Some Important Episodes in the History of Islam
Compiled By: Syed Ali Shahbaz
Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) ordered closure of doors of the houses of those companions that opened into Masjid an-Nabi (SAWA)
On 9th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah by the commandment of God, Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) ordered closure of doors of the houses of those companions that opened into the Grand Mosque of Medina (Masjid an-Nabi), except that of his own house and that of Imam Ali (AS), as a measure to protect the mosque\'s sanctity, from possible pollution by the Sahaba who might enter in the state in which it is forbidden to enter a mosque.
When certain companions grumbled at this, he said: Indeed, God had ordered His Prophet Moses to build a holy Mosque, and he allowed Moses, Aaron and the two sons of Aaron, viz. Shabar and Shubair, to live therein. I was likewise ordered to construct a holy mosque wherein myself and my brother Ali and his two sons, Hasan and Husain, are allowed to live. Surely, I do only what I am ordered to do. I never undertake to act on my own wish. Certainly I have not ordered of my own accord to close your doors or to let Ali\'s door remain open. It is God who granted Ali an abode in the Holy Mosque.
This event has been mentioned in the Sahih books of the Sunni compilers of hadith, such as Bukhari, Tirmizi, etc. The 2nd caliph, Omar Ibn Khattab, has been quoted as saying: “Indeed, Ali has been endowed with three qualities, of which had I but one, it would be more precious to me than to be given high bred camels.” It was asked of him what they were? He replied “His marriage to Fatema (the Prophet’s daughter); his remaining in the Mosque while that is not lawful for me; and his carrying the Standard on the day of Khaibar.”
On 13th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in the year preceding the hijrah, or the historical migration of the Prophet of Islam to Medina, the Second Pledge of Aqaba took place, when a group of Muslims from Medina and other places came to Mecca to reaffirm their allegiance to Islam. This pledge followed the First Pledge of Aqaba that ended the long feud between the tribes of Ows and Khazraj, through the mediation of the Prophet, thereby winning fresh adherents to Islam. After the Second Pledge of Aqaba, the people of Medina invited the Prophet to leave Mecca and come to their city. The Prophet\'s migration, on divine command, a year later, was a turning point in human history and opened a new chapter in the spread of Islam.
The Treaty of Hodaibiyya, a Great Victory for Islam and Muslims
On 29th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 6 AH, God granted Islam and Muslims a Great Victory over the pagan Arabs with the signing of the Treaty of Hodaibiyya by Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). The holy Qur\'an says in this regard in ayah number one of Surah Fath \"Indeed We have opened for you a Manifest Victory.\"
It is worth noting that when the Prophet, along with some 1,400 unarmed Muslims, set out from Medina to perform the Umrah or the minor pilgrimage and reached within 20 km of the city of Mecca, the pagan Arabs breached their word and blocked his way at a place called Hodaibiyya.
Negotiations took place between the two parties and it was decided that the Muslims would return to Mecca for now, but would be allowed to perform the pilgrimage next year. A treaty was drafted specifying the terms of truce between the two sides and their allies, provided the clauses were not violated.
Imam Ali (AS) acted as the scribe of the Prophet, who placed his seal and signature on the document despite the opposition to its contents by some of his so-called elder companions. The Prophet, however, insisted on honouring the letter and spirit of the treaty, which was indeed a new and dynamic development in the Arabian Peninsula, and established the rapidly increasing Muslim community as the paramount power.
The terms of the Treaty of Hodaibiyya were soon violated by the arrogantly ignorant Arab infidels, and two years later in 8 AH, the Prophet was commanded by God to march peacefully upon Mecca, which surrendered without bloodshed to the Muslims. This was another milestone in the history of monotheism and led to the cleansing of the holy Ka\'ba of the idols that the pagan Arabs had installed in Prophet Abraham\'s edifice to the One and Only God.
“Bara\'at min al-Mushrikeen” (disavowal of disbelievers)
On 1st of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 9 AH, shortly after Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) had dispatched to Mecca his companion Abu Bakr with the opening ayahs of Surah Towba to clarify the rules of the Hajj pilgrimage and to declare disavowal of disbelievers, Archangel Gabriel descended with the divine commandment, saying that either the Prophet should personally discharge this mission at the holy Ka\'ba or depute the one who is nearest to him.
