Vices and bad deeds
By: Allama Husayn Ansariyan
Vices, bad deeds, major sins and minor sins are so many that these few pages are not enough to show them all as they have been mentioned in the Qur’an and the traditions.
In this chapter, we are going to explain the matters concerning these things as examples in the same way as we have talked about the good deeds and morals in the previous chapters and we refer the readers to the famous books of tafsir and Hadith.
Adorning oneself with good morals and purifying the inward from the vices changes one into a perfect man who will get the happiness of this life and the afterlife.
The main part of good morals causes the divine mercy come down like the rain and causes man to enter the field of the divine contentment whereas the main part of the vices and bad deeds causes to bring down the wrath of Allah and makes the personality of man disappear and brings him the divine wrath and the eternal torment.
According to the Qur’anic verses paradise, on the day of resurrection, will be the reward of the good deeds that man do in the worldly life and hell will be the reward of the bad deeds. In other words the good deeds will be as bricks and materials of construction in paradise whereas the bad deeds will be as tools of painful punishment in the afterlife.
We should seize the little opportunity in our worldly life and our shortold to do good deeds and to avoid bad deeds to be safe from the painful punishment, to save ourselves from the eternal torment in hell and to enter into paradise to enjoy the eternal bliss of the Beloved.
Lying or every speech that is opposite to the reality is something ugly and obscene and it is one of the incitive means of the Satan.
The Qur’an in many verses considers lying as one of the major sins and declares that Aliar deserves the wrath and curse of Allah. The Qur’an has threatened the liars and the rejecters of severe torment.
The Qur’an has mentioned the Christians of Najran who had come to argue with Prophet Muhammad (S) in Medina. The Prophet (S) had invited them to perform mubahala138 to show them that they were liars and they deserved the curse of Allah.
Yes! The sin of lying is too heavy and great to a degree that a liar deserves to be cursed and driven out of the mercy of Allah.
“Then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.” Qur'an, 3:61
Allah the Almighty mentions in the Qur’an the bad features of the hypocrites among which is the feature of lying and He witnesses on it; “And Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are surely liars.” Qur'an, 63:1
The Prophet (S) has said, “It is a great treason that you talk to your brother and he believes you whereas you tell him lies139.”
Imam Ali (as) has said, “Beware of lying because it is the lowest of morals and it is a kind of obscenity and a kind of meanness140.”
The Prophet (S) has said, “The greatest of sins is a lying tongue141.”
Ameerul Mo’mineen (as) has said, “If a person tells one a lie, the angel will go one mile away from him because of the foulness he does142.”
Imam al-Baqir (as) has said, “Allah the Almighty has made locks for evil and made the intoxicating drinks as the keys of these locks but lying is eviler than drinking143.”
The Prophet (S) has said, “Lying is a door from among the doors of hypocrisy144.”
How ugly it is when someone pollutes the reputation of a man or a woman before people and ascribes vices to them! how ugly it is when someone accuses an innocent person of a sin that he has never committed just for selfish motives, personal desires and satanic incitements! How ugly it is when someone disgraces the honest and respectable peoples, defames and dishonors them!
Accusing innocent and chaste people is one of the ugliest deeds and worst morals.
“And whoever commits a fault or a sin, then accuses of it one innocent, he indeed takes upon himself the burden of a calumny and a manifest sin.” Qur'an, 4:112
The Prophet (S) has said, “He, who slanders a believer or accuses him of what he is innocent of, Allah will stand him on a hill of fire on the day of resurrection until he repents of what has accused that believer of145.”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “Whoever slanders a believing man or a believing woman or accused him/her of what he/she is free from Allah will imprison him on the day of resurrection in a clay of khabal until he will repents of what he has accused of.” He was asked what the clay of khabal was and he said, “It is pus that comes out of the vaginas of the prostitutes146.”
The Prophet (S) has said, “Slandering an innocent person is heavier than mountains147.”
Among the vices and the very bad morals is to speak ill of someone behind his/her back.
Backbiting is to mention some features of an absent person that if he knows they are mentioned before the others, he will be angry and uncomfortable.
Backbiting is one of the major and heavy sins and committing it causes one’s heart to be polluted with darkness and consequently it (the Heart) will be deprived of the divine light and mercy.
