Mu‘awiyah's tactics to annihilate and destroy Islam and the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.)
By: Ali Asghar Rezwani
Mu‘awiyah’s rebellion against the righteous leader
Another one of Mu‘awiyah’s disobedient acts was rebellion against the rightful and legitimate Imam of the Time, Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali (as). Mu‘awiyah rebelled against the Imam who, besides being explicitly appointed by Allah and His Prophet (S) to be Imam and caliph for the Muslims, had also gotten unanimous allegiance from the Islamic community.
Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan used the pretext that he wanted to avenge the death of ‘Uthman in order to bring about sedition and disturbances in the Islamic community and with the purpose of seizing power and transferring control from Medina to Sham, he initiated the Battle of Siffin.
He did this despite the fact that, according to Sunni hadiths, the Holy Prophet (S) had absolutely forbidden Muslims from rebelling and rising up in arms against the Imam of the Time.
Muslim recounts that the Holy Prophet (S) said, “A person who quits obeying the Muslim caliph will meet Allah on the Day of Judgment having no plea for himself, and anyone who dies without paying allegiance to the Imam of his time has died the death of a kafir [unbeliever] of the Age of Ignorance.”30
Mu‘awiyah’s heinous crimes against the Shi‘ahs
Starting from the thirty ninth year of the Islamic calendar, Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan started to carry out widespread terrorist attacks on the Shi‘ahs of Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali (as). He dispatched cruel and irreligious people to attack the Shi‘ahs. He intended to subdue Imam ‘Ali’s followers by sending gangs of faithless people to invade and attack anyone under the protection of Imam ‘Ali’s (as) government.
1. He sent Nu‘man ibn Bashir with a thousand people to crush and terrorize the people of ‘Ayn al-Tamar.
2. He sent Sufiyan ibn ‘Awf with six thousand men to suppress the people of Hit. After that, he sent them to Anbar and Mada’in for more acts of terror and plunder.
3. Mu‘awiyah sent a sworn enemy of Imam ‘Ali (as) by the name of ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘adah ibn Hikmah Fazari with one thousand seven hundred men to attack the people of Tayma’.
4. He sent Dahhak ibn Qays with three thousand armed men to Upper Mesopotamia to plunder and loot the possessions of anyone known to be a follower and Shi‘ah of Imam ‘Ali (as). To counter this cowardly act of Mu‘awiyah, Imam ‘Ali (as) sent Hujr ibn ‘Uday with four thousand men to resist and confront this army.
5. Mu‘awiyah sent ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Qubath ibn Ushaym with a group of men to the land of the Arabian Peninsula. Imam ‘Ali (as) sent Kumayl to counter and resist their forces.
6. He sent Harath ibn Namr Tanukhi to the Arabian Peninsula to suppress anyone known to be a follower and Shi‘ah of Imam ‘Ali (as). Many people were killed in this confrontation.31
7. In the fortieth year of the Islamic calendar, Mu‘awiyah sent Busr ibn Artat with an army to Mecca, Medina and Yemen. When Busr ibn Artat reached Medina, Imam ‘Ali’s (as) agent and governor in Medina ‘Ubayd Allah ibn ‘Abbas was forced to flee to Kufah to join and be under the protection of Imam ‘Ali (as). However, Busr martyred two of ‘Ubayd Allah’s children who had remained behind in Medina.32
Another place that was plundered by Busr was an area inhabited by a tribe from Hamadan that were Shi‘ahs of Imam ‘Ali (as). Busr made a surprise attack on them. He killed many of their men, and took a large number of their women and children into captivity. This was the first time in the history of Islam up to that time that Muslim women and children had been taken into captivity.33
Mas‘udi says, “Busr ibn Artat killed a large number of people who came from Khuza‘ah, Hamadan and an area called “al-Anba’” who were people of Iranian origin living in Yemen. He killed anyone he suspected of being inclined to ‘Ali (as).”34
Ibn Abi al-Hadid says, “Busr descended upon the people of Hasban. They were all Shi‘ahs of Imam ‘Ali (as). He entered into a vicious conflict with them and killed them savagely. After leaving that place, he went towards San‘a, where he killed a hundred elderly men originating from Persia. The only crime they were guilty of committing was that two children of ‘Ubayd Allah ibn ‘Abbas had hidden in a home belonging to a woman of their clan.