The Prophet promptly sent his dear ward, cousin and son-in-law, Imam Ali (AS), to overtake Abu Bakr and assume personal charge of the mission. Abu Bakr returned to Medina, while Imam Ali (AS) proceeded to Mecca, where without fear of the infidels, he clarified the rules of the Hajj through practical demonstration, while performing the pilgrimage.
For three days the Imam continuously recited the opening ayahs of Surah Towba concerning “bara\'at min al-mushrikeen” (disavowal of disbelievers), and made it clear that neither the polytheists are allowed anymore to enter the sacred precincts of the Ka\'ba, nor should anyone follow the pagan practice of circumambulating the holy edifice naked, without clothes.
Thus till this day, all Muslims are indebted to the Prophet and Imam Ali (AS) for reviving the pure Abrahamic rituals of the Hajj pilgrimage by God\'s command.
Imam Husain (AS), left Mecca via the plain of Arafaat for Iraq
On 8th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 60 AH, Imam Husain (AS), the younger grandson and 3rd Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), left Mecca via the plain of Arafaat for Iraq, since he was loathe to see this inviolable land desecrated by bloodshed, as the tyrant Yazid had sent assassins disguised in pilgrim garb to attack him.
Four months earlier, the Imam had left his hometown, Medina, to take up residence in Mecca along with family members after refusing to acknowledge the illegitimate rule of Yazid as caliph. Here in Mecca, the Imam informed people of the corrupt and oppressive nature of the Godless Omayyads.
The reason he left for Iraq was the repeated invitation of the people of Kufa to come and resolve their affairs. A month later, Imam Husain (AS), along with almost all male members of his family and loyal companions was cruelly martyred in Karbala on the 10th of Moharram by the ungodly Omayyad forces.
During his stay in Mecca, the Imam had apprised the people of the critical situation of the Muslim world, while his departure without completing the Hajj, made the Muslims further aware of the anti-Islamic policies of Yazid.
The infant Martyr of Karbala, Hazrat Ali Asghar (A.S.)
On 9th of the Islamic month of Rajab in 60 AH, the infant Martyr of Karbala, Hazrat Ali Asghar (AS), was born in Medina to the Prophet\'s grandson, Imam Husain (AS). He was the youngest son of the Imam. He was only six months old when he was brutally martyred by an arrow shot by the heartless Harmala bin Kahel that pierced his tender throat, when his father took him in his arms and asked the cruel forces of Yazid to at least provide some water for the thirsty infant.
Every year millions of Muslims around the world commemorate the martyrdom of the infant Ali Asghar in the month of Moharram by taking out processions of empty bloodstained cradles, followed by wailing mothers carrying children in their arms – a pathetic sight that brings tears to the eyes of even the hardest hearts. It is also customary to distribute milk to the children and others in the month of Moharram in memory of the Infant Martyr of Karbala.
Martyrdom of Muslim Ibn Aqeel
On 9th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah in 60 AH, Muslim Ibn Aqeel, the nephew and son-in-law of Imam Ali (AS), was martyred in the city of Kufa in Iraq. He was sent as emissary by his cousin, Imam Husain (AS), to assess the degree of devotion and loyalty of the people to the cause of the Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), following receipt of numerous letters from the notables who had claimed that in accordance with Islamic teachings they had refused to acknowledge the illegal rule of the tyrant and debauchee, Yazid Ibn Mu\'awiyya, and needed the just and pious leader to guide them.
Muslim was warmly welcomed by the people, but when Yazid sent the callous and ruthless Obaidullah Ibn Ziyad as governor of Kufa, almost all people, deserted the cause of Islam, deceived either by hollow promises of reward or threats to their life and property. As a result, Muslim, after a brave fight was betrayed, taken before Ibn Ziyad and brutally beheaded.
Among the few martyred with him, was Hani Ibn Orwah, whose shrine lies opposite Muslim\'s golden-domed shrine, beside the Grand Mosque of Kufa.
Fizza, the loyal maid of the Holy Prophet’s Immaculate Daughter, Hazrat Fatema Zahra (S.A.)