The holy Qur’an has prohibited people from backbiting strongly and compared one who backbites the others to one who eats the flesh of his dead Muslim brother.
“Nor let some of you backbite others. Does one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? But you abhor it; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah” Qur'an, 49:12
The Prophet (S) has said to Abu Tharr, “O Abu Tharr, beware of backbiting for it is worse than adultery!” Abu Tharr said, “O messenger of Allah, what is backbiting?” The Prophet (S) said, “To mention your brother with what he hates.” Abu Tharr said, “O messenger of Allah, even if he has what is mentioned about him?” The Prophet (S) said, “Know that if you mention him with what he does not have, you slander him148.”
Ameerul Mo'mineen (as) has said, “He, who listens to backbiting, is like the backbiter149.”
The Prophet (S) has said, “He, whose Muslim brother is backbitten before him and he can defend him but he does not defend him, will be failed by Allah in this life and the afterlife150.”
Scorning and mocking
Mocking at the others and scorning them are very ugly deeds and major sins. How often that someone mocks and scorn another one who may be one of the saints or the sincere servants of Allah!
The Qur’an has forbidden people strongly from mocking ateach other.
“O you who believe! let not (one) people laugh at (another) people perchance they may be better than them, nor let women (laugh) at (other) women, perchance they may be better than them” Qur'an, 49:11
The Prophet (S) has said about mockers, “The gate of paradise will be opened for a mocker and it will be said to him, “come on!” He will come with his griefs and distresses and when he will about to come in, the gate will be closed before him151.”
The mockers and scorners will face the result of their ugly deeds and will get their painful reward on the day of resurrection.
The Prophet (S) has said, “Do not scorn anyone of the Muslims because the little of them are great near Allah152.”
He has also said, “It is enough evil for the son of Adam to scorn his Muslim brother153.”
Some people, in order to reach their material aims, take firm oaths and swear by Allah and so their oaths become as a kind of indignity, dishonor and violation of the sacredness of Allah the Almighty. The Qur'an says, “And make not Allah, by your oaths, a hindrance to your being righteous and observing your duty unto Him and making peace among mankind. Allah is Hearer, Knower.” Qur'an, 2:224
The Prophet (S) has said to Imam Ali (as), “Do not swear by Allah whether true or false without necessity and do not make Allah as an obstacle to your oath for Allah does not mercify or talk to whoever swears by His name falsely154!”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “He, who takes an oath and he knows that he swears falsely, challenges Allah the Almighty155.”
Impermissible lusts include the pleasures of the abdomen and the private parts, bodily and mental pleasures which are contrary to the will of Allah and opposite to His contentment.
Man has to remember Allah, the afterlife and the severe punishment he will face on the day of resurrection if he satisfies his lusts and desires in unlawful way and against the orders of the sharia. But if man refrains from unlawful lusts and desires, he will be fit to win paradise and he will not be rewarded except with paradise; “And as for him who fears to stand in the presence of his Lord and forbids the soul from low desires, then surely the garden that is the abode.” Qur'an, 79:40-41
The Prophet (S) has said, “Blessed is he who turns away from a present lust to a promise that he has not seen156!”
He has also said, “Three things that I fear for my nation after me; deviation after knowing, misleading seditions and the lusts of the abdomen and private parts157.”
Imam Ali (as) has said, “The slave of lusts is meaner than the slave of bondage158.”
The Prophet (S) has said, “The truth is heavy and bitter and the untruth is light and sweet. Perhaps a lust of a moment may cause a lasting sorrow159.”
He has also said, “If a sin or a lust happens to someone and he refrains from it for fear of Allah, Allah will save him from Fire and secure him from the Great Fear.”
Injustice and Oppression
Injustice, violating the rights of others, preventing others from getting their rights, bad doings and conducts that cause harm toother people, contradicting the law, heresy, haughtiness and the likes are among the items of injustice, oppression and aggression.
The holy Qur’an sees that as long as the unjust persons are still in the circle of oppression and aggression against people they are away from guidance and not worthy of it.
