Friday Prayer and Salat al-‘Eidayn
By: Allamah Sayyid Sa'eed Akhtar Rizvi
In the presence of Imam (A.S.) or his specially appointed authority, Friday prayer is wajib al-‘ayni in place of Zuhr. Zuhr is not recited on such occasions.
In ghaybah (occultation) of the Imam (A.S.) when there is no one specially appointed by Imam (A.S.) to lead in this prayer, Friday prayer and Zuhr become wajib al-takhyiri.
Wajib al-takhyiri means that a man has an option to choose between two obligatory acts, but he cannot leave both. For example, in the 3rd and 4th rak’at of the daily prayers, a man has to recite either Tasbihat Arba’ah or Surah al-Hamd. He has to choose anyone of these two alternatives, but cannot leave both. Thus these two things are "wajib al-takhyiri" in these two rak’ats. Likewise, on Fridays, Zuhr and Friday prayer are wajib al-takhyiri. It means that a man has the option to choose between these two prayers. But he cannot neglect both.
There are certain conditions for Friday prayer:-
1. Friday prayer must be prayed in Jama’ah (congregation).
2. There must be at least 5 (better 7) persons including the Imam.
3. Only one Friday prayer may be prayed in a radius of 3 miles 720 yards. If two prayers are held within this distance, the later will be null and void.
According to the fatwa of Ayatullah al-Khu’i, if Friday prayer of even the Sunnis or other sects is held within the said radius of 3 miles 720 yards, and begins before the Friday prayer of the Shi’as, then those Shi’as who are followers of Ayatullah al-Khu’i cannot do niyyah of wajib for their Friday prayer. In such cases, they may pray Friday prayer with niyyah of qurbatan ilal-Laah (in the hope that may be the Shari’ah likes them to pray such Friday prayer).
4. There must be two sermons delivered by the Imam before the prayer and attentively listened to by at least 4 (or 6) persons.
5. As explained earlier, it is not obligatory to hold Friday prayers specially. Instead, Zuhr may be prayed. But if Friday prayer is held by an ‘adil (just) lrnarn, then it is obligatory (ihtiyat wujubi) to participate In that prayer; and there will be no need to pray Zuhr afterwards. .
6. Friday prayer is two rak’ats: In the first rak’at it is sunnat for the Imam to recite Surah al-Jumu’ah and in the 2nd rak’at Surah al-Munafiqun, after Surah al-Hamd. .
7. Two qunut are mustahab in this prayer: In the 1st rak’at before ruku’; in the 2nd rak’at after rising from ruku’. There is a special qunut for Friday.
"Allahumma Inna ‘abidam min ‘ibadikas saleheena qamu bikitabika wa sunnati Nabiyyika fajzihim ‘anna khayr al-jaza". (O Allah, verily, some servants from among thy pious servants stood firm with Thy book and the traditions of Thy Prophet; Thou reward them with the best reward from us.)
The Muslims observe two big festivals in a year. One as Eid-ul-Fitr and the other is Eid-ul-Adha.
These two are the days of great festivity.
Eid-ul-Fitr is observed at the end of the holy month of Ramadan. The fasting creates the feelings of faith, spirituality, patience, contentment, and helping the poor. With a view to express our joy on these feelings we observe Eid. The festivity of the Muslims is not akin to dancing, singing vulgar songs or playing dirty games. We offer our gratefulness to Allah and also offer the Salat al-‘Eid for those religious, spiritual and moral gains which accrue to us in the holy month of Ramadan.
The Muslims offer sacrifice on the day of Eid-ul-Adha. Thus they pledge to give away their lives in the way of Allah and that of lslam. This is a great month for the believer. This is the motto of a Muslim's life. In happiness of this pledge, we offer prayer of Eid-ul-Adha. The prayer of Eid is not obligatory (wajib) but recommended (mustahab) nowadays when our present Imam is hidden from our eyes. The niyyah (intention) of Salat al-Eid should be done as follows:- "I pray two rak’at prayer of Eid-ul-Fitr or Eid-ul-Adha sunnat qurbatan ilal-Laah.”
In the first rak’at, after Surah al-Hamd, Surah al-A'la is recited then the hands are raised for qunut.
Du’a in the Qunut
"Allahumma ahl al-kibriya’i wa’l azamah wa ahl al-jud wa’l jabarut, wa ahl al-‘afw war-rahmah, wa ahl at-taqwa wa’l maghfirah; asaluka bihaqqi haadha’l yawm-illadhi ja'altahu li’l Muslimeen eidan, wa li Muhammadin Salla’llahu ‘alayhi wa Aalihi dhukhran wa karamatan wa sharafan wa mazeeda; an tusalli ‘ala Muhammdin wa Aali Mumammadin, wa an tudkhilani fi kulli khayrin adkhalta fihi Muhammadan wa Aala Muhammadin wa an tukhrijani min kulli su’in akhrajta minhu Muhammadan wa Aala Muhammadin, salawatuka 'alayhi wa 'alayhim ajma'in. Allahumma, inni as'aluka khayra ma sa’alaka bihi ‘ibadukas-salihun; wa a'udhu bika mimma ista'aza minhu 'ibaduka’l rnukhlisun."
In first rak’at, the qunut is recited five times along with takbirs (AIlahu Akbar). Then after the ruku’ and sajdah, the second rak'at begins In the second rak'at Surah al-Shams is recited after Surah al-Hamd.
In Surah al-Shams, Allah has directed man to keep his self pure and to protect himself from sins. After the recitation of this Surah, the qunut is again recited but now only four times. Thereafter ruku’, sajdah, tashahhud and Salaam are done in the usual way.