An eminent black-skinned lady of Africa, who was devoted follower of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) and his blessed household, Ahl al-Bayt. She is none other than Fizza the Nubian from what is now the region overlapping the borders of Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia. She was the loyal maid of the Prophet’s Immaculate Daughter, Hazrat Fatema Zahra (SA) and will enter paradise on the Day of Resurrection as a fair-skinned lady.
A young princess from Africa was kidnapped at the age of 11 and brought to Arabia, where Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) bought her, freed her, and adopted her. It was common practice in the early days of Islam for Muslims to purchase captives and bonded persons to set them free. The holy Qur’an in Surah al-Balad has mentioned among other things the freeing of people from bondage as a pleasing act in the sight of God. It was the habit of Prophet to adopt, educate, and raise children, as is evident by the case of Zaid Ibn Hareth. To be raised in the House of the Messenger of Allah was to be raised in a house that was blessed and purified by Almighty Allah. To be raised in the House of the Prophet was to be raised in the house frequented by the Archangel Gabriel. To be raised in the Prophet’s House was to be raised in the atmosphere where the holy Qur’an was being revealed and explained. To be raised in the House of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) was to become a Beacon of Light, and this what the young black princess from Africa gained.
She was given the Arabic name Fizza, which means Silver, and she grew into an Islamic scholar who knew the inner meanings of the Holy Qur’an. She was predestined to reflect the Light of Ahl ul-Bayt. In other words the attribute of Fizza means that Silver is the best known reflector of visible light. Metaphysically it means that Fizza is the best known reflector of spiritual light, raised by Fatemah Zahra (SA), who is known as the Lady of Light. Silver is a metal that remains stable in pure air and water. Fizza, raised in the House of the Ahl al-Bayt, blossomed into the most knowledgable and most honorable Black Lady of Islam.
For this reason she is known as Malikat-al-Habesha, which means Abyssinian, Ethiopian, or more literally \"Black Queen\". She mastered the holy Qur’an to such a degree, that she could give any answer to any question, by reciting any ayah from the heavenly scripture. She could easily hold a conversation by reciting only ayahs of the holy Qur’an to convey her message. Some reports say that she spoke nothing but Quran for a full twenty years. This is nothing to be surprised about, in view of the fact that the besides the Prophet and his Immaculate Daughter, the other noble members of the blessed household were the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali and his sons, Imam Hasan and Imam Husain (peace upon them), the Leaders of the Youths of Paradise. She grew up in the company of such Impeccable Girls, as the Prophet’s granddaughters, Hazrat Zainab and Hazrat Omm-e Kolsoum (peace upon them).
Hazrat Fatema Zahra (SA) was so kind to Fizza that she did not burden her with all the household work, but would allow her a day’s complete rest, after a day’s work. In other words, the Prophet’s noble daughter used to look after the housework one day and the next day it was the turn of Fizza. This is indeed the finest example of Islamic justice. Unfortunately, most Muslim scholars have neglected to properly focus on the fruitful life of Hazrat Fizza (SA), who as the holy Qur’an testifies in the opening ayahs of Surah Insaan of the holy Qur’an with tidings of the eternal bounties of paradise as reward, kept three days of consecutive fasts along with the Ahl al-Bayt, and on each of the three nights, at the time of breaking the fast, gave her share of the meal, like the rest of the household, to a needy, orphan and freed captive, that happen to knock the door of the house at that very hour. Fizza and the Ahl al-Bayt went to be hungry on all the three nights, and it was in their honour that God says in the holy Qur’an: “They give food, for the love of Him, to the needy, the orphan and the prisoner”
“[Saying,] ‘We feed you only for the sake of Allah. We do not want any reward from you nor any thanks.”
No wonder, on her deathbed, during her last, Hazrat Fatema Zahra (SA) told Imam Ali (AS): \"I loved her (Fizza) like my daughter\".
Fizza was present with Imam Husain (AS) in Karbala and witnessed the heartrending tragedy of Ashura on the 10th of Moharram. In its equally tragic aftermath, she accompanied Hazrat Zainab (SA) and the other noble captives of the Prophet’s Household to the court of the tyrant Yazid in Damascus, where she ably defended Islam and the honour of the Ahl al-Bayt. Throughout her life, she always remembered her first meeting with Hazrat Fatema Zahra (SA), when the Prophet brought her to the house. She was greeted first by the Prophet’s daughter, who kindly took her hand into her hand saying: Feel comfortable, this is your own house, and consider me your sister. Take rest for a few days. Then one day I do the housework and you take rest and the other day you do the housework, while I spent the day in the worship of God Almighty.
