The Abundant Profits of Piety and Godliness
By: Allama Husayn Ansariyan
“And as for him who fears to stand in the presence of his Lord and forbids the soul from low desires, then surely the garden is the abode.” Qur'an, 79:40-41
Man and his tendencies and desires
Man, since the beginning of his life until its end, sees, hears, touches, tastes and smells. He is affected by what he sees, hears, touches, tastes and smells and by what comes out of the senses of pleasant attractives where they suit the tendencies of man which in turn are so attractive for those things.
The divine will has prohibited seeing some certain things, hearing some certain things, eating some certain things and touching some certain things because of their harms to the individual, to the family and to the society. The Exalted Legislator has informed us of this prohibition via the prophets and the infallible Imams (as). This informing it self is one of the delicious fruits of the mercy of Allah and the love of the Prophets and Imams to the people.
Wealth, food, drinks, cloths, means of transportation, lusts, ranks and positions are required by man but it must be noticed that getting these requirements without conditions and restrictions will lead to tres pass the rights of the others. Following these desires and requirements absolutely will cause to destroy the system of family and society and destroy the value and dignity of man and consequently it leads one to lose the afterlife, to deserve the wrath of Allah and then to be under the eternal torment. Contending for cheap desires has no legal or rational excuse. If you ask a conscientious one, who has good morals and insight, that if someone has wealth, high rank, position or a beautiful woman to enjoy with and these things cause the others to lose their rights or cause injustice and oppression against the others, what answer will you hear? Do reason and conscience accept these things? If you ask your mind, conscience and nature about that, you will not hear except that these desires must be avoided. One has to wish what Allah and the legal law have permitted. Practicing legal rights and desires does not cause others to lose anything of their rights and no injustice or oppression against anyone will take place.
If you put the same question before Allah, the Prophets and the infallible Imams, you would hear “you have to do according what Allah wants, do not desire to have what is not your right, you have to be satisfied with your desires and have to be satisfied with the impermissible things, you must not desire to wrong the others which means to wrong Allah, family and society and all kinds of injustice are impermissible.”
One needs to satisfy his stomach, his lusts and his imagination too. If these needs and desires are within the circle of the divine restrictions and social rules, they will assure the safety of the environment, the individual and social life and they will keep reputation, dignity and perfect morals. But if these desires trespass the divine restrictions and social rules, they will lead to confuse the life, to lose the dignity and to let vices and corruption spread.
Anyhow, man, according to all his affairs of life, has two kinds of desires: the rational and permissible desires and the delusive and impermissible desires.
The rational desires are the desires which agree with the will of Allah and hence they enter easily into the soul and heart and submit to the divine laws and restrictions. In this case one does not want wealth or a house except from permissible ways, does not want to satisfy lusts except by legal marriage, does not want food except for the sake of Allah and to be able to protect the weak and oppressed people and when one wants to delight one’s eyes and ears, one does that by the right and permissible ways and then one becomes faithful, pious, benevolent, dutiful, kind to people, sincere to the society and always tries to please his Lord and to assure his happiness in this life and the afterlife by the “great jihad1”.
As for the delusive desires they are the desires that come out of one’s self only as a result of selfishness. They appear from a blind Heart and lead to pride, hypocrisy and slipping in the valley of deviation. In this case one looks for wealth in any way and by any means. One desires to collect wealth even by usury, by force, by trick, taking bribes, robbing, cheating and plundering.
When one wants a house, he dares to extort the properties and houses of the others. When he wants to satisfy sexual lust, he does not care whether it is by masturbation, sodomy, adultery and the likes.
When one wants a high position, he rushes to get it even if he destroys the rights of the others. When he wants to delight his eyes and ears, he will do even by looking at the wives and daughters of the others and hearing backbiting, bad-mouthing and impermissible music and singing.
One, who practices such desires, has no faith and religion or has weak faith and blind heart and insight. He tries to destroy his house of the afterlife, buy the wrath of Allah and submit to the Satan and his followers.
The holy Qur’an calls these desires of man as “fancy”.
Fancy is something inside man’sinners. It is the government that rules over man and puts him in the place of Allah the Almighty and gives to him the aspects of divinity and deity. It enslaves man and then man began obeying and worshipping his fancy instead of Allah the Almighty.