“And who is more unjust than he who forges Alie against Allah and he is invited to Islam, and Allah does not guide the unjust people.” Qur'an, 61:7
The Qur’an also sees that injustice and oppression are the reasons behind perishment and extinction of goodness and that the unjust society deserves misfortunes, torment and perishment; “And when Our messengers came to Ibrahim with the good news, they said: Surely we are going to destroy the people of this town, for its people are unjust.” Qur'an, 29:31
The Qur’an declares that the unjust people on the day of resurrection will be deprived of intercession and the support of their assistants and relatives and they will live in hell alone in horrible isolation. It is the punishment that will await for them on that day.
“And warn them of the day that draws near, when hearts shall rise up to the throats, grieving inwardly; the unjust shall not have any compassionate friend nor any intercessor who should be obeyed.” Qur'an, 40:18
The Qur’an declares too that the unjust people deserve the eternal torment and their suitable place will be in hell and this punishment will not be limited to them only but to their followers and assist ants too.
“Surely the losers are they who have lost themselves and their followers on the resurrection day. Now surely the iniquitous shall remain in lasting chastisement.” Qur'an, 42:45
And the Qur'an announces that Allah does not love the unjust and it is clear that if someone is driven out of the circle of the love of Allah, will be afflicted with distress and wretchedness in this life and the afterlife.
“surely He does not love the unjust.” Qur'an, 42:40
The Prophet (S) has said, “Between paradise and hell there are seven punishments the easiest of which is death.” Anass asked, “O messenger of Allah, what is the most difficult of them?” The Prophet (S) said, “Standing before Allah when the wronged will catch the wrongdoers160.”
In a Qudsi tradition it has been narrated, “My wrath has become too great against people who have wronged those who have not found any supporter save Me161.”
The Prophet (S) has said, “Avoid injustice because it is the darkness of the day of resurrection162.”
He has also said, “The one who is aware of the injustice, the one who assists in it and the one who is pleased with it are all part ners in it163.”
Ameerul Mo'mineen (as) has said, “By Allah if I am given the seven continents and what there is under their horizons to disobey Allah just by extorting as hell of a barley corn from an ant, I will never do164.”
Anger and violence
Anger, which is not for the sake of the Truth, and violence in facing different events and in dealing with others or because of a mistake of one’s wife or children are satanic states and devilish powers that move the possibilities of deviation in the inner feelings of man.
Controlling one’s anger and suppressing rage are among the good morals that are necessary for every Muslim. Man at anger and violence becomes as a captive of these satanic motives and he involves in the quicksand of deviation. He acts just to relieve the latent rage inside him and then he may commit bad doing that he will not be able to repair later on.
Suppressing one’s anger, pardoning the others and being kind to them are from the signs of piety and they cause one to be beloved by Allah Who has said in the Qur’an; “And those who restrain (their) anger and pardon people; and Allah loves the doers of good (to others).” Qur'an, 3:134
The Prophet (S) has said, “If one of you becomes angry while he is standing, let him sit down and if his anger will not be relieved, let him lie down165.”
The Prophet (S) has said to Imam Ali (as), “Do not be angry! When you become angry, sit down and think of the power of Allah over the people and His patience with them. If it said to you “fear Allah”, get rid of your anger and go back to your patience166!”
Imam Ali (as) has said, “Beware of anger for its beginning is madness and its end is regret167!”
Imam al-Baqir (as) has said, “Whoever suppresses his anger while he is able to carry it out Allah will fill his Heart with security and faith168.”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “Anger is the key of every evil169.”
Spite and hatred
Spite, hatred and enmity towards people without a legal excuse are outcomes of malevolence and diseased inners; therefore they are prohibited in the sharia.
One, who bears spite and hatred towards others, will wrong and oppress them and then involve in sins and disobediences to satisfy his hatred and to relieve his hidden complexes.
A spiteful man lives in spiritual dryness and this dryness reflects on his human relations with the others. He becomes unkind and unloving to people. The Qur’anic verses and the traditions have declared that such a person is far away from the mercy of Allah in this life and the afterlife.
Imam Ali (as) has said, “Spite is the meanest of defects170.”
“Spite is one of the natures of evildoers171.”
“Spite is a hidden fire that cannot be put out except by death or a victory172.”
