Alcohol and Alcoholism
By: Allamah Sayyid Sa'eed Akhtar Rizvi
The term alcohol is applied to a wide range of organic chemical compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in different proportions of combination, with varying properties. Of these the most well-known are the two alcohols, namely, the methyl or wood spirit and ethyl or the wine spirits. Methyl alcohol is very much in demand in many industries. It is a deadly poison even in small doses. Blindness is not an infrequent consequence of its consumption in very minute quantities.
Ethyl alcohol is not so swift in its effects, though its slow-poisoning effects are as frightful. For unknown ages it has continued to give rise to moral, social and economic problems. Individuals, families, nations and whole civilisations have succumbed to its invidious influence and gone down to ignominious oblivion.
The saner elements of the whole world and of all ages have consistently condemned its use, yet so deductive are the powers it exercises on a certain build of the mind, that few countries have succeeded in banishing its use as an intoxicant. Ever new labels and Scientific techniques for its manufacture are invented by the votaries of Bachus to rope in the unwary victims.
The old day's methods of fermenting liquor in the dung heaps as part of the process has given place to the multi-millionaire projects for the manufacture of wine spirits. Vast tracts of fruit growing lands that would support the starving millions are reserved for destroying the healthy stocks of humanity.
What was intended by Benign Providence for the growth and maintenance of life and health has been diverted to channels of self-destruction and disease by the so-called rational man.
Such morally, socially and economically destructive activities are being carried on under the very eyes, nay the active patronage of the states that cry themselves hoarse and champions of the common man's welfare. Intoxicants are of many-fold benefit to the kuarish among the politicians. They bring in revenue. They encourage crime and goondaism, which are important factors in over-adding and corrupting the voters.
A stern warning against the liquor magnates growing political power was issued by the late Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, in the following words. "It is now a question whether the liquor interests are to dominate your parties, dominate your public life and dominate your government."
As to how far the liquor interests exert their sinister influence may be gathered from the following statement of a high police officer of Chicago, Mr. J.N. Flynn. He says, "Every time I arrest a man who is running a 'blue pig' (an illicit liquor shop). I find when I go to court, that the representative of the brewery has been there before me. He threatens whatever judge is sitting there with political death if he doesn't listen to reason." Mr. Robert J. Northold, an attorney of the same city stated that the breweries are behind the Chicago 'blue pig' men and fight tooth and nail to have them discharged when we have them arrested.
Lieutenant John McCarthy adds to the above statements the following: -"If it was not for the politicians and the influence of the breweries, I would drive the blind pigs' out of Rogers Park in four weeks."
Backed by the great political influence which the big business magnates of the liquor trade have come to possess in the political life of the Western Countries, they violate every instinct of decency and break or evade every law made for their control with the single exception of the law requiring them to pay tax.
The Rationales of the Revenues of State from Liquor
Businessmen in the liquor trade do not grudge the taxes they are called upon to pay, simply because such taxes are shifted on to the pockets of the consumers. A State which proposes to augment its revenues from liquor is in no better position than a grabbing brewery, on a gigantic scale.
By licensing the manufacturing and sale of this universally obnoxious commodity, the state gets committed to a three fold function in the demoralising process of corrupting its people to wit, permission, protection and promotion. In a memorable speech delivered before the British House of Lords on February 21, 1743, during the hey day period of British hegemony Lord Chesterfield assailed the principle of licensing liquor trade.
More than two hundred years back, this broad-minded statesman laid emphasis on the evils that would spring from the licensing system that was then being introduced. Speaking on the legislative measure on the anvil, he thundered, "To pretend, my lords that the design of this bill is to prevent or diminish the use of spirits, is to trample upon common-sense and to violate the rules of decency as well as of reason.
For when did any man ever hear that a commodity was prohibited by licensing its sale, or that to offer and refuse is the same action? Surely it never before was conceded by any man entrusted with the administration of public affairs, to raise taxes by the destruction of the people.
For there is no doubt but those on whom the inventors of this tax shall confer authority will be directed to assist their masters in their design to encourage the consumption of that liquor from which such large revenues are expected, and to multiply without end those licences which are to pay a yearly tribute to the crown.
When I consider, my lords, the tendency of this bill, I find it calculated only for the propagation of disease, the suppression of industry, and the destruction of mankind. I find it the most fatal engine that ever was pointed at a people-an engine by which those that are not killed will be disabled and those who preserve their limbs will be deprived of their senses."
This brilliant indictment of national policies by the saner elements of the British political life, reverberates across the centuries as a warning to the nations of the world. The short-sighted politicians ignored the warning and in the short span of decades, the British Empire has crumbled down to dust more ignominiously than any historically known precedent of yore.
Only two decades back it was a boast that the sun never set in the British Empire. Contrast this boast with the blatant fact that even in the British Isles there is a persistent fog over clouding the sun most of the year. Of the three potent factors responsible for such catastrophic downfall - wine, women and wealth- the first one has certainly been productive of the greatest evil.
Great statesmen like Lord Chesterfield, Edward Burke and Lord Acton failed to convince the British people that this world could not be held as a wine-shop of exploiters. "What is morally wrong cannot be politically right," was the motto with the Saner among the British leadership. The nation as a whole, however, voted Bachus and Macchiavelli, with the inviolable consequence of such option-disgraceful downfall.
Urdu verse: Fitrat afrad se igmaz bhi kar leti hai, Naheen karti hai pih ganmon ke gunahon ko mauf.
(The Heavenly Order may connive at individual lapses, but there is no atonement for national transgressions).
Revenues derived from the liquor traffic by a state are altogether illusory. It is an admitted axiom of Economics, that all income is dependent upon the productivity of labour and capital. Anything which impairs that productivity will impair the national income.
A tax comes out of the pockets of the individuals and goes into the common pocket of the nation. "For every million dollars recovered in taxes, the nation pays many millions to the liquor business directly through its constituent citizens, and many millions more in impaired efficiency of its workers and in productivity sacrificed to the parasitic business."
These observations of an astute economist of America, clearly point to the folly of governments which seek to augment their revenues by licensing liquor traffic. Even in budgetary figures, the governments which opt 'dry', under certain conditions are never at a loss, for the money saved by the consumer from liquor is by him re-routed to the purchasing of usual goods, and the establishment of a healthier and more efficient level of living.
The healthier physical, mental, moral and spiritual standard which springs from a reformed outlook on life on the part of the individuals composing the nation is the real asset of value to the individual no less than to the nation. He would work more efficiently, earn more munificently, spend more judiciously and thereby pay more taxes indirectly, besides contributing solidly to the national fund by his improved efficiency.
With temperance, which has been defined as moderation in the use of every thing good and abstinence from the use of everything bad, in the field of human activities and mutual relationships, a state is a pure gainer on all counts increased efficiency and consequent increased output and decreased waste of human energy.
Accuracy of judgement, avoidance of accidents, tactful handling of colleagues and subordinates, observance of discipline, punctuality, reticence in matters of confidence are all such matters that affect the efficiency of the workers on the one hand and on the other relate to the problems of temperance and drink. To the industrialised set-up, therefore, the question of liquor traffic is even more important in its economic bearing than one of academic morals.
