and thence to Baghdad, Damascus, Hijaz, and Egypt, to collect hadith. He was primarily interested in jurisprudence, and as a result his collection focuses mostly on narrations of legal nature.
Of the 500,000-odd so-called hadith he collected from whomever he encountered, he chose 4,800 as "Sahih" (authentic) for inclusion in his work titled “Sunan Abi Dawud", which Sunni Muslims regard as the third of their six "canonical" hadith collections, although modern scholarship amongst the Sunnis has ruled many of his hadith as "weak" after due scrutiny.
Among his other books, mention could be made of “Kitab al-Marasil”, in which he lists some 600 more hadith as authentic. Although he has acknowledged the unsurpassed merits of the Ahl al-Bayt, he did not have any direct access to the Infallible Imams or their disciples, the true repositories of the authentic "Sunnah" (practice) and "Seerah" (behaviour) of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).
On 7th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 311 AH, the renowned Iranian statesman, scientist, and geographer, Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Jeyhani, passed away in Bukhara, where he served as vizier of the Iranian Samanid Dynasty. It was due to his political acumen and farsighted policies that the Samanid realm was consolidated in Central Asia and Khorasan (including present-day Afghanistan), following the murder of Ahmad Ibn Ismail, the second ruler and the ascension of the latter's 8-year old, Nasr Ibn Ahmad.
Poets and historians have eulogized him for his policies that included clemency towards his fallen foes. His son and grandson also served as viziers. His lasting fame is indebted to the valuable works he wrote, the most important of which is in the domain of geography, titled “al-Masaalek wa’l-Mamalek”.
On 9th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 110 AH, the well-known interpreter of dreams, Mohammad Ibn Sirin, died at the age of 77. Born in the Iraqi port city of Basra to a bondmaid and a father of Greek-Syrian ancestry, named Sirin, who was given by Caliph Omar Ibn Khattab as a slave to Anas bin Malek – the ‘not-so-obedient’ servant of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) – he was of sharp memory and worked as a cloth merchant.
After learning the holy Qur'an and the hadith literature, he led an ascetic way of life and soon established himself as an interpreter of dreams. His sources of narration are rather weak because of his lack of access to the Prophet's blessed progeny, the Ahl al-Bayt.
On 11th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 487 AH, the Spanish Muslim lexicographer, geographer and historian, Abu Obayd Abdullah ibn Abdul-Aziz al-Bakri, passed away at the age of 82. Born in Huelva, the son of the ruler of the short-lived principality of the same name, he was a polymath in most of the sciences of the day.
When his father was deposed he shifted to Qurtuba (Cordoba) where he studied with the geographer Ahmad Ibn Omar al-Udhri and the historian Hayyán Ibn Khalaf Ibn Hayyan al-Qurtubi. He spent all his life in his native Spain, mostly in Seville and Almeria, writing about Europe, North Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula. Only two of his works have survived – the “Mu'jam ma Ista'jam” and “Kitab al-Masalek wa’l-Mamalek” (Book of Ways and Lands).
The latter work was based on writings and the reports of merchants and travellers, including Mohammad Ibn Yusuf al-Warraq and the Arabicized Jew, Abraham ben Jacob. It is an important source for the history of West Africa and gives crucial information on the Ghana Empire, the Almoravid Dynasty and the trans-Saharan trade. He also updated information. Al-Bakri mentions the earliest urban centers in the trans-Saharan trade to embrace Islam such as Gao along the River Niger which had native Muslim inhabitants. Soon other kingdoms along the serpentine bends of River Niger eventually embraced Islam, such as Takrur (today’s Senegal); Songhay (present day Mali); Kanem-Bornu (currently Chad); and Hausa-territories (of what is now called Nigeria). His works are noted for the objectiveness with which they are presented.
For each area, he described the people, their customs, as well as the geography, climate, and main cities. He also included anecdotes about each area. Unfortunately, parts of his main work have been lost, and of the surviving parts, some have never been published. In lexicography al-Bakri wrote the book “Amsaal al-Obayd”.