“Pluck evil out of the others” chests by plucking it out of your own chest173!”
“The cause of seditions is spite174.”
“Whoever discards spite his heart and mind will be at ease175.”
“A spiteful person has no brothers176.”
We read in the dua’ (supplication) of Nudba that after the death of the Prophet (S) distresses and ordeals from every side have attacked AhlulBayt (as) and all what has happened of great seditions and deviations in the religion and in the life of people which cannot be repaired until the day of resurrection were the results of spite, hatred and envy rooted in the Hearts of some of the unjust people.
Stinginess is a negative psychological state that prevents man from spending his money, position or honor for the sake of Allah or caring for the problems of the others in order to solve them or helping the needy or fulfilling the needs of his fellows and the likes.
Stinginess is a satanic feature and moral coming out of one’s dark inners away from the exalted human morals. It is one of the features of evildoers and enviers.
The Qur'an denies stinginess strongly, dispraises the stingy and declares that they will deserve severe torment and painful punishment on the day of resurrection.
“And let not those deem, who are niggardly in giving away that which Allah has granted them out of His grace, that it is good for them; nay, it is worse for them; they shall have that whereof they were niggardly made to cleave to their necks on the resurrection day.” Qur'an, 3:180
“And (as for) those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah's way, announce to them a painful chastisement. On the day when it shall be heated in the fire of hell, then their foreheads and their sides and their backs shall be branded with it; this is what you hoarded up for yourselves, therefore taste what you hoarded.” Qur'an, 9:34-35
The Prophet (S) has said, “The least comfortable people are the stingy177.”
Imam Ali (as) has said, “Stinginess contains all the defects and it is a rein with which it is led to every bad178.”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “A stingy person is one who becomes stingy with what Allah has imposed on him179.”
Monopoly is to retain the goods that people are in need of especially foods and medicines so that the prices may be raised and then great wealth may be got in this way. In fact, this is a great injustice against people and especially the weak.
A monopolist by this doing and by being unkind to the people causes himself to be deprived of the mercy of Allah in this world and in the afterworld. In doing so he just acts selfishly.
Besides that selling monopolized goods itself is prohibited and its price is considered as ill-gotten property. This doing has been dispraised strongly by the Qur’an and the traditions.
About getting wealth unlawfully the Qur’an says, “And whoever does this aggressively and unjustly, We will soon cast him into fire; and this is easy to Allah.” Qur'an, 4:30
The Prophet (S) has said, “Whoever keeps food for forty day sintending that it may be expensive has disavowed Allah and Allah has disavowed him180.”
“Whoever monopolizes foods for forty days and then gives them as charity it will be not accepted from him181.”
“The worst of people is the monopolist; when Allah makes the prices become low, he becomes unhappy and when the prices become high, he becomes delighted182.”
“The monopolists and the killers will be thrown into hell at the same degree183.”
Imam Ali (as) has said, “Monopoly is one of the features of evildoers184.”
Being fond of the worldly life
It is naturally that man loves the worldly life if his love is reasonable and lawful because this will lead him to arrange the affairs of his and his family’s life in the best way. This love is something natural and required but if the love of this worldly life is out of greediness, fancies, desires and lusts and away from the moral principles and if it leads towards sins, unlawful desires and ill-gotten properties, it will be unreasonable and unlawful love that will cause to destroy one’s life and involve him into the eternal curse and torment.
What we see in the Qur’anic verses and the traditions that the love of the worldly life is dispraised or sometimes the worldly life it self is dispraised is the negat ive relation with the worldly life and the consequences of this negative relation such as collecting wealth unlawfully, injustice, oppression, treason and the likes.
The phrases mentioned in the Qur'an about dispraising the worldly life such as “provision of vanities”, “play and amusement”, “the enjoy ment of this world is short” and others look at the worldly life as a cause of greediness, ignorance and inadvertence.
The hearts of the lovers of the worldly life are polluted with the material love which gives bitter fruits and bad morals besides that when man pays all his attention to this life, he will forget the afterlife and then he will lose it and deserve the wrath of Allah and then will be deprived of the divine content ment and bliss eternally.
The heart of man is the throne and sanctum of Allah the Almighty and it should not be polluted with such kind of love which is the result of greediness and incitements of deviation.