Moderate Alcohol and Efficiency
One of the outstanding figures of the World of science, says, "Work and alcohol do not belong together, especially when work demands wide awakeness attention, exactness and endurance."
Alcohol has been the subject of scientific investigation, as a problem affecting almost every facet of human life-industrial economic, administrative, social, political etc. Over and above its moral and spiritual bearing on the individual as a component unit of the complex human relationships. There is complete unanimity among the experimenters as to the impairment of efficiency of the individual on all planes of activity.
The exact amount of damage which a person suffers as a result of consumption of even moderate quantities of alcohol, however, varies from individual to individual according to each one's bodily and mental blindness. A very considerable factor in laboratory experiments, however, is that the person under observation is, so to say, in a resisting mood, endeavouring to act as sober as possible. This naturally affects the results. His efficiency does not sink to the level of a relaxing, bragging drinker.
Another important factor which prevents the correct appraisement of the depreciation in efficiency is the measured quantity, which is allowed in the atmosphere of the laboratory, as a dose by itself. In actual life, on the other hand, the same quantity is yet another dose piled upon the leg-over effects of the previous doses. In the laboratory the person is challenged to fight the effects, with all the success he can command, while in actual life he endeavours to intensify the effect psychologically.
The results of laboratory experiments, as such, fall very much below those that accrue in actual life, Even with such conditions favouring the alcohol in the laboratory, the state of affairs disclosed thereby is a staggering revelation of the loss of efficiency suffered by a worker even as the result of 'moderate' drink.
Alcohol Produces Paralysis of Judgement
It is admitted by the research scholars and experimenters in the field that there can be no such thing as a moderate use of a poison. As Sir Victor Horsely, M.D. the distinguished British Surgeon puts it, "In reality we have no proof that a minimum and a permissible dose of alcohol exists at all". Other eminent authorities agree with this verdict of the British Surgeon, among them Sir Londer Brunton M.D. says: "Alcohol produces progressive paralysis of judgement and this begins with the first dose."
Dr. Mc Adam Eccles gives his considered opinion as follows, "A daily moderate dose of alcohol taken in the form of alcoholic drink has a tendency, quietly but surely to destroy the tissues of the body."
The world renowned physician Dr. Quensel of Leipzig says, "Even small quantities of alcoholic drink may result in pronounced changes, especially of the cystic functions, in a decrease in the clearness of sensory perceptions, in the impairment of thought and judgement, in a dulling of the finer emotions and in the inhibition and disturbance of the coordination of movements "
Dr. Irwin H. Neil, superintendent of the Norfolk, State Hospital for Inebriates (drunkards) at Norfolk Massachusetts, asserts that the moderate drinker is even more liable to suffer from organic diseases than the man who occasionally becomes drank.
"The small dose is particularly dangerous in jobs where alertness of mind and body in the interests of the safety of the worker and his charge, becomes essential for his efficiency. as in driving for example. The heavily drunk driver is easily detected, in fact mostly in-capacitated for any mischief.
The moderate dose, however, deludes him into the belief that he is in possession of his faculties, while as a matter of fact, his driving judgement as also his muscular coordination is badly impaired. Such a person is naturally a menace to public safety as also to his own life on the highway.
A slight swerve in the wrong direction, an inadvertent disregard of a road signal. a small miscalculation in judgement may result fatally by colliding with any of the millions of vehicles on the nationals' highways or by over whelming some un-wary pedestrian, or even by dashing against electric poles, trees and walls.
Dr. Benedict, director of the Nutrition laboratory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington sums up the situation when he says that after very moderate doses of alcohol, virtually all individuals are effected with general depression of nerves and muscles, lessened sharpness of vision, and lessened eye-hand motor co-ordination.
"The driver of an automobile in the traffic of a modern American city has no business to undertake his task after drinking even these so-called permissible amounts of alcohol, clearly dilution even to 2.75 per cent, cannot solve the alcohol problem, nor can it alter our estimate of the effect of alcohol upon human efficiency. Inflexible science say: Moderate user, keep off. For at least four hours after a dose of alcohol formerly considered 'permissible' for you as a motor vehicle operator, may well be considered a menace to Society."
Drinks are not to be Classed
This is not an individual doctor's personal opinion. But the verdict of exhaustive vested interests of the manufacturers of all liquor products are shrewdly trying to delude the gullible populace to believe that beer and other so-called light drinks are not to be classed under alcoholic drinks beverages. These drinks also have been subjected to searching laboratory investigations, which have totally discredited the claims of the brewers that they are in any way less poisonous.
They have been found to contain no food value. As a matter of fact, they show the way to stronger and more persistent habits for drink. Dr. Charles Gilbert Davis of Chicago arraigns beer in no un-equivocal terms. Says he, "Beer produces disease of the stomach, kidneys, heart and blood-vessels.
Owing to its diuretic affect, the alcohol in the beer is diverted to the kidneys, which probably accounts for its destructive action on those organs. It causes a deposit of morbid fat in the body especially around the heart, enlarges that organ, and increases the work of the heart and the blood vessels, manifested by the fatigue and shortness of breath of all beer drinkers.
Beer Deposits Fat Around the Heart
Beer deposits fat around the heart, weakens its muscular walls, thickens and enlarges the ventricles and if continued, ultimately cats short the life of the individual. All of this has been proven time and again by the post mortems of Bloinger, who has examined and weighed the hearts of many beer drinkers. This is a terrible scientific arraignment of beer, but it is true."
Dr. Struempell, the eminent German physiologist regards beer as no less an enemy of Society than any other alcoholic drink. His verdict is expressed in the following dear terms: Nothing is more erroneous from the physicians' standpoint than to think of diminishing the destructive effects of alcoholism by substituting beer for other alcoholic drinks.
The Scientific American, in describing the intellectual desolation and brutalization resulting from the beer habit, has the following unflattering remarks thereon: The most dangerous class of ruffians in our large cities are beer drinkers.
Intellectually a Stupor amounting almost to paralysis arrests the reason, changing all higher faculties into a mere animalism, sensual selfish, sluggish, varied only by paroxysms of anger senseless and brutal. In appearance the beer drinkers may be the picture of health, but in reality he is most incapable of resisting disease.
A slight injury, a severe cold or a shock in the body or mind will provoke acute disease ending fatally. Beer drinking in this country produces the very lowest kind inebriety, closely allied to criminal insanity.
Beer Makes People Ferocious and Beastly
"Beer makes people ferocious and beastly," is the testimony of the French doctor, Fiessinger, to which may be added the remarks of the Pacific Medical Journal which declares that beer is most animalizing, inciting the user to deliberate and unprovoked crime. The following words of a suffering house-wife are also note-worthy in this context. "When my husband drinks whisky, he soon gets stupid; but when he drinks beer, he runs after me with a knife."
These observations of the same elements of all lands and of all ages, can be multiplied and infinitum. They are, however, quite enough to discredit the claims of vested interests in behalf of beer and other forms of the so-called "light sort of drinks."
There is no sort of alcoholic beverage and no minimum dose which can be called safe for human consumption - in fact for any living organism. The very living organisms of yeast which convert fruits and grains into alcohol die when only thirteen and a half percent of the raw materials have passed into.