Allah has said, “Have you seen him who takes his low desires for his god? Will you then be a protector over him?” Qur'an, 25:43
When man puts his feet in the way of life, he tries, since childhood, to get all what he wants and follows after all what he hears and what his lusts take him to. He responds to his abdomen (desires and lusts) with no limits, satisfies his lusts with no restrictions and strives to get wealth, properties and authorities in any way without caring for the right of other people. In fact, man, in this case, is busy building the idol of fancy inside him and after he finishes building the idol, he begins to worship it and then he becomes its captive.
Unfortunately many people have spent their lives with this idol. They worshipped it and tried their best to satisfy it in any way.
One of the ascetics says, “The mother of idols is the idol of fancy.”
The worshippers of this idol do not regard the rights of the others nor do they regard their desires. They do not care for the reputations and dignities of other people. They see themselves have the right of everything whereas the others have no any right. Allah has made the goodness of this world and the afterworld to assure the happiness of the all but he has asked them not to follow their fancies; the delu sive and impermissible desireseven if there is a pparent damage to them or to the others when contrad icting the fancies. Allah has said, “O you who believe! be maintainers of justice, bearers of witness of Allah's sake, though it may be against your own selves or (your) parents or near relatives; if he is rich or poor, Allah is nearer to them both in compassion; therefore do not follow (your) low desires, lest you deviate; and if you swerve or turn aside, then surely Allah is aware of what you do)”. Qur'an, 4:135
The holy Qur’an indicates that following fancies is away towards deviation and it takes man away from Allah. It makes man forget the day of resurrection and consequently he will suffer the severe torment on the day of resurrection. Allah has said, “And do not follow desire, lest it should lead you astray from the path of Allah; (as for) those who go astray from the path of Allah, they shall surely have a severe punishment because they forgot the day of reckoning.” Qur'an, 38:26
The holy Qur’an stres ses on that fearing Allah and resisting fancies lead man to be in paradise. Allah has said, “And as for him who fears to stand in the presence of his Lord and forbids the soul from low desires, then surely the garden is the abode.” Qur'an, 79:40-41
The holy Qur’an mentions the story of (Ba’am bin Ba’ora) the famous scholar at the time of Prophet Moses (as). He had lost his faith, deviated from the path of the truth, been polluted with the worldly and material pleasures and acquired the moralsof dogs. All that was because he had followed his own fancies. Allah has said, “But he clung to the earth and followed his low desire, so his parable is as the parable of the dog; if you attack him he lolls out his tongue; and if you leave him alone he lolls out his tongue; this is the parable of the people who reject Our communications.” Qur'an, 7:176
The holy Qur’an has ordered not toobey the inadvertent people who have fallen in the trap of fancies and exceeded in following the lusts and pleasures. It has warned the believer of following such people by saying, “And do not follow him whose heart We have made unmindful toour remembrance, and he follows his low desires and his case is one in which due bounds are exceeded.” Qur'an, 18:28
According to many verses in the suras of al-Ma’idah (5), al-An’am (6), ar-Ra’d (13), al-Mo’minoon (23), al-Qassass (28), ash-Shura (42), al-Jathiyah (4 5) and Muhammad (47) following fancies leads to reject the verses of the divine books, leads to deviation, being away from Allah, corruption of the heavens and the earth and their inhabitants, rejecting Prophethood, losing straightness, falling in the laps of inadvertent and ignorant people, sealing the hearts with blindness and rust and the likes.
Impermissible desires cause corruption of morals, corruption of deeds, paying no attention to the rights of the others, oppressing the others, giving up obligations, committing great sins, insisting on minor sins, becoming angry, nervous and bad tempered, expecting too much, hating good and pious people, interesting in accompanying evil people and associating with the sinful and villains.
The great jihad
If he, who has submitted to fancies, wants to reform his life and afterlife, to gain goodness and happiness in this life and afterlife and to reform his inners, deeds and mora ls, he should fight against his fancies as a brave soldier fighting in the warfield. He has to know that he will win in this war by the assistance of Allah. He has to know that the mercy of Allah will be with him and that the matter of his victory and the defeat of fancies is a definite matter. If we say that man is unable to do that and he is weaker than to resist the influence of fancy, then there will be no meaning to sending Prophets by Allah and no meaning to revealing divine books and no meaning to the efforts of the Imams.