One should live and make use of this life according to the Islamic teachings and instructions mentioned in the Qur’an and holy traditions.
From among these instructions is getting lawful money and spending it on the affairs of life and spending some of it in the way of Allah.
If one’s relation with this life is in this way, it will be pleased with by Allah and it will make one lead a good afterlife. But excessive love to this life with being inattentive to the afterlife make one mean in this life and in the afterlife.
The Prophet (S) has said, “If the love of the worldly life occupies one’s heart, one will be involved in three things; bus iness whose tired ness will not end, poverty whose wealth will not be gained and a hope whose end will not be reached185.”
He has also said, “It is impossible to every Heart loving the worldly life to get rid of greediness186.”
Ameerul Mo’mineen (as) has said, “He, who loves the worldly life, collects (wealth) toother than him.” Such a man and due to his love to wealth and material properties will refrain from spending it in its lawful ways. He will keep on collecting monies until he dies and then all his properties will be for other than him.
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “whoever loves it (worldly life) it will make him proud, Whoever admires it, it will make him stingy, whoever follows it, it will make him greedy, whoever praises it, it will make him hypocrite, whoever wants it, it will make him haughty and whoever trusts in it, it will make him inadvertent.”187
Treason is opposite to trustiness. If someone deals with the trusts of Allah and of other people without their permissions and causes damages to these trusts, he betrays the ones who have trusted him with these trusts.
Treason is something very ugly and it is a satanic doing. It comes out of the soul that is prone to evil and it is one of the features of those who follows their desires away from the principles of religion and conscience.
Allah has talked in His Book about treason in many verses. He refers to several kinds of treason such as; treason of the eye (looking at women that is unlawful for one to look at), treason of self (slandering others, accusing them and destroying their prestige and so one betrays his self by losing the afterlife), treason of deposits (whether the divine deposits entrusted to man like bodily and mental abilities, the organs, the soul and others or the deposits of other people like properties and secrets) and treason in economical dealings, relations with people and others.
Allah has declared that he does not love the traitors: “And if you fear treachery on the part of a people, then throw back to them on terms of equality; surely Allah does not love the treacherous.” Qur'an, 8:58
Since Allah hates treason, He orders the believers of trustiness and wa rns them of bet raying Allah, His messenger and the people.
“O you who believe! Betray not Allah and His messenger, nor knowingly betray your trusts.” Qur'an,8:27
The Prophet (S) has said, “He is not from us whoever betrays a Muslim in his family and properties188.”
“Revealing the secret of your brother is treason so beware of that189!”
“Do not betray who has betrayed you lest you become like him190!”
“There are four things if one of which enters a house, it will be destroyed and will not be rebuilt with blessing; treason, stealing, drinking wine and adultery191.”
“(people of) Deceit, treason and trickery will be in hell192”
Ameerul Mo’mineen (as) has said, “Treason is evidence on the littleness of piety and faith193.”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “A believer is molded with every nature except treason and lying194.”
It is understood from the Islamic knowledge that the first one, who has made, drunk and spread wines between people, was Iblis.
I do not think that the great damage and loss that drinking wines causes are unknown by someone. Wine and every intoxicating drink attacks the mind and the mental power of man and gradually man turns into a vain creature.
Changing any blessing and gift that Allah has granted to man in order to continue his life and be bale to worship Allah and to serve people is a great treason to these great blessings. Drinking wine and any o ther intoxicant is a great treason, bad deed and heavy sin.
Islam has prohibited selling grapes, dates and any other blessing if the purpose is to make wine of them. The dealing on this is unlawful. This doing is one of the causes of deviation and it is a revolt against the orders of Allah the Almighty.
Making wine, carrying it, selling it, mediating in such prohibited dealings and any other activity concerning wine are all prohibited and they cause the wrath of Allah and lead man to the eternal torment in hell on the day of resurrection.
“O you who believe! intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrificing to) stonesset up and (dividing by) arrows are only an uncleanness of the Satan's work; shun it therefore that you may be successful. The Satan only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you off from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you then desist.” Qur'an, 5:90-91
The Prophet (S) has said, “Do not believe a drunkard when he talks, do not marry him (your daughters) when he proposes to engagement, do not visit him when he becomes ill, do not entrust him with any trust and do not attend his funerals when he dies195!”