Do not Indulge in Drink and Gambling
The ill effects of alcohol are many while its advantages are few indeed. Firstly, the alcoholics gradually lose the power of working with their own strength and gradually slip into a condition where they cannot go on with the artificial and borrowed stimulation from drinks; secondly, the, will power of the alcoholic almost completely disappears in time, and they are thus made the victims of various moral and physical weaknesses which only degrade them.
There are also some people of a balanced temperament who keep their drinking within limits. But it has been observed that even in such cases, both, physical and moral damage undoubtedly takes place and had they not taken even that limited quantity of alcohol, they would have been better people in every respect.
In his book "Applied Pharmacy" Dr. A. J. Clark has listed the findings of many experiments about the effects of alcohol consumption. Some experts would convey an idea of the conclusions reached by scientists.
In 1920 Smith and McDougal demonstrated experimentally that in the first stage of intoxication when the proportion in blood is less than 2 milligram per on cubic centimetre, apparently there is no effect on the system of the drunkard. But detailed experiments show that the speed of all activities and the general health are deleteriously affected. The inhibiting force of the emotions weakens and the centres exercising control over the emotion get so vitiated that every impulse of the drunkard gets immediately manifested.
The Effects of Alcohol
The effects of alcohol are easily recognised at the second stage after careful study. All activities get tainted. Gait becomes unsteady and talk gets less circumspect. Well-developed movements become way-ward. Self-control is seriously impaired. Man gets into a stupor in the third stage, which borders on torpidity and stupefaction. Another increase in the alcohol content of the system damages the respiratory system.
The use of alcohol to maintain temperature is also absurd. It should never be used to counteract cold, for alcohol reduces the capacity to preserve bodily heat. Experiments on animals have proved that those who received alcohol were more readily killed by cold as compared with those that received nothing of the sort.
Alcohol is beneficial for persons who get shelter in a warm place after having been exposed to severe cold. Alcohol has little food value, for it is not among the tissue building materials that replace shattered tissues of the body.
There are two types of fuel-foods that maintain constant temperature of the body, to wit, those that are stored in the body for use on appropriate occasions. Alcohol is excluded from this category. It may, however, be regarded as an easily assailable material, for it is assimilated by the blood within five minutes and starts its action accordingly.
Even with normal health the use of alcohol does not activate the nervous system, rather it slows down the nervous process and renders their activities unstable. It throws a light veil her the brain. A peculiar effect of alcohol is that it lowers the scrutinizing potency and one's actions in their crude form become satisfying to him. This defective judgement persists for hours. Alcohol deteriorates the ability to bear any kind of hard physical fatigue. Its use perverts action and brings on fatigue quicker".
After this, it is little else but regrettable that people still being themselves to become to enamoured of alcohol. It is a different matter if alcohol is taken on a doctor's advice as medicine. But to get one's self addicted to it, and become its' slave, is positively unbecoming of the inherent dignity of man.
Besides, it is also a waste of good money. This is a case where man buys mad men with his hard earned money. A person drinks this stuff only to loss his senses and his power of reasoning, and stoops to more gibberish nonsense. Not un-often we find ourselves revealing important information to our very enemies under the influence of alcohol.
In short getting addicted to alcohol is like throwing one's self in the gutters only to die in that muck. The house, the family all is pushed into ruin, and there is no calamity which is too great for alcohol to bring upon the heads of its worshippers. Alcohol, because of the poisonous effects of the products, which is so dilute and of which the higher potencies are obtained by the process of distillation.
Some Instructive Tests
Some instructive tests that have been devised to measure the effect on human efficiency, of calculated doses of alcohol, will be of interest to the inquisitive reader. Thousands of studies, demonstrations and laboratory experiments have been undertaken to gauge the mischief which the use of alcohol perpetrate: on the working capacity of the intellectual no less than of the manual worker.
To pile up all this evidence would be tedious indeed, and yet the following typical experiment of Dr. J. J. Ridge of England has a value of its own in demonstrating in a simple way the deterioration in efficiency which invariably results from alcoholic drinks - both light and strong, in small or large doses.
"Some years ago, I constructed instruments to test the effect of small doses of alcohol on the sense of touch and muscular sense. The instrument for testing consisted of two fixed upright points, about half an inch apart, and between these a third point, which could be moved so as to approximate to one or the other.
The individual moved the Centre until he considered that it was midway between the two. The movement of point was registered on a dial. The degrees on the dial were arbitrary, but fourteen experiments on five persons showed that whereas the average divergence from the actual centre, before taking alcohol, was represented by 115 degrees on the dial, after taking alcohol these were 1898 degrees, and in no ease was there any improvement.
Hence the sensitiveness of the touch is clearly deteriorated, by small doses of alcohol, although the persons experimented on were quite un-conscious of the attention. The nature of the experiment is also to some extent a test of the judgement or power of perception, and it does not show which link or links in the chain of sensation would chiefly be affected."
Another demonstration of the effect of alcohol upon physical efficiency took place on the occasion of a sixty-two mile walking match at Kiel which was held to decide the championship in long distance walking among German athletes. It was open to all, irrespective of their habits in regard to alcohol.
The contestants in the match, however, were required to give full particulars before hand to the committee in charge of the affair in this behalf. Of the 83 contestants, there were 24 abstainers and yet they won 40 percent of the prizes. Among the remaining 59 persons, then were 2 who had used no alcohol for months in preparation for the contest. They too won prizes. Among the first 25 men to reach the goal, 60 percent were abstainers only 2 of the 24 abstainers failed to reach the goal while 30 of the 59 drinkers were unable to complete the walk.
Yet another interesting test was undertaken by Lieutenant Bengt. Boy, of Carts - Krona Grenadiers in the Swedish Army, and others, by way of measuring exactly the effect of small doses of alcohol on target shooting, which was at a distance of 200 feet. These tests covered a series of experiments and were held on the regular army manoeuvre grounds at Stockholm. "The experiments, carried out by six men, all excellent marksmen, and all used to alcohol were divided into three series each lasting several days. During the first and third series the men were entirely abstinent. During the second series, lasting five days, the men took a small definite amount of alcohol daily.
Three Kinds of Tests
There were three kinds of tests. In the first and second tests, the men took about two thirds of a wine glass of brandy (containing a little more than an ounce of alcohol) from 20 to 30 minutes before the firing and an equal amount of alcohol on the evening before.
In the precision test of shots, every man showed less precision, and made fewer points when influenced by alcohol. In the quick firing test each man fired a round of 30 shorts in 30 seconds, On the first series of abstinent days, they hit the target, on the average, 23 out of 30 times. But the alcohol days told a different story.
The wind, the weather, and the light conditions were better than on the abstinent days, yet the effect of so little alcohol as that in about two glasses of beer twice a day cut down the average to only 3 hits is 30. Again on the abstinent days, the firing improved and the men averaged 26 hits out of 30 shots.
"Third were the endurance tests, two trials of 200 shots each. Here the amount of alcohol used was the least of all, less than two glasses of beer (four fifth of an ounce of alcohol), taken half an hour before the test, yet the result was the same. Although without alcohol the men made 359.5 points, on the alcohol days they made only 277.5 points, nearly a third less."
"The men thought they were doing better on the alcohol days. One of the corporals said after laying down the gun, "I am sure a man can shoot better when he has had a little brandy", but the results proved how grievously he misjudged."