In his wild and brutal attacks on the Shi‘ahs, Busr killed about thirty thousand people in all. He even burnt a number of them alive.”35
Ibn Abi al-Hadid further writes, “In a letter addressed to all his government workers, Mu‘awiyah wrote, ‘Do not give permission to anyone of ‘Ali’s followers or descendants to testify their faith. On the other hand, respect and protect the followers of ‘Uthman.’ In another letter addressed to his subordinates, he wrote: ‘Erase the names of those who are proven to love ‘Ali and his Ahl al-Bayt from the register, and stop giving them their share of stipends from the Islamic treasury.’
In a postscript to this letter, the son of Abu Sufiyan wrote, ‘Anyone who is accused of loving the Ahl al-Bayt must be arrested and his house destroyed.’ The people who suffered most as a result of these orders were people of Iraq, especially the people of Kufah…”36
Mu‘awiyah’s crimes after the peace settlement
When Imam al-Hasan (as) was obliged to compromise and make peace with Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan, he felt great concern for the safety of Imam ‘Ali’s (as) followers.
It was for this reason that, in his peace agreement with Mu‘awiyah, Imam al-Hasan (as) stressed that Imam ‘Ali’s followers (as) must be guaranteed truce and safety. Mu‘awiyah agreed to this demand, but he had other plans in mind. In a clear act of treachery, he announced that he was not committed to the agreement and would not follow it.
He said, “The agreement I made with al-Hasan is null and void. It lies trampled under my feet.” What aggravates the repugnancy of his actions is that Mu‘awiyah committed himself to breaching the peace settlement on the very same day of signing it, in spite of having earlier promised to be faithful to the pact.
Ibn Abi al-Hadid quotes from Abi al-Hasan Mada’ini, “In a letter to his governors general, Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan wrote, ‘I have discharged myself from obligation to anyone who recounts hadith in praise of the virtues of Abu Turab [Imam ‘Ali] and his Ahl al-Bayt.’ After this command, his governors gave orders to all the public speakers employed by the government to start reviling Imam ‘Ali (as) and making derogatory and defamatory comments about his Ahl al-Bayt (as) from the pulpits.
The people of Kufah were the most seriously affected by this calamity because at that time Kufah was inhabited by a large number of the Shi‘ahs. Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan appointed Ziyad to be the governor general of Kufah and Basrah.
Ziyad knew the Shi‘ahs very well. Acting on orders from Mu‘awiyah, he either killed or terrorized them wherever he could find them. After cutting off their hands and legs and removing their eyes from their sockets, he would hang their bodies from a scaffold. He also forcefully exiled a large number of them from Iraq.”37
Ibn A‘tham writes, “Ziyad was constantly searching for the Shi‘ahs. He put most of them under state surveillance. He would kill them wherever he could find them, to such an extent that he killed a large number of them. He also cut their legs off and made them blind. Of course, Mu‘awiyah himself killed a lot of the Shi‘ahs with his own hands, too.”38
Mu‘awiyah himself gave direct orders for the hanging of a large number of the Shi‘ahs of Imam ‘Ali (as). Another of Ziyad’s contemptible tactics was to gather the Shi‘ahs in mosques and force them to show hatred and disrespect towards Imam ‘Ali (as).39
In Basrah, also, Ibn Ziyad was constantly searching for ‘Ali’s (as) followers with the intention of killing them. A large number of the Holy Prophet’s (S) renowned companions and tabi‘in were martyred by the direct command of Mu‘awiyah because they loved ‘Ali (as) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as).40
In the year 53 AH, Hujr ibn ‘Uday and his companions were killed on direct orders from Mu‘awiyah. Hujr ibn ‘Uday and his companions were the first people in the history of Islam that were killed by means of ‘patience towards death’.41
‘Amru ibn Humaq Khuza‘i, named “the Master of Martyrs” by Imam al-Husayn (as), was killed by Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan. Mu‘awiyah deceived him by promising to provide him with safety and then turned against him and, in a clear act of betrayal, killed him.42
Mu‘awiyah is also guilty of killing Malik ibn Ashtar, one of the Arab nobles and a great and revered man in Islamic history. Malik ibn Ashtar was one of Imam ‘Ali’s (as) bravest commanders. Mu‘awiyah killed him with poison that was given to him by one of his traitorous slaves while on his way to Egypt.43
Ziyad once requested one of Imam ‘Ali’s (as) special students named Rashid al-Hijri to curse and disown Imam ‘Ali (as). Rashid al-Hijri flatly refused to do it. As a result, Ziyad cut both his hands, both legs, and his tongue, and then hung his body from a scaffold.44
Juwayriyyah ibn Mashar al-‘Abdi was arrested for the crime of accepting the wilayah (spiritual and temporal guardianship) of Imam ‘Ali (as). His body was hung from a date tree after his hands and legs were cut off.