On August 20,1762 AD, the Islamic scholar and reformer of the Subcontinent, Qutb od-Din Ahmad Ibn Abdur-Rahim, known as Shah Waliullah, passed away at the age of 59 years ago in Delhi, where he was born during the last years of the 50-year reign of the 6th Great Moghul Emperor, Mohammad Aurangzeb, who took Muslim power to its height in South Asia, controlling all of today’s India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and the eastern half of Afghanistan.
After initial education in his hometown, he left for the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, where he stayed several years acquiring knowledge of various Islamic sciences, and on his return to India, strove for the revival of Islamic rule and intellectual learning. His activities were not confined to spiritual and intellectual spheres only, since he lived in troubled times and saw a number of rulers ascending to and falling from the throne of Delhi.
He observed the deterioration of Muslim rule and wrote to several political leaders, including Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan and Nizam Ali Khan Asef Jah II of Haiderabad-Deccan, to bolster the political life of Muslims. Waliullah was a prolific writer in both Persian and Arabic.
He wrote fifty-one books, of which twenty-eight are in Arabic and twenty-three in Persian. He codified the vast store of Islamic sciences under separate heads. His works can be classified into six categories. The first deals with the holy Qur'an, including its translation into Persian for the first time in the Subcontinent.
According to him, the object of studying the holy Qur'an is to reform human nature and correct wrong beliefs and injurious actions. The second category deals with hadith. The third category deals with fiqh or jurisprudence. The fourth category deals with mysticism. The fifth pertains to his works on Muslim philosophy and theology, including Ijtihad. The sixth category deals with problems between Sunnis and Shi’ite Muslims. His theories pertaining to economics and socialism are of revolutionary nature.
On 26th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 1293 AH, the Source of Emulation, Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Abdul-Mohammad Musavi, passed away. A child prodigy he memorized the holy Qur’an when only seven years old and at the age of 24 attained the status of Ijtehad – or independent reasoning on basis of the Holy Qur’an and Prophet's Hadith. He was one of the prominent lecturers of and his services include establishment of seminaries and other social activities. He wrote several books, including the treatise titled "Dhakhirat al-Ebaad".
On 27th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 300 AH, the pious scholar, Sa'd bin Abdullah al-Ash'ari al-Qomi, passed away in Qom. He had the privilege of meeting Imam Hasan Askari (AS), the 11th Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He wrote several books including "Basa'er ad-Darajaat" and was an active missionary in Iran for promotion of the teachings of the Ahl al-Bayt.
On 27th of the Islamic month of Shawwal in 381 AH, the renowned Iranian theologian and philosopher, Abu'l-Hassan Mohammad ibn Yusuf al-Ameri, passed away in his hometown Naishapur in the northeastern province of Khorasan. He believed that Islam was the perfection of all religions, and the revealed truths of Islam were thus superior to the conclusions of philosophy, however logical, although the two did not contradict each other. He also believed that the Greeks, who produced such philosophers as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, did not have a final say because they as a society, lacked a prominent prophet, who ought to have a final say in all forms and matters. Ameri lived in a half century period between two other Iranian Islamic geniuses, Abu Nasr al-Farabi and Abu Ali Hussain Ibn Sina. He first studied under Abu Zayd al-Balkhi in Khorasan, before moving to Rayy near modern Tehran and then to Baghdad, where he met such noted intellectuals as Abu Hayyan Ali ibn Mohammad at-Tawhidi and Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Mohammad Ibn Miskawayh. After several years he returned to Iran and took up residence in Bukhara, where he had access to the royal library of the Iranian Samanid Dynasty. His works include: "al-E'laam be Manaqeb al-Islam" (An Exposition on the Merits of Islam), and "Inqadh al-Bashar min aj-Jahr wa'l-Qadar" (Deliverance of Mankind from the Problem of Predestination and Free Will).