But since man has the ability to face this internal tyrant and defeat it and that defeating it is something possible for all people; therefore Allah has sent the Prophets and revealed His books and so Allah has shown His proof before people and He will not accept any excuse from anyone in this concern neither in this world nor in the afterworld.
Man, since he has not fallen in the trap of fancy yet, must care too much for watching himself and remember Allah every moment. Man has to beware of being polluted with the impermissible things that make the idol of fancy appear and be powerful. If man keeps himself against fancy, dignity and honor grow inside him and then piety and godliness grow inside his Heart.
When man ignores this matter, he will be involved in worshipping the idol of fancy and after sometime when the ray of the divine mercy shines after the wa king of the conscience or hea ring some preaches and advises or associating with pious people, man understandshow the idol of fancy rules over him and sees its bad effect son his behavior and morals. Then he should not delay to fight it. In fact he must consider the jihad against this idol as an obligation or indeed the most important obligation. He should pay much attention to this matter because it is an order from Allah and he should respond to the invitation of the Prophets and Imams in order to reform himself; mora ls and deeds. In order to defeat this idol, he should refrain from sins, pay much attention to the obligations, do good, mix with the pious, assoc iate with the benevolent and purify his wealth from ill-gotten monies. If he fights his fancy with these weapons, he will win this battle definitely. It is this battle that is called in the divine knowledge as the “greater jihad”.
It is mentioned that Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “Once the Prophet (S) sent a battalion (to fight the enemy) and when they came back, he said to them, “Welcome to the people who have achieved the minor jihad and remained for them the major jihad.” It was said to him, “O messenger of Allah, what is the major jihad?” He said, “It is the jihad against one’s fancy.”
One who resists his fancies his jihad is higher than any other jihad and one who desist (emigrate) from fancies his (hijra) is better than any other (hijra). Hence, the reward of this jihad and this (hijra) is more and greater than the reward of every other great deed.
Imam Ali (as), who was the first man in this field of jihad, said, “The fighter, who is martyred for the sake of Allah, is not rewarded more than one who isable (to commit sins) but remains a bst inent. An abst inent is about to be one of the angels2!”
The way of reform
With paying attention to that Allah the Almighty has sent one hundred and twenty-four thousand Prophets, a lot of whose instructions and teachings have been mentioned in our considerable books and some of them have been mentioned in some verses of the Qur’an, and with regard to the revelation of the divine books especially the Qur’an, which is the eternal miracle of the master of the prophets, Muhammad (S), the existence of the infallible Imams (as), whose instructions and teachings have been mentioned in the Islamic books concerning the individual and social fields and which are at the hand of the all, and with regard to nature, conscience, mind, will and option as moral deposits and the profitable principal of man in this life and the afterlife and with regard to that all the moral elements which confirm the authority of Allah on man in all the fields and affairs of life at all times and in all places; with regard to all that can it be said that the way of reform is closed before man? Is man unable to follow the way of reform? Is man obliged to do, to believe or to behave as what he has done, believed or behaved with no will or option?
Certainly, the answer is “No”. The way of reform is open before the all as long as the heavens and the earth exist. Every man is able to walk in the way of reform and no one is obliged with his beliefs, morals and deeds.
The many sinful and criminal people, who had submitted to their fancies and then repented of their sins and purified their souls and hearts from the ties of fancies, throughout history is a clear evidence showing that the way of reform is not closed before anyone and that man is not obliged with his deeds and morals.
But there are some impro per discussions and weak sayings which are irrational and have no evidence that some ignorant people cling to and they think that they will be excused in keeping on their sin and disobedience. They think that the way of pleasures is wide open to them so they hasten after their fancies and lusts and invite the others to that.
These persons know well that they are wrong and know that their sayings have no scientific or real evidence and away from reason although their sayings are quoted from some sociologists and psychologists in the materialist western universities that invite people to satisfy their lusts and desires in any way.
“Nay! man is evidence against himself, though he puts forth his excuses.” Qur'an, 75:14-15
Are the persons, who commit tricks, cheating and hypocrisy through their dealing with people and color their empty theories with a scientific color and offer them to people or hide their bad reality with bright masks or deceive the people and the society to live by that atease or spread among the people heresies and deviate doctrines after coating them with color of science, progress and development to destroy the life of man and the civilization of the human beings are these people unaware of their doings and unaware of the results of their doings?
The holy Qur’an confirms that such people know what they do but they exploit people along the ages for their own advantage and their private life, to satisfy their lusts and fancies and to fish in troubled water.