The Defeat of Omayyads in Transoxiana
On September 30, 737 AD, the Battle of the Baggage occurred in Central Asia, resulting in a humiliating defeat of the Omayyads at the hands of the Turgesh Turks, supported by both Iranian and Arab Muslims of Transoxiana. It marked the culmination of a string of defeats that started over the past 16 years for the tyrannical Omayyad regime before the outbreak of the Abbasid movement that threw them into the dustbin of history.
When the Omayyad governor of Khorasan, Asad Ibn Abdullah al-Qasri and his freshly arrived 20,000 Syrian troops tried to invade Khuttal in what it is now eastern Tajikistan, the people requested the non-Muslim Turks and the Chinese for help, in addition to urging the local Muslim population of both Iranians and Arabs to rise up.
The Turks led by Sulu attacked the Omayyads and as they tried to flee across the Oxus into what is now Afghanistan, they outpaced them to the river. The Omayyad army retreated in haste and managed to cross the Oxus, but the Turks crossed immediately after, seized the entire baggage and inflicted heavy casualties.
The failure of the campaign meant the end of Omayyad control over all Transoxiana including Samarqand their last stronghold. The losses suffered by the Syrians were of grave consequences, as the Syrian army was the main pillar of the Omayyad regime, which neither had the support of other Arabs nor Iranian Muslims.
Nafs az-Zakiyya (the Pure Soul)
On September 23, 762 AD, Mohammad Ibn Abdullah al-Mahadh Ibn Hassan al-Muthanna, entered Medina and proclaimed his uprising against Abbasid misrule. Known as Nafs az-Zakiyya (the Pure Soul), he was a great-grandson of Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba (AS), the elder grandson and 2nd Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). Of impressive build, amiable demeanor, and gifted with commanding oratory skills, he soon took Mecca and Yemen.
He freed prisoners, changed administrative and judiciary posts, appointed governors in all parts of Arabia, and sent his brother Ibrahim to Basra to take charge of the affairs in Iraq. He sent a letter to the usurper caliph, Mansour Dawaniqi, in Hirah near Kufa, demanding surrender by reminding him of the pledge of allegiance he had made as a persecuted fugitive in the days of the Omayyad regime, to the rule of the Prophet’s descendents.
Mansour instead sent an army against him, composed mainly of units from Khorasan that were deceived by Abbasid propaganda. On December 6, the same year, Nafs az-Zakiyya was martyred in battle near Medina when his followers deserted him. His uprising did not have uniform support from all. Although several important figures of Hijaz and Iraq, like Malek Ibn Anas, Sufyan Thawri, and Abu Hanifa, supported him, the Prophet’s 6th Infallible Heir, Imam Ja’far as-Sadeq (AS) refrained from publicly supporting the uprising, but at the same time refused to sign a pledge of loyalty as demanded by the Abbasids. Mansour tried in vain to implicate Imam Sadeq (AS) in the uprising, confiscated his properties, and three years later martyred him through poisoning.
On 25th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 145 AH Ibrahim Ibn Abdullah Ibn al-Hassan al-Muthanna, was martyred near Kufa in a battle with the forces of Mansour Dawaniqi, the 2nd self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime, shortly after the martyrdom of his brother Mohammad Nafs Zakiyya in an uprising in Hijaz.
He was a great grandson of Prophet Mohammad’s (SAWA) elder grandson and 2nd Infallible Heir, Imam Hasan Mujtaba (AS), while his grandmother, Fatema (SA) was the daughter of the Prophet\'s 3rd Infallible Heir, Imam Husain (AS) the Martyr of Karbala. He launched his uprising in Ramadhan in Basra in coordination with his brother’s uprising in Hijaz, and within two months had liberated the whole of southern Iraq and Iran from the Abbasids, while Nafs Zakiyya liberated Arabia and Yemen, thus cornering Mansour in his capital Hirah in central Iraq (Baghdad was not yet built).