“A drunkard will be resurrected from his grave written between his eyes; desperate of the mercy of Allah196.”
“The wine is the mother of vices and it is the greatest of the major sins197.”
“Allah has cursed the wine, its presser, its planter, its drinker, its cupbearer, its seller, its buyer, the eater of its price, its carrier and the one to whom it is carried198.”
“Whoever believes in Allah and the last day (the day of resurrection) let him not sit at a table at which wine is being drunk199.”
Al-Mufadhdhal has narrated, “Once I asked Abu Abdullah (as-Sadiq) (as), “Why has Allah prohibited wine?”
He said, “Allah has prohibited wine for its influence and corruption because it causes a drunkard tremor, takes his light a way, destroy his magnanimity, makes him dare to commit sins, to shed blood, to commit adultery and he may commit sexual rape on his close relatives (daughters or sisters) unknowingly. Wine does not give its drinker except evils200.”
Cursing and abusing
Cursing, Abusing and obscenity are outcomes of ignorance and impoliteness and they are away from human morals. They harm one’s dignity and faith.
The Qur’an has not permitted the believers to curse or Abuse even the enemies of Allah. The traditions have prohibited cursing even the animals and material substances.
Allah has said, “And do not abuse those whom they call upon besides Allah, lest exceeding the limits they should abuse Allah out of ignorance.” Qur'an, 6:108
The Prophet (S) has said, “Do not Abuse people lest you cause enmity201!”
“Abusing a Muslim is sinfulness, fighting him is disbelief and backbiting him is disobedience to Allah202.”
“Do not Abuse the Satan but pray Allah to protect you from his evil203!”
“Do not curse the wind for it is ordered (by Allah) and do not abuse the mountains, the hours, the days or the night that you may sin and the Abuse may return on you204!”
Wasting and squandering
Every wasting in foods, drinks and cloths and also in love and relations with the others is a result of loving the worldly life. Even excessive liberality in giving is a kind of squandering. Squandering is a bad and ugly deed according to the Qur’an and the traditions.
Allah declares in the Qur’an that he does not love the wasters and the squanderers; “And eat and drink and be not extravagant; surely He does not love the extravagant.” Qur'an, 7:31
One, who spends what Allah has granted him in unreasonable ways, is considered as a waster according to the Qur'an. The wasters are the brothers of the Satan as Allah has said, “Surely the squanderers are the brothers of the Satan and the Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.” Qur'an, 17:27
The Prophet (S) has said, “The marks of a waster are four; (mental) blindness, inadvertence, heed lessness and forgetfulness205.”
“It is wasting to eat all what you like206.”
Imam al-Askari (as) has said, “Generosity has Alimit and if it exceeds the limit, it becomes wasting207.”
Imam Ali (as) has said, “Woe unto the waster! How far he is from reforming himself and managing his affairs208!”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “A waster has three signs; he buys what is not his209, wears what is not his and eats what is not his210.”
The Prophet (S) has said, “Temperance is something that Allah loves and wasting is something that he hates. Even your throwing a kernel away (is a kind of wasting) because it can be useful for something and even pouring away the leftover of your drink (is a kind of wasting)211.”
Imam Musa bin Ja’far al-Kadhim (as) has said, “Whoever has money let him beware of corruption! Your giving the money in other than its right way is wasting and squandering. It honors its keeper among people but dishonors him near Allah212.”
Cheating, deceiving and trickery in dealing with people are vices and bad morals. They are among the signs of hypocrisy and aggression against the others.
The Qur’an has talked about cheating especially in the verses concerning economical affairs and the traditions have talked about it in details.
There is no doubt that cheating according to the Qur'an and the divine teachings is a prohibited doing, unlawful behavior and treason against people.
The Prophet (S) has said, “A Muslim is a brother of a Muslim. It is not permis sible to a Muslim when selling something to his brother not to show its defects213.”
“Whoever cheats the Muslims will be resurrected with the Jews on the day of resurrection because they are the utmost cheaters to the Muslims214.”