Mind and body are so intimately linked that the effect on one is as a matter of course, reflected with proportional intensity on the other. The brain -as the instrument of the mind, is very deleteriously affected by even very small doses of alcohol. In the words of Dr. Chapple of London "Alcohol is a poison, having a specific affinity for the nerve centres of the brain. and paralysing those centres in the inverse order of their development the last developed suffering most."
In other words the higher qualities of the mind are attacked first and suffer the most. "Civilized man equals the brute animal plus the brain development. Alcohol blots out the higher brain development and leaves the brute animal. Even a very little alcohol not showing itself in drunkenness, has a damaging effect on the human brain." In these words has been summed up the alcoholic affinity for the nervous centre as a poisoning and denaturing factor.
The man who becomes intoxicated by the alcoholic poison, as such, "loses first his sense of decency, his ability to think clearly and accurately and to associate ideas. As his intoxication progresses it affects those nerve and brain powers which control the senses. He begins to see double, to be unable to control his movements, his powers of smell, hearing and sight are distinctly lessened. It has been well-said that intoxication epitomizes the whole history of insanity.
The man who becomes dead drunk within the space of a few hours undergoes very much the same changes as the man who gradually becomes insane, and he who keeps his association and motor senses slightly drugged all of the time by moderate' drinking is not entirely a sane man. He is constantly drunk to some degree and is therefore constantly insane to some degree.
"The day has passed when any intelligent and informed person could boast of the ability to 'carry liquor well'. Such ability is not a sign of a strong body but of a weak brain. The brain which is not sensitive to alcohol is an atavistic product." This is indeed a very unflattering commentary on the alcohol poison by an eminent American authority on the basis of direct experience of the situation prevailing around. But it is a truth, pure and simple.
Alcohol is a Ready Solvent of Fat
Alcohol is a ready solvent of fat, and the brain cells being composed largely of fatty tissue are, as such, the peculiar domains of alcoholic poison. In fact, as is well-established every poison has a peculiar affinity for certain specific organs of the body, for instance lead for the muscles of the wrist, mercury for the salivary glands, arsenic for the stomach wall, Strychnine for the spinal cord, and alcohol for the brain cells. The brain cells, once damaged, as it often happens in cases of continued drinking, are never replaceable.
Experiments with particular reference to the damage which the brain cellos suffer as a result of alcohol poisoning have been conducted by physicians of note in Europe and elsewhere. They have demonstrated beyond the shadow of doubt that the consumption of even very small quantities of alcohol has a distinctly deleterious effects on mental efficiency.
"One glass of beer will decrease the powers of memory, reason and perception for a certain length of time, and steady so-called moderate drinking produces an abiding impairment of the mental capability. Investigations made by Dr. Alfred Stehr, in Germany disclosed a distinct loss of efficiency on Mondays, after the drinking on Sundays, among a group of workers in Dresden. This loss amounted to 28.5 percent.
Dr. Exner of Vienna, found as a result of his experiments to determine the effect of alcohol on the ability of the subject to respond quickly to a flash of light, that "A small quantity of alcohol would distinctly lengthen the reaction time, and when the test was complicated by requiring the subject to press a right or left telegraph key, as might be suggested by the signal a very small quantity of alcohol was found to increase greatly the liability to error. Another research worker Dr. Krapelin has demonstrated that alcohol has virtually the same effect upon mind and strain.
Whiskey Sans Spirit
A news item as appeared in the Dawn of 23rd May 1969 is given below: "Whiskey Sans Spirit"
i) London. May 22: The days when one can drown one's sorrows in alcohol might be numbered in Britain.
ii) A group of Bristol University research workers claims to have. discovered a way to take the alcohol out of the, alcoholic drinks without changing. their taste in the slightest.
iii) An Official organisation, the National Research Development Council, has agreed to finance further research in view of its interest in particular for motorists.
iv) But not everyone feels the discovery is worthwhile, Medical Professor, Dr. Francis Camps who recently carried out a study on alcoholism, said on Monday that such research was a waste of public money. He said that if people drank alcoholic drinks it was not for the drink itself but for the alcohol it contained and its effects.
v) He also pointed out that the state takes 95 per cent of the price of a bottle of whisky in tax to persuade people to stop drinking. It would be to those a very profitable source of revenue."
A Psychological Truism
It is a psychological truism that any habit which affects the workers ability to judge quickly and accurately, or by which the faculties of sight, hearing and touch are affected, greatly increases the liability to accidents a mangled leg, a smashed hand, a cut finger or worse.
Now it has been scientifically established that alcohol has effects even in the most moderate doses. It has a decidedly baneful influence on the faculties of sight, hearing and touch. The judgments by eye measurements are vitiated by alcohol. So is hearing rendered less acute. Such impairment of the sense organs makes the worker less alert to respond instantly to a danger signal, while increasing the brute tendency to disregard the safety of others.
Drinkers Cause Accidents
"The margin of safety in modern industry is small. It is measured too frequently by fractions of an inch. Reduce the alertness and the exactness with which the body responds to the necessities of labour, and by so much you have increased the liability that the hand will be misplaced that fraction that means mutilation". (U.S. Senate Document No. 645, Vol. XI.)
A pamphlet issued by the Fidelity and casualty company, serves the following stem warning: No man under the influence of alcohol even slightly should be permitted to remain in the works, much less to work. Nor should a man whose nerves have been rendered unsteady by the habitual use of alcohol or by a recent debauch be permitted to operate machinery or to carry on any dangerous work. He endangers not only his own life, but the lives of others.
The Aetna Life Insurance company on the basis of their experience in the fields of accidents and fatalities in the industrial sector have issued the following valuable piece of advice of the industrialists.
It is advisable not to employ or to continue in employment men who are known to be steady and hard drinkers. The regular use of intoxicants in any quantity is bound in time to make a workman undesirable as regards both his liability to cause accidents, and his efficiency.
It has already been shown that there is practically no line of demarcation between the individual who has succumbed to insanity as a result of mental or physical disease and the one who loses his sanity under the intoxicating influence of alcohol, temporarily for a few hours or for longer periods as a sufferer from the dread disease "delirium tremens" which is translated "Drinker's Mama", what it actually is.
The inmate of the mental asylum, in fact, is more fortunate and less pitiable than the person who has deliberately courted insanity by way of an escape from reality through the self destruction channels of alcoholic stupefaction. Both get out of touch with reality. The former however, is excusable as having been the victim of circumstances chiefly beyond his control.
The latter, on the other hand, has purposely repudiated the superb grandeur of life gifted to him by the Infinite Bounty of the Supreme Sovereign - by an abominable act of ingratitude for the most magnificent favour-Life as the most splendid product of all Creation. Surely his suffering is self-inflicted and as such a very heinous crime against himself and against Society, on whom he would foist a drinker's progeny.
All professional men agree that a sizeable proportion of the inmates of mental asylums comprise men who have been driven to that fate through the pressure of alcohol on their mental faculties. As to what exactly is the percentage of such victims in the asylum, authorities differ. Dr. F. W. Terflinger's estimate puts the percentage at 20, on the basis of his direct experience as medical superintendent of the Northern Hospital for the Insane, while Dr. William G. McAllister, Superintendent of the Philadelphia Hospital, asserts that 30 per cent of the inmates in the insane wards of the Philadelphia Municipal Hospital are insane because of drink.