Mu‘awiyah himself cursed Imam ‘Ali (as)
As long as the Holy Prophet (S) was alive, Bani Hashim and Imam ‘Ali (as) holding the foremost position among them, were held in great honor and high respect, but soon after the death of the Holy Prophet (S), hostilities and enmities began to appear. These antagonisms were especially directed towards Imam ‘Ali (as).
These enmities reached their climax during the reign of Bani Umayyah especially under the leadership of Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan.
Mu‘awiyah could not content himself with only going to war with Imam ‘Ali (as) for the sake of seizing and usurping the caliphate, an action that made him acquire the title “oppressor” with regard to Imam ‘Ali (as) even in the view of Sunni Muslims; in addition, he started cursing Imam ‘Ali (as) from the pulpits in a very public manner. This custom continued to prevail up to the time of the caliphate of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz who finally gave orders to discontinue the custom.
Mu‘awiyah’s purpose for annihilating Bani Hashim
By trying to eliminate Bani Hashim, Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan was endeavoring to achieve two main aims: one of his goals was to annihilate the very roots of the religion and in this way nip Islam in the bud.
The other objective was to avenge the blood of his polytheist forefathers and the other elders of Bani Umayyah who had been sent to perdition by the holy sword of Imam ‘Ali (as). It was for this reason that during the Battle of Siffin, Imam ‘Ali (as) refused to allow anyone of the family members of Bani Hashim to enter the battlefield and gave orders preventing them from engaging in one on one battle with the enemy.45
Apart from employing savage methods, including assassination, terrorism, imposition of wars on his enemies, plunder and robbery, Mu‘awiyah also engaged in other tactics with the aim of annihilating and destroying Islam and the Ahl al-Bayt (as).
We will now mention some of these tactics:
a. Obstruction of knowledge of the virtues of the Ahl al-Bayt (as)
In his book called “Al-Ihdath”, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ‘Abd Allah Mada’ini writes, “After usurping the caliphate, Mu‘awiyah announced to all his government officials and workers that for anyone that recounted the virtues of Abu Turab (Imam ‘Ali) or praised his household, neither his life nor his property would be secure.”46
b. Initiating enmity and cursing of Imam ‘Ali (as)
The insurgence that took place against ‘Uthman was, in all truth, a peoples’ revolt and uprising. The people came to Medina from all the corners of the Islamic world except Sham and Hams, because these lands were under the control of Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan.
The injustice, intimidation and oppression imposed upon the people by ‘Uthman’s government officials had caused a state of complete annoyance and utter frustration among the common people. It was this weariness of harassment which persuaded them to revolt and rebel and this insurgency led to the death of ‘Uthman.47
After ‘Uthman’s death, Nu‘man ibn Bashir Ansari took ‘Uthman’s blood soaked shirt to Sham.48 Mu‘awiyah was quick to exploit this opportunity. He gave orders that this shirt must be hung on the pulpit of the Sham’s A‘zam Mosque.
White haired old men were either compelled by force or paid to gather and hold mourning ceremonies next to the shirt. They continued mourning in this way for over one year. News of the event reached all the cities and towns that were under the domain of Mu‘awiyah.49
In his first speech after this event, Mu‘awiyah endeavored to portray ‘Uthman as an innocent martyr and introduced Imam ‘Ali (as) as the responsible party for ‘Uthman’s death. From then on, Mu‘awiyah’s politics took the form of creating unfounded charges against Imam ‘Ali (as). On a daily basis, he sketched new plans to cause spite, animosity and malevolence against Imam ‘Ali (as).50
The people of Sham and Hams were bombarded with heavy propaganda as regards the issue of ‘Uthman’s death. Imam ‘Ali (as) was being used as a scapegoat for a killing which he had personally renounced and condemned. The issue of revenge was falsely presented under the guise of religion.
The plea that the caliph had been oppressed and unjustly killed excited the emotions and sentiments of the common people. Some who were gullible to state propaganda believed the lie and thus the people’s feelings and emotions were vehemently raised against the people of Kufah and Imam ‘Ali (as).