On September 5, 699 AD, the Iranian Sunni Muslim Jurisprudent, Noman Ibn Sabet Ibn Zuṭa Ibn Marzuban, known as Abu Hanifa, was born in Kufa in a family of Zoroastrian origin from Kabul. He learned the holy Qur’an and hadith, and after only two years of study under Imam Ja’far Sadeq (AS), the 6th Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), he founded a jurisprudential school of his own, known as Hanafi. Contrary to the clear definition of Ijtihad, based on the holy Qur’an and the genuine hadith of the Prophet, he resorted to "qiyas" or analogy regarding legal issues, despite warnings from Imam Sadeq (AS) that the first one to indulge in "qiyas" was Iblis (Satan). He died in Baghdad at the age of 68.
On September 5, 973 AD, the prominent Iranian Islamic scientist, Abu Rayhan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad al-Berouni, was born in Kath in the Iranian land of Khwarezm, a region adjoining the Aral Sea and presently in the central Asian republic of Uzbekistan. He was a multisided genius and wrote prolifically on history, geography, astronomy, mathematics, mineralogy, and various other topics. He authored over 180 books. His work on geometry, arithmetic, trigonometry, and algebra, is titled "at-Tafhim" in which he has calculated the weight of objects. Berouni, who was a follower of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt, has written about the spherical shape of the Earth and its revolving on its axis as it orbits round the Sun, several centuries before the Europeans were to discover these facts. He was conversant in Arabic, Persian, Greek and Sanskrit, and after visiting India and spending several months in the company of its sages, he wrote the valuable book, “Tahqiq ma lil-Hind”. Among his valuable compilations, mention could be made of “Kitab at-Tafhim li-Awa’il Sina‘at at-Tanjim” (The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astronomy), and “Asaar al-Baqiyah an-il-Qoroun al-Khaliya” (The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries), which is a comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations, interlaced with mathematical, astronomical, and historical information. He also wrote the “Qanoun al-Mas'oudi”, an extensive encyclopedia on astronomy, geography, and engineering. He passed away at the age of 77 in Ghazni (present day Afghanistan), where he was affiliated to the court of the Turkic conqueror, Sultan Mahmoud and his son, Sultan Mas’oud.
On 1st of the Islamic month of Zi’l-Qa’dah in 177 AH, Shurayk Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sinan an-Nakha’i, the hadith scholar who ended up a turncoat and betrayed his profession of a judge, died at the age of 82. Born into an Arab family of Yemeni origin in the Iranian city of Bukhara in what is now the Central Asian republic of Uzbekistan, he used to be a follower of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt, until he made the fatal mistake of contaminating his body and soul by agreeing to eat the rich food prepared through foul and unlawful means at the table of Mahdi al-Abbasi, the 3rd self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime. Thereafter he was made a judge in Kufa, and used to give dubious verdicts, in addition to forging hadith.
On 2nd of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 903 AH, the prominent Iranian historian, Seyyed Mohammad Ibn Khwandshah Ibn Maḥmoud, popularly known as Mir-Khwand, passed away in the Khorasani city of Herat (presently in Afghanistan) at the age of 67. He was born in Balkh and belonged to a noble family of Bukhara (presently in Uzbekistan) that traced its descent from Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He lived most of his life in Herat at the Timurid court of Sultan Hussain Bayqarah, and authored the famous universal history “Rawzat as-Safa” (Garden of Purity). He was a friend of the scholarly minister, Ali Shir Navaei. Mir-Khwand’s maternal grandson (daughter’s son) was the famous Persian historian, Ghiyas od-Din Khwandamir, the author of “Habeeb as-Siyar” and “Qanoun-e Humayuni”, who also flourished at the court of Herat, and moved to India in the waning years of his life to the court of another branch of the Timurids, the Mughals, founded by Zaheer od-Din Babar.
On 4th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 656 AH, the famous Arabic poet, Baha od-Din Zuhayr Abu'l-Fazal Ibn Mohammad al-Muhallabi, died in Cairo at the age of 74. Born in Mecca, he travelled to Egypt where he became a poet at the court of the Ayyubid Kurdish dynasty, and finally became vizier of the ruler, Sultan as-Saleh. His Diwan was translated into English in two volumes by E.H. Palmer in 1876-77.