Dr. Joseph Wiggles worth of England testifying before the Interdepartmental committee on Physical Deterioration puts this figure of alcoholic insanity at 29 per cent. All of these investigators agree that the damage done to the mental faculties is much greater than is indicated by these figures which express only a partial facet of the alcoholic picture.
One eminent authority on Temperance, has sounded a note of warning to the American people in these words; "In nearly every state the expenses of caring for the insane is mounting rapidly due to a growing social conscience, but in view of the fact that such a small proportion of our mental defectives are now sheltered, the question of checking the increase of insanity is pressing. We are in great danger of not being able to stand the burden if it increases as rapidly as it has in the last ten years."
Alcohol is Simply the Hub of a Vicious Wheel
It must be remembered, that alcohol is simply the hub of a vicious wheel. In the words of Dr. C. Kallick Millard, medical officer of health for Leicester, England, "Indulgence in alcohol tends to inefficiency; inefficiency tends to low wages and irregular employment; low wages encourage bad housing and bad environment generally; bad environment encourages further indulgency in alcohol."
A commission, appointed to investigate feeble mindedness in new Jersey (U.S.A.) reports that "moderate drinking, so-called, is the cause of a great majority of the epileptic, feeble-minded and sub-normal children in that State.
The historical study in this subject of investigation of the causes of feeble-mindedness and mental deficiency, conducted very painstakingly by Dr. Henry Herbert Goddard, Director of the Training School of Vineland, N. J. forms a running commentary on the effects of alcohol on mental faculties through several generations.
Under the title -The Kallikak Family" he has traced the story of that family through six generations to a soldier, named Martin Kallikak, who himself had four honourable generations behind him.
This soldier, probably under the influence of drink, raped the honour of a feeble minded girl. From his legitimate wife he fathered six generations of doctors, lawyers, judges, educators, traders, land holders, with only 1 insane, only 15 children who died in infancy, none feeble-minded.
From his other illegitimate sexual anion, the six generations comprising 480 individuals, the study discloses 143 feeble minded, with only 46 known to be normal 36 illegitimates, 33 prostitutes, 3 epileptics, 3 criminals 8 keepers of disreputable houses, with a large number of dying in infancy.
Alcohol runs throughout the illegitimate line like a red streak. We have such obnoxious phrases for most of them as "Alcohol is prevalent in the family." An alcoholic, had three feeble-minded grand-parents"; Confirmed alcoholic", "Feeble-minded and alcoholic", "Alcoholic and Syphilitic woman", Seven children, two alcoholics and immoral, one died of delirium tremens, others all alcoholics, leaving long line of descendents".
Here is food for serious thought. A single indiscretion on the part of a hitherto respectable citizen leads Society with untold loathsome material, the burden of the misdemeanours of each generation piling up with ever cumulative effect, till Doomsday.
According to the Russian Paper 'Pravda' as quoted in the 'Millat' dated 2-4-1969 Alcohol is responsible for more than half of unnatural deaths, for 40 % of the Divorces, for 85% of deaths due to fights, for 63 % of deaths through drowning and for 98% of deaths through murder. Further according to Pravda several Anti-Liquor Institutions are themselves conniving the evil of drunkenness and many of the officials of the Institutions are themselves addicted to the vice of drinking. The solutions suggested by Pravda are the stoppage of wholesale of Liquor in Public and the drinkers should not be allowed to move out in streets.
Crime and Indecency
Another study in this field will bear brief mention. It is the story of Max Jukes of New York -a drunkard-whose descendants covered almost all fields of crime and indecency. 1200 of them were proved during the study period to be occupying penal and charitable institutions.
They cost Society $1200,000, without giving any service in return. 310 were in poor houses with a high infantile mortality, amounting to 25 percent of the child birth; 440 were viciously diseased; 400 were physically wrecked at an early age because of their own misdoings; 50 were notorious women; 7 were murderers; 60 were habitual thieves; 130 were convicted for miscellaneous crimes.
With such a black record of alcohol, the question often asked is "why does not alcohol destroy the race which gives it such freedom of operation?"
The same question, however, can be posed in regard to other vices like indiscriminate sex relationships which are productive of the dread miasmas of syphilis and gonorrhoea. The reply given to the question by an American sage is as follows: Not the living but the dead are the evidence against alcohol as against syphilis.
These racial poisons are not merely poisonous but, as the eminent Dr. Sleeby remarks "are lethal". The race is being constantly degraded, but it is constantly being redeemed by better influences.
There is, no doubt an extra-ordinary resisting power on the part of the reproductive elements to alcohol as to other nocuous influences, but these elements are subject to degeneration by alcohol as is evidenced by the perversion of thought and conduct induced by its use in the individual.
Guinea pigs, dosed with constantly increasing quantities of poison have frequently offspring immune to a hundred times the dose that would be fatal to the untreated guinea pig, but these offspring's of poisoned parents are invariably dwarfed and possession of a vitality less resistant to other assaults "
Extract from the Book, "Proposals and Notes on Constitution of Pilgrim Welfare Fund and Duties and Functions of Pilgrim welfare officers on Ships", Pages 106, 107, 108, & 109, printed by the Anjuman-i-Khaddamun Nabi, Pakistan, Karachi-2.
I give below an idea about the expenditure on wine in Karachi City as appeared in Leader of the 8th August 1961.
Karachites Drink 2780 Bottles of wine a Day
Karachi August 8, 1961: Karachites spend about Rs. 70,000 on Liquor Every Day, it was gathered today: Of this, nearly Rs. 20,000 goes in foreign exchange on the import of foreign liquor, almost everyday. (i.e. Rs. 73 Lakhs foreign exchange -are spent annually on import of foreign liquor for Karachi City only.)
The consumption of country-made liquor is, however, greater than imported liquor. The consumption of both the imported and country made liquor is on the increase in the sprawling city.
On an average 480 bottles of imported wine are now consumed daily. Each bottle costs Rs. 45 to 50, This does not include the duty-free imported Liquor consumed by foreign missions in the city.
In addition, about 800 bottles of Pakistan make, foreign style liquor, each bottle costing Rs. 20 to Rs. 30 are drunk every day, The largest daily consumption is of country made liquor; in all, about 1500 bottles, each available at Rs, 10/- are consumed; This liquor is sold loose, while others are supplied in sealed bottles.
The beer is also in great demand and on an average 2400 bottles are drunk here every day. The prices of beer range from Rs. 3 to 5 per bottle. Of this, about 20 per cent beer is imported and the rest is country made.
There are about 30 shops in the city dealing in liquor. Of these, 14 sell country made liquor, while the remaining 16, deal in imported wine and beer.
The city has got about 30 bars where the liquor is served. About 10 hotels also serve the drinks.
The consumption of liquor and the number of liquor drinking persons in the city is the highest in the country.
The wine merchants in the city, it is estimated, pay about Rs. 50 lakhs annually as provincial excise duty on liquor. In addition, custom duty and sales tax are paid to the Government on imported liquor, at the rate of Rs. 275/- per dozen bottles. An assessment fee is also charged from that on liquor-APP. (At the end of 1963 the number of shops in Karachi alone stood at 130, while that of the whole of West Pakistan 411).