Mu‘awiyah and the Umayyad government did not stop at this in their devious propaganda games, but undertook all possible means to cause lasting hatred and animosity against Imam ‘Ali (as). They hoped to gain maximum benefit from the people of these two large provinces by resorting to such tactics.
‘Amir, the son of Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas recounts, “One day Mu‘awiyah invited my father to his palace and said to him, ‘Why don’t you curse and insult Abu Turab (Imam ‘Ali)?’ Sa‘d said, ‘As long as I remember the three things which the Holy Prophet (S) said in favor of him, I will never say anything unpleasant against ‘Ali.
This is because if anyone of those three things had been said about me, it would be far more beloved for me than owning a host of fine red camels. During one of the battles, Allah’s Prophet (S) appointed ‘Ali (as) to be his representative in Medina. ‘Ali said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Are you appointing me to be your representative and deputy among the women and children?’
The Holy Prophet (as) answered, ‘Are you not pleased that with respect to me you hold the position which Harun (Aaron) held with respect to Musa (Moses), with the exception that there will not be a Prophet after me?’ Secondly, on the day of Khaybar, I heard the Holy Prophet (S) saying, ‘I will give the Islamic banner and commandership to a man who loves Allah and the Prophet dearly and whom Allah and the Prophet also love very much.’ We all waited anxiously and were turning our heads to see who that lucky person was.
Then, the Holy Prophet (S) said, ‘Tell ‘Ali to come here.’ They brought ‘Ali forward and it became clear that he had sore eyes. The Holy Prophet (S) took some saliva from his mouth and rubbed it in ‘Ali’s eyes. ‘Ali (as) instantly got well. Then, Allah’s Prophet (S) gave the Islamic banner to ‘Ali and through him Allah bestowed conquest and sweet victory for the Muslims.
Thirdly, when the following verse was revealed, Allah’s Prophet (S) called ‘Ali (as), Fatimah (as), al-Hasan (as) and al-Husayn (as). Then, he said, ‘O Allah! These people are the ones who belong to me’.”51
“And whoever disputes with you after what has come to you of the knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer and invoke the curse of Allah on the liars…”52
‘Ali ibn Muhammad Mada’ini recounts, “After usurping the government and gaining control of the caliphate, Mu‘awiyah wrote orders to all his officials and agents that he was not duty-bound to provide protection or security to anyone who recounted any of the virtues of Abu Turab (Imam ‘Ali) or narrated favorable hadiths about his household members.
Mu‘awiyah commanded that the blood and property of such people should be taken without impunity. Government appointed speakers began distancing themselves from Imam ‘Ali (as), cursing him and speaking ill of his household in every community and from every pulpit.”53
Ya‘qubi writes, “Whenever some Shi‘ahs of Imam ‘Ali (as), among them Hujr ibn ‘Uday and ‘Amru ibn al-Himaq Khuza‘i, heard Mughayrah ibn Shu‘bah and his likes cursing Imam ‘Ali (as), they would arise and cast the curses back at them.”54
After the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (as), Mu‘awiyah intended to go to Mecca for the hajj. He first went to Medina. There, he requested to curse Imam ‘Ali (as) from the Prophet’s (S) pulpit.
The people told him that Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas was present in the city and that it was very unlikely that he would be pleased or ascent to such an act. The son of Abu Sufiyan then sent someone to ask Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas for permission to curse Imam ‘Ali (as) from the Prophet’s (S) pulpit.
Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas replied, “If you do such a thing, I will leave this Mosque forever and never return to it at all!” As long as Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas was the governor of the holy city of Medina, Mu‘awiyah restrained himself from cursing Imam ‘Ali (as) in Medina.
After the death of Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas, Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan started cursing Imam ‘Ali (as) again and wrote letters to his officials commanding them to revile Imam ‘Ali (as) from the pulpits. They did as they were ordered. Umm Salamah, one of the Prophet’s (S) wives, wrote a letter to Mu‘awiyah complaining that Mu‘awiyah and his agents were cursing Allah and his Prophet (S) from their pulpits because of their cursing of ‘Ali (as) and those who love him. She declared, “I bear witness that Allah and his Prophet (S) love ‘Ali.” Mu‘awiyah did not pay the least attention to this letter.55
Jahiz narrates, “Verily, at the end of his sermons Mu‘awiyah always used to say, ‘O Allah! Abu Turab (Imam ‘Ali) has become an apostate and a hindrance in the way towards you. Therefore, curse him and punish him with painful chastisement.’ He wrote these words and sent them to all the horizons of the Muslim World to be repeated by his agents and public speakers. This curse continued to be said on the pulpits up to the reign of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-Aziz.