On 4th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 681 AH, the Iranian historian Ata-Malik Jowaini, passed away at the age of 58 in Azarbaijan. He belonged to a prominent scholarly and political family of Jowain in Khorasan that were followers of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt. His brother, father, and grandfather held important posts in the Ilkhanid Empire of Iran-Iraq. He too became an important official and twice visited the main Mongol capital of Karakorum in Central Asia. He accompanied Hulagu Khan during the sack of Baghdad and the next year was appointed governor of Baghdad, Lower Mesopotamia, and Khuzestan. His famous history is titled “Tarikh-e Jahan-Gusha”. It was translated into English by John Andrew Boyle under the title: “The History of the World-Conqueror” and the 2nd edition published in 1997. It should be noted that his brother, Shams od-Din Mohammad, who had been Sahib-e Divan (Finance Minister) and vizier for 22 years under three Ilkhans – Hulagu, Abaqa and Ahmad Tekuder – was martyred by the next ruler, Arghun Khan, on the alleged poisoning of his father Abaqa Khan, who actually died of excessive drinking. Ata-Malik's father, Baha od-Din, and grandfather Mohammad had held the post of Sahib-e Divan for Mohammad Jalal od-Din Khwarezmshah and later for Chingiz Khan's son Ogedei Khan respectively.
On September 11, 1994 AD, Iranian researcher and Qur'anic scholar, Dr. Mohammad Ramyar, passed away. Born in the holy city of Mashhad, after mastering Islamic sciences, he studied law and travelled to Britain, where he obtained a PhD in Philosophy from the University of Edinburgh. On his return to Iran, he served as Dean of Faculty of Theology and Islamic Teachings of Tehran University, grooming numerous students. Among his books, mention can be made of "History of Qur'an", and "Kashf al-Mataleb".
On 6th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 533 AH, the prominent Iranian Muslim theologian and mathematician, Abu'l-Hassan Sohravardi, passed away. He was a polymath in sciences and was a student of the Iranian Sunni Muslim philosopher, Mohammad Ghazali. His famous book is on Algebra "Usoul al-Jabr wa'l-Muqabelah".
On 7th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 716 AH, the renowned Syrian calligrapher, Mohammad Ibn Musa Ibn Ali al-Basees, passed away at the age of65. Born in Damascus, he taught calligraphy for fifty years, and wrote many books. His copy of Holy Qur’an written in illuminated gold-plated letters has remained to this day in addition to several other works.
On 7th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 1262 AH, the well-known theologian, Ayatollah Fadai Astani, passed away. He widely travelled after mastering Islamic sciences, and was an authority on theology and jurisprudence. He groomed many students and wrote several books. A Diwan of poems has remained from this pious scholar.
On 8th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 379 AH, the Iranian Islamic astronomer, mathematician, and historian of science, Abu Hamed Ahmad Ibn Mohammed as-Saghani al-Asturlabi, passed away in Baghdad. He was from the town of Saghan in Khorasan near the city of Merv, which is presently in Turkmenistan, and lived most of his life in Baghdad. As is evident from his last surname “al-Asturlabi”, he was a maker of astrolabes and invented many other instruments, while working in the observatory built by the Sharaf od-Dowla Daylami, the Iranian Buwaiyhid ruler of Iraq. He worked on the trisection of the angle. He wrote some of the earliest comments on the history of science. These included comparison between the "ancients" that is, the Babylonians, Egyptians, Persians, Greeks and Indians, and the "modern scholars", that is, the Muslim scientists of his time.
On 8th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 385 AH, the Shafei hadith scholar Ali Ibn Omar Dar Qutni, passed away in his hometown Baghdad. After basic studies in Baghdad, Kufa, Waset and Basra, he traveled to Egypt and Greater Syria, in search of hadith. He was an authority on poetry and literature as well. Among his works, mention can be made of the book known as “Sunan Dar Qutni”, in which he has collected the hadith through different sources, and has mentioned some of the merits of the Infallible Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).