Consumption of Drinks in America
We give some interesting figures about per capita consumption of Drinks in America in 1958 as appeared in the magazine 'Listener' July- August 1960 issue.
Milk 140.8 qt.
Coffee 114.8 qt.
Beer 59.2 qt.
Soft drinks 47.2 qt.
Tea 27.2 qt.
Frozen fruit juices 5.2 qt.
Distilled spirit 4.8 qt.
Wine 3.6 qt.
Vegetable and tomato juice 3.6 qt.
In 1958 the population of the United States drank 29,944,020,000 gallons of Alcohol, 5,053,000,000 gallons of milk and 4,919,000,000 gallons of coffee. (Figures from the West Virginia issue).
Here we also give the figures as appeared in the magazine, 'Listener' July-August 1960 issue, concerning Retail Stores in America, wiz Alcohol Shops:
Retail Alcohol Dealers 4,27,881
Grocery Stores 2,79,440
Service Stations 1,84,747
Liquor Stores 31,240
Women's Ready to wear Store 29,788
Furniture Stores 23,465
Shoe Stores 23,847
Depot Stores 2,761
Yearly Expenses in America
We give below the figures from "Listener" September-October 1960, about "How Americans spent their money in the year".
Clothing $ 20,800,000,000
Gambling $ 20,009,000,000
Education $ 19,700,000,000
Recreation $ 15,900,000,000
Automobiles $ 14,500,000,000
Alcoholic Beverages $ 10,700,000,000
Tobacco $ 6,000,000,000
Religion and Welfare $ 3,600,000,000
According to the figures of England, Japan and America, given above, we can come to the following conclusion for the information and guidance of Pakistanis for discarding unnecessary habits and to check the unnecessary wastage on gambling, drinking, tea, smoking and other harmful addiction:
(a) No doubt according to the figures given above, Englishmen who are so rich as compared with us, drink 247,000,000 cups of tea per day which works out to an average of 21 cups per head as they have a population of 5 crores against which we guess that Pakistanis must be taking many more cups of tea. We Pakistanis takes about 400,000,000 cups if we take 4 cups per day per head. Japanese smoked 134,900,000,000 cigarettes in 1961, and 126,500,000,000 in 1960 against which the number of smokers of cigarettes in Pakistan is increasing by 14% per year while its population is increasing by 28 % per year, as per para 17 above, and according to the Estimates of the Planning Commission (as per Para 17 above) Pakistanis would be consuming 30 thousand million cigarettes by 1975.
Expenditure of Alcohol
America which has double the population than that of Pakistan spends about $ 10,700,000,000 per year on Alcohol whereas in Pakistan when Karachites who are about 25 lakhs in population, spend Rs. 70,000 a day, which comes to % 1/2 Anna per head per day for our whole population of Pakistan. The yearly expenditure on Alcohol comes to a gigantic figure of Rs. 570,312,500, (over Rs. 57 crores) which is a very big national loss. (Extract from the Book Proposals and Notes on Constitution Of Pilgrim Welfare Fund and Duties and Functions of Pilgrims Welfare Officers on Ships Page 106, 107, 108, & 109)
The Truth about the Beer
Extract from Life and Health February 1969, pages 10, 11 & 27.
The People of the United States almost unanimously agree that beer is a part of life, that there is no harm in it, that life actually is merrier for it. I challenge the people of this country to take a second look at this beverage in order to guard their precious health, their children's heritage, and the morals of young and old.
If we would look around us we would see many of the results of excessive beer drinking, but we do not like to look at unpleasant proofs of our own folly, and so we do not say much about what this extensive habit is doing to us and our children. It is not in fashion today to be honest with ourselves and squarely face the sure future if we go on as we are doing and including cases of beer for every party, drinking what we consider to be a harmless glass of beer with our lunch, taking beer along on our picnics. Is this a harm less practice? What is it actually doing to us today? What of the future?
Sale of Beer in England
England had an experience in the 1800's that can show as where we are headed. Hoping to stay the wave of intemperance that was covering the country in those days, the leading statesmen reasoned that they should afford greater facility in the sale of beer, with the idea of slowing whisky sales.
England's leaders were so sure of themselves that they proclaimed: "It was giving the people what, under present circumstances, might be called a moral species of beverage." That was Lord Brougham's opinion in advocating the new measure.
The Duke of Wellington said he was "sure the measure would be attended with the most beneficial consequences to the lower orders."
The Chancellor of the Exchequer (treasurer) declared that the measure would produce "a more wholesome beverage, and would improve the morals."
When the bill was passed, the Duke of Wellington proclaimed it "a greater achievement than any of his military victories."
After these optimistic and sincere efforts, what was the outcome when the beer bill went into effect? Disappointing is a mild word for the results of the measure.
A gospel minister who had favoured the bill, the Reverend Sydney Smith, said: "The new Beer Bill has begun its operations. Everybody is drank. Those who are not singing are sprawling. The sovereign people are in a beastly state."
One writer declared that "from his own knowledge he could declare that these beer shops had made many, who were previously sober and industrious, now drunkards, and many mothers had also become tipplers."
The English press, which before had favoured the bill, changed its attitude and wrote against it.
The Globe said: "The injury done by the Beer Act to the peace and order of the rural neighbourhood, not to mention domestic unhappiness, industry, and economy, has been proved by witnesses from every class of society to have exceeded the evils of any single act of internal administration passed within the memory of man. "
The Liverpool Mail said: "A more pernicious concession to popular opinion, and so prejudicial to public morals in the rural districts, in villages, hamlets, and roadsides of England never was made by the blind senators of a bad government in the worst times."
The beer bill was supposed to lessen the number of public houses for the sales of distilled liquor. A select committee of the House of Commons after investigation reported: "The Act without destroying a single public house, had added fifty thousand still more baleful houses to the list of temptations so baleful to the people."
A magistrate, G.F. Drury, said: "The Beer Bill has done more to brutalize the English labourer and take him from his family and fireside to the worst associations, than almost measure that could have been devised. It has furnished victims for the jails, the hulks (ships used as prisons), and the gallows, and has frightfully extended the evils of pauperism and moral debasement."
In 1869, or forty years after the beer bill had been passed, a committee for the Lower House of Convocation of the Province of Canterbury, re ported: "This measure though introduced in 1830 for the avowed purpose of repressing intemperance by counteracting the temptations to excessive drinking of ardent spirits, afforded in public houses has been abundantly proved, not only to have failed of its benevolent purpose, but to have served throughout the country to multiply and intensify the very evils it was intended to remove."
The London Times in 1871 speaks thus of the free beer-shop bill which was authorized by the government in 1830. "The idea entertained at that time was that free trade in beer would gradually wean men from the temptations of the regular tavern, would promote the consumption of a wholesome national beverage in place of ardent spirits, would break down the monopoly of the old license houses, and impart, in short, a better character to the whole trade......The results of this experiment did not confirm the expectations of its promoters. The sale of beer was increased, but the sale of spirituous liquors was not diminished."
In 1850 the 'Reverend John Clay, chaplain, Preston House of Correction and a student and authority on social science, speaking of the pass age of the. beer bill in his testimony before the committee of the House of Lords, said "Instantly 40,000 dens were opened, each of which breeds more immorality and sin in a week than can be counteracted by the ministers of religion in a year."