Some members of Bani Umayyah told Mu‘awiyah, ‘O Amir! You have attained your ambitions and worldly desires. Why don’t you stop cursing this man?’ Mu‘awiyah answered, ‘I swear by Allah that I will not stop reviling him until I am assured that all the newborn children are brought up on the custom of cursing him, and likewise, all the old ones become grey-haired while vilifying him. I want to make sure that no one ever remembers him kindly’.”56
Zamakhshari narrates, “During the days of the reign of Bani Umayyah, and in accordance with Mu‘awiyah’s custom, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) was cursed and reviled from more than seventy pulpits.”57
Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri recounts, “Mu‘awiyah appointed Mughayrah ibn Shu‘bah to be the governor of Kufah. Mughayrah kept this post for nine years… and he was never negligent in his duty of slandering and vilifying ‘Ali (as).”58
Hakim al-Neyshaburi narrates from ‘Abd Allah ibn Zalim that Mughayrah ibn Shu‘bah used to insult Imam ‘Ali (as). He even appointed and delegated people to carry out this task.59
‘Ubayd Allah ibn Abi Malikah recounts that a man from Sham vilified and used insulting language against ‘Ali (as) in the presence of Ibn ‘Abbas. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “O enemy of Allah! You have wronged the Holy Prophet (S). Do you not know that Allah has said, ‘Surely, as for those who speak evil things of Allah and His Apostle, Allah has cursed them in this world and the hereafter, and He has prepared for them a disgraceful chastisement’.”60
Then, Ibn ‘Abbas added, “If the Holy Prophet (S) were alive today, he would be annoyed by your conduct.”61
‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Baylamani says, “I was in the presence of Mu‘awiyah when a man stood up and started flinging abuses at Imam ‘Ali (as) one after the other. Sa‘id ibn Zayd ibn ‘Umru ibn Nafil stood up and protested, saying, ‘O Mu‘awiyah! Do I have to endure the pain of hearing them slandering ‘Ali (as) without you showing any indignation at it? Verily, I heard Allah’s Prophet (S) saying, Ali is to me what Aaron was to Moses’.”62
Ahmad ibn Hanbal quotes from ‘Abd Allah ibn Zalim Mazani, “When Mu‘awiyah left Kufah, he appointed Mughayrah ibn Shu‘bah to be his agent there. Mughayrah ibn Shu‘bah appointed speakers to curse and slander ‘Ali (as). Mazani says, ‘I was seated next to Sa‘id ibn Zayd ibn ‘Umru ibn Nafil. I noticed that he had got very angry.
When I asked him why, he got my hand and took me to a corner. Then, he asked me, ‘Don’t you see that this man is committing injustice against himself by cursing ‘Ali (as), a man whose place is in paradise’”63
Ibn Abi al-Hadid relates that Mughayrah ibn Shu‘bah, Mu‘awiyah’s governor and agent in Kufah, commanded Hujr ibn ‘Uday to stand up and curse ‘Ali (as) in the presence of all the people. Hujr ibn ‘Uday refused. Mughayrah intimidated and threatened him with punitive action if he did not do as he had been ordered. Hujr ibn ‘Uday stood up and said to the people, “Your leader has commanded me to curse ‘Ali (as); therefore, curse him.”