It is worth noting that years earlier during the repressive rule of the Godless Omayyads, the Prophet\'s clan, the Hasehmites, had held an assembly at Abwa where Abu’l-Abbas as-Saffah and Mansour Dawaniqi (the future usurpers of the caliphate) had sworn allegiance to Nafs Zakiyya. But with the toppling of the Omayyads, the Abbasid brothers indulged in propaganda to hijack the rule of the realm by breaking their promise to handover the caliphate to the Prophet\'s progeny.
Imam Ja\'far Sadeq (AS), as the Prophet’s 6th Infallible Heir, sensed the plot and stayed away from the political tussle. He spurned the offer of caliphate by burning the sealed envelope sent by a victorious commander of the anti-Omayyad uprising, since his right was God-given and beyond the power of politicians.
Among the offspring of Imam Hasan (AS), however, Nafs Zakiyya aspired for political power and challenged the Abbasids for breaching their promise. Thus, as a result of the uprising of the two brothers, when Mansour was on the verge of defeat, news arrived of the martyrdom in Medina of Nafs Zakiyya. This emboldened the Abbasids and in the battle near Kufa, an arrow pierced Ibrahim’s neck and he was unhorsed and decapitated by Hamid Ibn Qahtaba. Mansour, who three years later martyred Imam Sadeq (AS) through poisoning, is notorious for shedding the blood of the Prophet\'s progeny, especially Imam Hasan\'s (AS) offspring.
Fateful journey of Imam Reza (AS) from Madinah to Khorasan
On 24th of the Islamic month of Zil-Qa’dah in 201 AH, Imam Reza (AS), the 8th Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), started his fateful journey from his hometown Medina in Hejaz to the Khorasani city of Marv in northeastern Iran – currently in the republic of Turkmenistan – under pressure from Mamoun, the self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime.
The intention of Mamoun was to kill two birds with one stone. Thus, he forced the Imam – twenty years his senior – to become his heir apparent, so that the Prophet\'s Heir would be isolated from the Ummah by being confined to the court, while the masses would either praise Mamoun for bestowing such an honour on the Imam, or would become disenchanted with the Ahl al-Bayt by saying court life had tainted the purity of the Prophet\'s Household.
He, however, miserably failed, and two years later poisoned his venerable guest to death, when the sanctity and popularity of the Imam increased manifold. Today the golden-domed mausoleum of Imam Reza (AS) in Mashhad attracts pilgrims from all over the world, while there is no trace of the graves of the Abbasids.
Imam al-Reza\'s (A.S.) Martyrdom
His holiness was under such heavy pressure and hardship that when he would return from the Friday Prayers, sweating and dusty, he would raise his hands to the sky and say: “O God! If my relief from what I am in lies in my death, hasten my death at this very moment!” He was constantly remorseful and discomforted until he passed away. The night before his martyrdom, he sent for Harthama and told him: “Listen to what I say and memorize it; the time has now come for my return to God; it is time for me to join my ancestor and forefathers. This rebel (Ma’mūn) has decided to poison me with grapes and pomegranate; he has poisoned the grapes with thread and needle and will have the pomegranate seeded by a servant with poisoned hands. Tomorrow, he will call me in to eat from them and the destiny will be fulfilled…”
It is further related in the ḥadīth that after the Imam’s (A.S.) martyrdom, when Harthama told Ma’mūn about the grapes and pomegranate, the latter’s face now turned pale, now red, and then black, until he passed out and at the same time saying out loud: “Woe be to Ma’mūn from God, Woe be to Ma’mūn from the Holy Prophet, Woe be to Ma’mūn from ‘Alī b. Abī Ṭālib, Woe be to Ma’mūn from Fāṭimat al-Zahra,… And when he came to his senses, he told to Harthama: “I swear by God, neither you nor anyone else on the face of the earth or in heaven is dearer to me than Riḍā; I swear by God that if I hear that you have told anyone else what you have heard from him, your death will be in that. Harthama promised that if he revealed anything, shedding his blood would be allowed for Ma’mūn, who then made him swear and make a covenant to conceal it.