In a biography of Chaplain Clay published by his son is the following statement: "Drunkenness is the main topic of his first and almost every subsequent report. For some years it was only the old-fashioned drunkenness of the public houses which he had to describe, but after passage of the beer-bill in 1830, and the consequent springing up of an enormous crop of beer-shops, his fear of the great national sin turned almost to consternation.
"In 1853 the Committee of the House of Commons concurred with the lords' report, and declared that the beer-shop system has proved a failure."
Lord Rosebery was free to say that "if England does not master the brewer, the brewer will master England."
These are Lord Brougham's remarks to the House of Lords: "To what good is it that the Legislature should pass laws to punish crime or that their lordships should occupy themselves in trying to improve the morals of the people by giving them education? What could be the use of sowing a little seed here, and plucking up a weed there, if these beer-shops are to be continued to sow the seeds of immorality broadcast over the land, germinating the most frightful .produce that ever has been allowed to grow up in a civilized country, and under the fostering care of Parliament."
America's press in former years spoke out more clearly than today, just as England's did.
The president of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, then one of the oldest and largest companies in America, Colonel Greene, made this especially interesting remark "It has been my duty to send records of and to make inquiry into the last illness and death of many thousand persons of all classes, in all parts of the country.
"I protest against the notion so prevalent and so industriously urged that beer is harmless... In one of our largest cities, containing a great population of beer drinkers, I had occasion to note the deaths among a large group of persons whose habits in their own eyes and in those of their friends and physicians were temperate : but they were habitual users of beer......
"When the observations began they were, upon the average, something under middle age, and they were of course selected lives. For two or three years there was nothing very remarkable to be noted among this group. Presently death began to strike it; and until it had dwindled to a fraction of its original proportion the mortality in it was astounding in extent and still more remarkable in the manifest identity of cause and mode. There was no mistaking it; the history was almost invariable - robust, apparent health, full muscles, a fair outside, increasing weight, florid face - then a touch or cold or a sniff of malaria, and instantly some acute disease with almost invariably typhoid symptoms was in violent action, and ten days or less ended it."
The Voice, a New York paper, sent this published article to several life insurance companies presidents asking whether their impression about beer correct about beer corresponded with that of colonel Greene. Nine presidents of the leading life insurance companies replied in letters published in The Voice dated October, 1884, endorsing and practically repeating the experience of Colonel Greene.
The Pacific Medical Journal, a publication endorsed and used in the form of a circular by the officers of the Home Life Insurance Company of New York, said: "The fashion of the present day."
Count the Cost Good will, like a name, is got by actions, and lost by one.
In the U.S. sets strongly towards the substitution of beer for other stimulating liquors. An idea appears to be gaining ground that it is not only nutritious but conducive to health, and, further, that there does not attack to it that danger of creating intemperate habits which attends the use of other drinks.
"Many years ago, and long before the moral sense of society was awakened to the enormous evils of intemperance, Sir Astley Cooper, an undisputed authority in his day, denounced habitual beer drinking as noxious to health. He said: 'Of all intoxicating drinks, it is the most animalizing. It dulls the intellectual and moral, and feeds the sensual and beastly nature. Beyond all other drinks, it qualifies for deliberate and unprovoked crime. In this respect it is much worse than distilled liquors.'"
Dr. W. T. Ridenour, who served during the first world war as surgeon of the Twelfth Ohio Infantry, was medical inspector of the Department of West Virginia, served as health officer for the city of Toledo, Ohio, and was a lecturer on physiology in the Toledo medical school.
He said: "In making a post-mortem examination, a physician instantly recognizes a beer drinker's stomach by its greatly increased dimensions. The liver is the great laboratory, the great workshop of the body. Any derangement of it means the immediate derangement of all the rest of the vital machinery, There can be no health anywhere when the liver is out of order. Beer drinking overloads it and clogs it up producing congestion."
"My first patient was a saloonkeeper . on Cherry Street, as fine a looking man physically as I had ever seen - tall well built, about thirty five years old, with florid complexion, and muscles well developed. He had an attack of pneumonia in the lower lobe of the right lung".
It was a simple, well-defined attack, which I regarded very hopefully. Doctors are confident of saving nineteen out of twenty such cases. I told my partner, Dr. Trembly, about it, and to my surprise he said gaiety, He'll die, I asked what made him think so. 'He's a beer drinker'; answered Trembly, and he persisted in producing a fatal termination of the case in spite of all my assertions to the contrary."
"Beer drinkers are peculiarly liable to die of pneumonia. Their vital power, their power of resistance, is so lowered by their habits that they are liable to drop off from any acute disease such as fever, pneumonia, etc. As a rule, when a confirmed beer drinker takes pneumonia he dies. They make bad patients."
Alcohol and Crime
"Eliminate liquor and at a single stroke you relieve the Juvenile Court of more than 50 per cent of its business. Directly and indirectly more than one half of the cases of juvenile delinquency in this country can be traced to the use of intoxicating liquors. There is no other influence for evil, as demonstrated, in the treatment of juvenile delinquents that compares with that of the liquor traffic." In these words is expressed the opinion of Judge Fred H. Taft, of the Los Angeles Juvenile Court after his long practical experience of the problem of Juvenile delinquency.
This opinion expresses typically the attitude of indiscipline and lawlessness under the influence of alcohol as evinced by the youth in the so-called civilized countries of the West. It is also to be borne in mind that the juvenile delinquent does not command much spending power to indulge in his nefarious activities. But what little he gets, by fair means or foul, suffices to turn his head when he can get access to the excitement, adventure and misplaced sense or power and daring of which alcohol creates an illusion in young immature minds.
Delinquency and carousing increase, as a matter of course. when the juvenile offender is induced by the befogging influence of liquor, to view life as a pleasure hunt for the revolting mind, insisting on "having the experience," He hovers about from one form of pleasure to another in his fruitless pursuit of satisfaction, little knowing that one cannot satisfy one's desires by satisfying them.
Not indulgence in but control over appetites is the fundamental axiom of psychic satisfaction. Lack of parental interest in the moral training of their offspring's, improper discipline and home atmosphere, provide the fertile soil for juvenile experience in liquor experience and consequent delinquencies.
In a survey carried out by Lieutenant- Colonel A. J. Cowden and associates, under the aegis of the Salvation Army, the Social Workers found that out of 653 unwed mothers, studied by them, 110 were school girls, 99 home girls, 214 servants, 61 waitresses, 45 factory girls, 35 office workers, 22 clerks, 12 telephone operators, 11 nurses, and the rest in minor other jobs - mostly in their teens. Forty-two percent of the unmarried mothers, another survey of the salvation Army, were found to be school girls of an average age of sixteen.
The Police Commissioner, Grover Whalen of New York, has the following words; while remarking on the problem of juvenile delinquency. There is growing up the so-called speakies problem and this is a serious one. In the old days, you could wipe out a vicious saloon. Now-a-days all you need is two bottles and a room and you have a Speakies. . We have 32,000 Speakies in this city. From the speakies comes dining and dancing and out of that grows the hostess game. The hostess problem verges seriously on a vice that we wiped out many years ago.