No doubt that the cultural environment prevailing over these people is a deviate environment and the culture is dark having nothing save party-spirit, zealotry and satanic jealousy. These people have denied all the facts of the existence and especially Allah the Almighty. They have denied the signs of the Truth and resisted them and therefore they have had such misleading culture and born in their minds silly and weak theories. These people make of these weak ideas and theories a doctrine and religion to which they invite the others in order to separate them from Allah and the truth.
These people have no aim in this life save to spread corruption in the earth and to pollute the peoples and nations with different sins and disobediences.
“And when he turns back, he runs along in the land that he may cause mischief in it and destroy the tilth and the stock, and Allah does not love mischief-making.” Qur'an, 2:205
The Zionists have indicated in their book “The Protocols of the Wisemen of Zion”: “it is we who have established the bases of the victory of Darwin, Marx and Nietzsc he and spread their doctrines among the nations and peoples.” Thus they have destroyed the morals by these deviate theories and ideas as it is clear for the all.
The world in its culture nowadays submits to three persons of the Jews; Marx, Freud and Darwin. Darwin’s theory of “evolution of the species” has led to destroy the virtues and morals among the European peoples. These thinkers always emphasized on dishonoring Religion and degrading sacred beliefs. They polluted the minds of people with their theories and showed religion and clergymen in an ugly picture before the public.
These people, by depending on the theories of the scholars they have connected with, did not leave any field of humanity unless they corrupted it. They corrupted all kinds of relations and connections between man and his Creator and his life and fellows. They corrupted all that with bad and deviate theories and ideas.
Actual deviation is that which concerns the divine fact and the relation of man with Allah and the intellectual deviation also ishow to look at the world of existence and its relation with Allah, the relation of man with the world and the relation of the world with man the deviation in perceiving the life, its aims and latent relations the deviation in perceiving the human soul and the connection of man with his brother, the individual with the society and the wife with her husband. And in general it is the deviation in all the affairs of life.
Under the shadow of this deviation the affairs of living have submitted to the influence of fancy and lust and corruption continued spreading day after another until Allah has become less effective (in people’s regard) than all the other worshipped things in man’s life. False gods and worshipped idols began prevailing over all the affairs of individual and social life.
These people have masked themselves with the scientific aspects until they made most of the people believe in theories they have theorized and all these factors affect the fate of man who has no will or option to determine his fate. Man’s life has become under the control of these unreal factors.
These weak phrases and silly theories have led many people in the world and especially in Europe and America and particularly the youth in many nations and societies to believe in the idea of “free will”. They often said, “I have become free to take my way in the life with my own will and option and to manage my affairs as I like. I am free to choose my belief and conduct according to my own mind and view towards the life. I make my life and future by myself. I determine my fate without the will of Allah.”
The result of these claims is that man takes himself out of the circle of the care and protection of Allah into the trap of the Satan and the net of fancy. And the result of these claims too is that the power of evil, sedition and exploitation prevail allover the world.
And the result of these claims is that injustice and oppression spread in all the countries and as a consequence of that slavery appears and all the peoples submit to lowness and subservience and slip in the valley of slavery to capitalism, some slip into slavery to governments, others become slaves to the dictators and others slip in the abyss of the desires and lusts that destroy the families and their relations.
And the result of these claims is that debauchery spread all over the world especially among the youth, men and women. And the result of these claims is deviation, madness, confusion of feelings and the Abundance of psychological and mental hospitals in the developed countries on the one hand and on the other hand the people have involved in the mire of (imitating) models, cinema films and stars, pornographic films, T.V. programs and other lusts and desires where they have become ignorant to understand the truth and they spent all their lives in pride and indifference.
And the result of this wretched life is that all the apparent and hidden affairs of man have sunk into corruption, deviation and debauchery; therefore we see many people in the world live desperately and their minds are shadowed by a cloud of hopelessness, worry and chronic grief. At the same time they feel the whips of their conscience and the pressure of their natures so they cry and shout that the way of reform is closed before man or if it is open, man will be unable to follow it and at last, and in order to calm down their consciences, they say that man is obliged to submit in all his affairs to the decree of fate.
But this darkness is as a result of the influence of the satanic culture, ignorance and the poisons of the deviate and misleading scholars and scientists.