Imam al-Reza(A.S.) said to Abā Ṣalt: “Go to the Hārūn’s dome and bring a fistful of dust from each of its four corners. When Abā Ṣalt returned with the dust, his holiness smelled the dust from behind the head corner and let it fall to the ground and said, ‘Ma’mūn wants to bury me here; but there will emerge a huge stone that if all the picks in Khurasan are brought here, they will not be able to move this stone. Then, he smelled the dust taken from the upper part and the lower part [of the grave] and uttered the same words; and when he smelled the dust from the Qibla direction (in front of the Hārūn’s tomb), he said, ‘Here they will dig up a grave for me…’ Then he said, ‘O Abā Ṣalt! Tomorrow I will go to this wicked sinner; if I came out with bare head, talk to me as I will answer; but if I came out with covered head, do not talk to me as I will not answer.”
Abā Ṣalt said, “The next day his holiness put on his clothes and sat in his prayer niche waiting until Ma’mūn’s retainer came and summoned the Imam (A.S.). His holiness set off and I went along with him. There was a basket of grapes and other fruits before Ma’mūn and there was a bunch of grapes in his hands, some of which he had already eaten. As soon as he saw Imam al-Reza(A.S.), he rose to his feet, hugged the Imam, kissed him on his forehead, and seated him in his own place. Then he offered the grapes to his holiness and said, ‘O son of the Apostle of Allāh! I have seen no better grapes than this.’ His holiness answered: ‘It is likely that the grapes are from the Paradise!’ Ma’mūn said, ‘Eat from them.’ The Imam said, ‘Spare me.’ Ma’mūn responded. ‘There is no way. Why don’t you eat? Are you accusing me or suspicious of me?’ His holiness took the bunch and picked three grapes and threw the rest on the ground and stood up.
Ma’mun said, ‘Where are you going?’ The Imam said, ‘Where you have sent me to.’ Then, while his head was covered, came out and I (Abā Ṣalt) did not talk to him. His holiness entered the house and lay down in his bed and ordered the house door to be closed. I closed the door and sadly lingered on in the courtyard. All of a sudden I saw a charming black-haired youth who looked most like Imam al-Reza(A.S.). I went toward him and said, ‘How did you come in through the closed door?’ he said, ‘The One who brought me here from Medina at this moment, the same One took me in the house through the closed door.’
I asked who he was. He said, ‘I am the proof of Allāh to you O Abā Ṣalt! I am Muhammad b. ‘Alī (Imam al-Jawād).’ Then, he went to his noble father. As soon as Imam al-Reza(A.S.) saw his son, he rose to his feet, hugged him, and kissed him on his forehead and showered kisses on him, talked to him in secret (about Imamate) that I did not understand… Then, his blessed soul joined the Garden of Divine pleasure.
Imam al-Jawād (A.S.) began to perform the funeral ablution for his father. I wanted to help, he said, ‘There are some with me who would help.’ Then he said, Go inside bring the coffin and the shroud and balm.’ He clad his father’s body in shroud and performed the burial prayer over it.’ Then, he said, ‘Bring in the coffin.’ I said, ‘Shall I go to the carpenter to have a coffin made?’ He said, ‘No, go to the inner house, there is a coffin!’ When I went inside, I saw a coffin that I had not seen there before. He laid the body in the coffin and performed two rak‘as of prayer; then, all of a sudden the ceiling opened up and the coffin ascended through the ceiling!
I said, ‘O son of the Apostle of Allāh! Soon, Ma’mūn will come and ask me for Riḍā, what shall I do?’ he said, ‘Silence! He will come back. O Abā Salt! There is no Holy Prophet who would die in the East and his successor is in the West, unless God would call their souls and bodies together (i.e., his holiness has been taken to the Holy Prophet).’ No sooner had his holiness stopped talking than the ceiling reopened and the coffin descended. Imam al-Jawād took the body of his father out of the coffin and laid it on the bed as if no funeral ablution and shrouding had been performed for it.
Then, he said, ‘O Abā Salt! Get up and open the door for Ma’mūn.’ I opened the door and saw it was Ma’mūn along with his retainers. That cursed devil (who had made sure of the Imam’s martyrdom) entered while crying and tearing his clothes and beating on his head and saying: ‘O my master, you pained my heart by your tragedy.’ And it happened as Imam al-Reza(A.S.) had predicted.”
According to more renowned traditions, the martyrdom of his holiness took place in the month of Safar/September of 203/818.