The people of Kufah said, “O Allah! Curse him.” Of course, the people’s curse was meant for Mughayrah ibn Shu‘bah himself.64
The Holy Prophet (S) forbade the cursing ‘Ali (as)
1. The Holy Prophet (S) said, “Do not curse ‘Ali, because he is heedless of any dangers in the way of Allah.”65
2. The Holy Prophet (S) also said, “Whoever vilifies ‘Ali has certainly vilified me. And whoever curses me has without doubt cursed Allah.”66
3. He also said, “O Allah! Hate anyone who hates ‘Ali.”67
4. Hakim al-Neyshaburi recounts that Abi ‘Abd Allah said, “One day I went to see Umm Salamah. She asked me, ‘Do you curse the Holy Prophet (S) among yourselves?’ I said, ‘I seek refuge in Allah’ or ‘Glory be to Allah’, or a similar phrase. Umm Salamah then said, ‘On several occasions I heard the Holy Prophet (S) say: ‘Whoever curses ‘Ali has certainly cursed me’.”68
The judgment for anyone who curses Imam ‘Ali (as)
1. On his own chain of transmission, al-Tirmidhi narrates from Umm Salamah that the Holy Prophet (S) always used to say, “No hypocrite loves ‘Ali, and no believer hates ‘Ali.”69
2. Al-Tirmidhi also recounts that Imam ‘Ali (S) said, “Verily, the unlettered Prophet (S) gave me a firm promise when he said that no one will love you except a true believer; and no one will hate you except a hypocrite.”70
Another hadith narrated by Muslim confirms the above-mentioned hadith.71
3. Al-Tirmidhi relates that Abu Sa‘id said, “Indeed, the Helpers [ansar], used to recognize and distinguish who the hypocrites were by observing who hated ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (as).”72
30. Muslim, Al-Sahih, vol. 4, p. 126, hadith 58, Kitab al-Amarah.
31. Al-Aghani, vol. 15, p. 44; Ibn ‘Asakir, Mukhtasar Tarikh Damishq, vol. 10, p. 152; Al-Isti‘ab vol. 1, p. 65; Tarikh Tabari, vol. 5, p. 134; Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 425.
32. Tarikh Tabari, vol. 5, p. 139; Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 425; Mukhtasar Tarikh Damishq, vol. 10, p. 152; Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, vol. 7, p. 356.
33. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 5, p. 11.
34. Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 22.
35. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 1, pp. 116-121.
36. Ibid., vol. 11, pp. 44-45.
37. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 11, p. 44.
38. Al-Futuh, vol. 4, p. 203.
39. Al-Mahbar, p. 479.
40. Mukhtasar Tarikh Damishq, vol. 9, p. 88.
41. Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 3; Siyr A‘lam al-Nubala’, vol. 3, p. 642.
42. Siyr A‘lam al-Nubala’, vol. 4, p. 34.
43. Shadharat al-Dhahab, vol. 1, p. 91.
44. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 2, p. 294.
45. Nasr ibn Muzahim, Waqa‘atu Siffin, pp. 462-463.
46. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 3, p. 15.
47. Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 5, pp. 59-60; Tarikh-e Ya‘qubi, vol. 2, p. 150.
48. Tarikh Tabari, vol. 4, p. 562.
49. Waq‘atu Siffin, p. 127; Tarikh Tabari, vol. 4, p. 562.
50. Waq‘atu Siffin, pp. 31-32, 127-128.
51. Muslim, Al-Sahih, vol. 7, pp. 120-121; Al-Hakim al-Neyshaburi, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, pp. 108-109.
52. Surat Al ‘Imran 3:61.
53. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 11, p. 44.
54. Tarikh Ya‘qubi, vol. 2, p. 205.
55. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 4, p. 159.
56. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 4, pp. 56-57, sermon [khutbah] 56.
57. Rabi‘ al-Abrar, vol. 2, p. 186.
58. Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 5, p. 252; Tarikh Tabari, vol. 5, p. 254; Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 488.
59. Al-Hakim al-Neyshaburi, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 509, hadith 5898; Siyr A‘lam al-Nubala’, vol. 3, p. 31.
60. Surat al-Ahzab 33:57.
61. Al-Hakim al-Neyshaburi, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 138, hadith 4618.
62. Ibn Abi ‘Asim, Al-Sunnah, p. 588, hadith 1350.
63. Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Musnad, vol. 1, p. 400, hadith 1644.
64. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 4, p. 58.
65. Al-Mu‘jam al-Kabir, vol. 19, p. 148; Hiliyah al-Awliya’, vol. 1, p. 68.
66. Al-Hakim al-Neyshaburi, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 131.
67. Kanz al-‘Ummal, vol. 11, p. 601, hadith 32899.
68. Al-Hakim al-Neyshaburi, Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 130, hadith 4615.
69. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 635, hadith 3717; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Musnad, vol. 10, p. 176, hadith 26569.
70. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 635, hadith 3717; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Musnad, vol. 10, p. 176, hadith 26569.
71. Muslim, Al-Sahih, vol. 1, p. 86, hadith 78.
72. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 635, hadith 3717.