But as for the pure Islamic culture, it is concentrated in the Shia doctrine which depends in its ideology on the Qur’an and the traditions of the Prophet (S) and the infallible Imams (as) and always associated with evidence, wisdom and reason. It announces clearly that the way of reform is always open before the human beings and will never be closed till the resurrection day and that the movement in the way of reform is possible to the all even to the one who is polluted with all kinds of sins. It is not right to impose certain beliefs, deeds or morals due to the saying of “the decree of the fate” and the likes.
It would be better to draw the attentions to some divine knowledge and instruction that guide man towards reform and deliverance to pure oneself and the society from sins and disobediences.
Imam as-Sadiq (as) says to somebody, “You have been made as the doctor of yourself, the disease has been showed to you, you have been tau ght the means of health and you have been guided to the cure. See how you treat yourself3!”
Yes! Man knows his foothold and state and has a control over himself. He is the doctor of himself. His diseases are his false beliefs, satanic morals and bad deeds which have been mentioned in the holy Qur'an and the honorable traditions. The cure of these diseases is pure faith, good morals, tranquility of the soul and good deeds. All these are signs of mental healthiness the bases of which are repentance, asking Allah for forgiveness, piety, abstinence and refraining from sins. Man, by the aid of these facts, must try to reform himself and purify his morals.
Imam al-Baqir (as) narrates from his fathers that the Prophet (S) has said in his recommendation to Ameerul Mo’mineen Ali bin Abu Talib (as), “O Ali, the best of jihad is when one rises in the morning without intending to wrong anybody4.”
When one rises every morning in this way and when he goes out of his house without intending to show enmity towards anybody, without intending to harm anyone, without thinking of evil even towards his enemies and without intending except to serve people, surely he will fill his inners with light and his outwards with benevolence.
Imam as-Sadiq (as) says, “Whoever controls himself when he desires, fears, likes, becomes angry and becomes satisfied Allah will protect him from Fire5.”
Ameerul Mo’mineen (as) says, “Wake up your Heart with pondering, let your side turn away from sleeping in the night and fear Allah your Lord6!”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) says, “Pondering leads to piety and to do according to piety7.”
One day a man came to Imam as-Sadiq (as) and asked him, “Would you tell me about noble characters?”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) said, “Pardon who has wronged you, relate with who has broken his relation with you, give who has deprived you and say the truth even if it is against you8!”
The Prophet (S) has said, “If as in or a lust happens to Someone and he refrains from it for fear of Allah, Allah will save him from Fire, secure him from the Great fear and carry out His promise to him as He has said in His Book, “And for him who fears to stand before his Lord are two gardens.” Qur'an,55:46
Whoever faces a worldly life and an afterlife (the opportunity to do good for the afterlife) and he chooses the worldly life, he will meet Allah on the resurrection day with no good deed to save him from Fire and whoever chooses the afterlife and turns away from the worldly life, Allah will be pleased with him and will forgive his bad deeds9.”
Someone has said to Imam as-Sadiq (as), “There are some people committing sins and they say that they hope (to repent in the future) but they still commit sins until death comes to them.” Imam as-Sadiq (as) said, “these people sway among wishes. They are liars. They do not hope because whoever hopes something tries to get it and whoever fears something flees from it10.”
In interpreting this Qur’anic verse “And for him who fears to stand before his Lord are two gardens”, Imam as-Sadiq (as) says, “He, who knows that Allah sees and hears what he says and knows what he does whether good or bad and so he refrains from doing bad deeds, is the one who (fears to stand before his Lord) and controls himself before desires11.”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said to Amr bin Sa’d, “I recommend you of fearing Allah, piety and ijtihad (trying one’s best to derive the true legal verdicts). Know that no ijtihad is useful without piety12.”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has also said, “You have to fear Allah, to be pious, to practice ijtihad, to be Truthful, to give deposits back to their owners, to be noble-minded and good to the neighbors. Be propagandists to yourselves without your tongues (but with good conducts and deeds). Be good and do not be bad. Prostrate yourselves before Allah too much (pray and worship Allah) because when any of you prostrate too much, Iblis will call out behind him “Woe! He obeyed but I disobeyed and he prostrated but I refused to13!”