Drunken Fathers and Mothers
The home atmosphere exerts a powerful influence on the moral stamina of the budding personality. Drunken fathers and mothers can Hot but beget drunkards. The evil is imposed on the young by hereditary influences, operating through the medium of the inexorable forces of the psycho-physical set up of the mighty gents, which though tiny in size, transmit parental traits faithfully.
Add to this the visual perceptions of the environment and nursing and the picture of the direct temptation is completed in salient details. "It is an astounding fact that government, which will not permit brewery slop to be sold to cows because it produces swill milk does nothing to combat the superstition that the milk of the mother is not harmfully affected by beers, ales and porters. Such milk is deficient in the tissue-building constituent that is so essential to building strong vitality," says Dr. Ira S. Wiles, one of the editors of the Medical Review of Reviews.
In a survey of 259 alcoholised patients of Bellevue Hospital in New York city, it was found that 6.5 percent started drinking from one to twelve years of age, 23 percent began to drink from twelve to sixteen years of age, 39 percent began from sixteen to twenty-one years of age.
The percentage of those who got into this habit beyond these age groups was 31.5. In a study conducted by Mrs. L. A Rufe, it was revealed that no less than 4458 children out of 18 503 on rolls of twenty three Public Schools of Philadelphia, admitted that they drank alcoholic liquor-a finding which according to the said investigator is very much lower than the actual state of affairs.
As to how the liquor business-men view the younger generation as their real dupes, the following statement of R. H. Wallace, duly de posed before the Notary Public in and for Ross County, should serve as an eye-opener: that he was present in Worthweivs Hall, Columbia, Ohio at a meeting where representatives of the liquor dealers were present, discussing their plans.
At that meeting one of the representatives of the liquor interests spoke on matters of interest to the Saloon business with substantially these words: “The success of our businesses dependent largely upon the creation of appetite for drink, Men who drink liquor like others, will die, and if there is no new appetite created, our counters will be empty as well as our coffers. Our children will go hungry, or we must change our business to some other more remunerative one. The open field for the creation of appetite is among the boys, after men have grown and their habits are formed, they rarely ever change in this regard, and I make the suggestion, gentlemen that nickels expended in treats to the boys now, will return in dollars to our tills after the appetite has been formed”.
The Liquor Trade
And this is not a mere suggestion, the liquor trade acts upon it. In addition to the well known tendency of the liquor trade to promote drinking by women, by families in the home etc. the Board of Temperance has a picture of a nursing bottle containing whisky which was distributed by a saloon keeper at Troy Ohio, and which was taken from one of the school boys. The bottle originally contained one ounce of whisky. The boy had consumed about one half of it, and the other half remained in the bottle when it was taken away from the boy by his school teacher.
These bottles were circulated among the boys in the School and the one in question was taken from the son of a prominent church worker. The bottle is three inches in height and one and three - fourth inches across. On its front face there is a three-corner star, blown in the glass, enclosing the initials M.O.' A rubber tube has a turned bone nipple at the upper end and a glass extension tube at the lower end, which reaches the bottom of the bottle, so that all the whisky can be sucked out. It is manifest from the bottle that it has been turned out by a factory in large quantities for the purpose for which it has been used.
In adding this illustration to the affidavit of the above mentioned deponent, the reporter- an eminent social worker in the field of Temperance - ruefully speaks of still, "more missionary work of the same sort" being carried on among small boys in other places as well. Different sorts of attractive toys, dolls, bottles, have been used by the liquor dealers as containers for sweetened liquor and distributed freely among school boys and girls in the service of creating an appetite among the juvenile groups.
The liquor trade can flourish only by insistent creation of appetite among the younger generation. Huge sums are spent by this trade in the West to bolster up patronage by advertisements and appeal to the Social instinct of youth. Youth is the particular period of life, when the drink habit can be easily planted and as such the profit-paying appetite is sought by liquor interests to be cultivated among the young.
It has been established by sociological surveys that it is during adolescence that the taste for alcohol can be engendered by proper inducement, through advertisements and persuasion. "It is a noteworthy fact that in nearly 90 percent of confirmed in-eleriates, the addiction to drink began between fifteen and twenty-five years of age," says one eminent Sociologist.
Advertising, has, for its purpose, the creation of appetite, where none exists previously. Whatever may be said as to the position of the habitual drunkard vis-ŕ-vis his new for alcohol, there can be but outright condemnation of the efforts to induce an appetite in those who, left to themselves, would abstain from this obnoxious product. It is a distinct loss to Society if an habitual abstainer is induced to become a consumer of alcoholic liquor. "No newspaper can view with complacency & use of agencies which converts abstainers into drinkers, and defeats the resolution of drinkers who may be attempting to counter the drink habit."
And what purpose has liquor advertising other than that which is tersely expressed in the above quotation from the pen of a great social worker. The reading matter, the illustrations are all so designed as to convey the appeal and suggestions in favour of the product - to induce drinking by those who in the absence of such prompting would abstain. What can be the objective of such advertising except to promote drinking among those classes or individuals who are abstinent and to provoke the latent appetite where already existent.
The Liquor trader is shrewd enough to gauge the value of such advertising and the effect that it produces. Typical of this shrewdness on his part is the suggestion by -one of them to his brethren in trade in the following words: Why not advertise wine as a summer drink? Many a family that does not today use a drop of wine could be taught by attractive copy, illustrated with tempting coloured drawings to use our light red and white wines in punches and lemonades.
The "Brewers Journal" outlines a course of advertising designed to mould public sentiment in favour of beer and create home consumption by those who have never before drunk wine. It says pertinently, "Nearly every adult in the community may be considered as a prospective buyer. Some will respond quickly others will require time in order to convince them of the desirability of beer." The following sample of an advertisement will illustrate seductive appeal made to the ordinary citizen in general and the youth of the country in particular.
"For all folks who want to stay young. No home should be without this wonderful youth and health preserving stimulant. Pure Malt Whisky is a Wonderful health preserving stimulant. strengthening the liver, kidneys, and bladder, enriching the blood toning and building the entire system, promoting a good appetite, keeping you young, and vigorous, invaluable for over worked men, nervous run-down women and delicate undeveloped children, hard-playing, fast growing youngsters."
Such advertisements are often accompanied by illustration displaying children of tender ages as drinking. China-ware and articles of appeal to children and young girls are distributed along with the advertisements. Promises are held out that inquiries and orders for supply of the liquor shall be strictly confidential matters. So are the packing's promised to be in deceptive designs to throw off guard any inquisitive parental authority. "Numerous advertisements show minors and other young people, both boys and girls, drinking beer at picnics, on shady porches, on fishing trips, at different kinds of social occasions, and one shows a delivery man bringing in a case of beer and saying to the house-wife, "Madam, this is most wholesome thing that comes into your home."
The Tribune wants to eliminate from its advertising columns all traces of evil or even suspicious association. We feel that liquor advertisements will not help to attract to us either the readers or the advertisers whose patronage we especially desire, The editor of the Chicago Herald states his platform thus.
A newspaper must have a Social consciences. There is no better investment than a single standard of honour, honesty, truth and integrity from the title to the last agate line on the last page. Those who reap the seedless fields of honesty gather golden harvests. Truth, cleanliness and decency are the greatest dividend payers on earth. And with this declaration the liquor advertisements were expelled from the columns of the Chicago Herald.