The Prophet (S) has said to Ameerul Mo’mineen (as), “There are three things which if anyone has had he will be the best of people near Allah; who performs the obligations Allah has imposed, will be the best worshiper, who refrains from the sins Allah has prohibited, will be the most pious one and who is satisfied with what Allah has given him will be the richest one. O Ali, there are three things which if one has not had, his deeds will not be completed; piety that makes him refrain from disobeying Allah, good manners to treat people with and patience to face the ignorance of the ignorant with Ali, Islam is naked and its clothing is pudency, its a dornment is abstinence, its magnanimity is good doing and its pillar is piety14.”
Imam al-Baqir (as) has said, “The best of worships are the abstinence of abdomen (not to eat ill-gotten food) and chastity15.”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “The Shia (followers) of Ja’far (Imam as-Sadiq) are those who abstain from eating anything ill-gotten, who are chaste, practice jihad, work for the sake of their Creator, hope His reward and fear His punishment. Such people are the Shia of Ja’far16.”
The Prophet (S) has said, “My umma will still in good as long as they love each other, guide each other, give deposits back to their owners, refrain from impermissible things, entertain guests, offer prayers and pay zakat. If they do not do this, they will be afflicted with rainlessnes and barrenness17.”
It is understood from these traditions that the way of reform is open before the all and moving in this way is possible to everyone and that man is not obliged to his doings, behaviors and morals. Man can determine to do anything willingly and freely. In fact it has been referred in these traditions to an important fact that man should adorn himself with goodness, benevolence and moral beauty instead of ugly and bad satanic doings, support the Truth with his will and hand, purify his soul and inners from his bad morals and doings and to change them into good deeds and morals. Every one follows the way of reform Allah will help him to change his bad deeds into good deeds and when good deeds replace the bad ones Allah will forgive all the bad deeds of that one.
“Except him who repents and believes and does a good deed; so these are they of whom Allah changes the evil deeds to good ones; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” Qur'an, 25:70
“Save him who has been unjust, then he does good instead after evil, for surely I am the Forgiving, the Merciful.” Qur'an, 27:11
The matters related to reforming oneself
The intention of good among all people is found by patience, controlling oneself when desiring, fearing, being angry and being satisfied, pondering on the results of deeds, spending the night in worshiping, piety, pardoning, being indifferent to the wrong coming from others, strengthening relations with the kin, being generous to the need y, avoiding (impermis sible) lusts, preferring the afterlife to the worldly life, hoping that is co incident with acting, fearing Allah with refraining from sins, turning to Allah apparently and internally, inner purity, toiling to worship Allah and to serve people, truthfulness, giving deposits back to their owners, good manners, being kind to the neighbors, adorning oneself with good deeds, long and sincere prostrating before Allah, being satisfied with permissible things, leniency in treating others, patience, pud ency, a bstinence, not eating ill-gotten foods, chastity, acting just for the sake of Allah, expecting the reward of Allah and fearing His punishment, being kind to the others, exhorting to the truth and guidance, being away from vices, entertaining brothers in faith, offering prayers and paying zakat.
Of course these virtues have been quoted from the traditions mentioned in the previous pages in the chapter “the way of reform”. If we wanted to quote titles (of virtues) from all the traditions concerning the matter of reforming oneself, family, society and all the affairs of life, it would take us to write a detailed book on the subject undoubtedly.
If man tries to have these precious aspects with his own will and intention and purifies himself from vices especially ill-gotten wealth and positions and impermissible desires, surely he will gain abundant advantages in this world and the afterworld.
In this concern it would be better to mention here the stories of some persons who have been pious and have saved themselves from impermissible desires and lusts and therefore their share of advantage was so great. This mention may be a good means to those who look for good and happiness.
1. “Great jihad” is resisting one’s desires and tendencies
2. Nahjol Balagha, maxim no.466.
3. Usool Al-Kafi, vol.2 p.329.
4. Al-Wassa’il, vol.15 p.162.
6. Al-Kafi, vol.2 p.45.
8. Wassa’il ash-Shia, vol.15 p.199.
9. Wassa’il ash-Shia, vol. 15 p.209.
10. Al-Kafi, vol.2 p.55.
11. Ibid. p.63.
12. Wassa’il ash-Shia, vol.15 p.243.
13. Al-Kafi, vol. 2 p.63.
14. Ibid., p.64.
15. Wassa’il ash-Shia, vol. 15 p.249.
16. Wassa’il ash-Shia, vol. 15 p.251.
17. Ibid., p.254.