“He, who sells some defected goods without showing the defect, will be still under the detestation of Allah and the angels will still curse him215.”
Ameerul Mo'mineen (as) has said, “He, who cheats the people in their religion, is resisting Allah and His messenger216.”
He has also said, “The greatest betrayal is betraying the umma and the most horrible cheating is cheating the umma217.”
Usury is the fact of lending money at interest. It is also practiced with goods; for example by selling a certain kind of food for the same kind but of another quality with taking some more of the unwanted kind. For example, one may sell ten kilos of bad wheat, rice or dates for eight kilos of the same good kinds. This is also usury.
Usury is prohibited and it is one of the major sins which Allah has threatened in His book of severe torment for this doing on the day of resurrection.
“O you who believe! Be careful of (your duty to) Allah and relinquish what remains (due) from usury, if you are believers. But if you do (it) not, then be apprised of war from Allah and His Messenger.” Qur'an, 2:278-279
The Prophet (S) has said, “The worst of gaining is the gaining of usury218.”
“Whoever eats from usury Allah will fill his abdo men with the fire of hell as much as he has eaten. Nothing of his deeds will be accepted and he will be still cursed by Allah and the angels as long as he has a carat (of usury)219.”
“A dirham of usury is greater near Allah than committing adultery seventy times with one’s mahram220 in the House of Allah (the Kaaba)221.”
“Allah the Almighty has cursed the eater of usury, the giver, the clerk and the two witnesses222.”
Causes of perishment
The Qur’an in many verses has talked about the perishment of the nations and the torments they have been afflicted with due to different reasons.
Pondering on these verses that have been mentioned in many suras of the Qur’an educates man, ripens his soul and intellect and teaches him how to avoid meanness and perishment.
The Qur’an sees that being unjust tooneself and toothers, wasting, disbelief, denying the truth, debauchery, tyranny, inadvertence and crime are the causes of the perishment of the ancient nations and the torments that have overcome them223.
The Prophet (S) has said, “The perishing things are obeyed stinginess, followed fancy and self-deceit224.”
“The dirham and the dinar (greediness for wealth) have perished the nations before you and they will perish you too225.”
Ameerul Mo’mineen (as) has said, “He, who sticks obstinately to his own opinion, will perish226.”
“He, who does not know himself, will perish227.”
Imam as-Sadiq (as) has said, “Allah perishes six for six; the rulers for injustice, the Arabs for fanaticism, the wealthy for pride, the merchants for treason, the common people for ignorance and the scholars for envy228.”
Pride and haughtiness
Pride is a bad psychological state and it is one of the Satan’s aspects which leads one to stand against Allah, resist His orders, behave as superior toother people, make little of the other’s right and scorn the others.
Being pride before Allah is the thing that has prevented the Satan from prostrating himself before Adam and therefore he deserved the eternal curse and was driven out of the sanctum of the angels to be under the eternal torment on the day of resurrection.
A proud one, whether his pride is before Allah, the Prophets, the Qur’an, the infallible Imams or the other people, just imitates the Satan and so he will be cursed and driven away from the mercy of Allah.
As Iblis has been lowered from his exalted rank because of his pride as the Qur’an has stated, a proud man also is lowered from the human rank and Adamic position to the lowest of the low.
The Qur’an announces that the proud deserve a painful punishment on the day of resurrection; “And as for those, who disdain and are proud, He will chastise them with a painful chastisement and they shall not find for themselves besides Allah a guardian or a helper.” Qur'an, 4:173
The Qur’an sees also that the proud are out of the sanctum of the love, mercy and care of Allah and this group of people are disliked and hated by Allah the Almighty; “Surely He does not love the proud.” Qur'an, 16:23
On the day of resurrection the proud will be ordered to enter into hell with meanness, insult and severe blame; “Enter the gates of hell to abide therein, evil then is the abode of the proud.” Qur'an, 40:76
The Prophet (S) has said, “Avoid pride because one is still being proud until Allah will say: write the name of this slave of Mine among the tyrants229!”
Imam Ali (as) has said, “Beware of pride because it is the greatest of sins, the meanest of defects and it is the ornament of Iblis230!”
He has also said, “I wonder at the son of Adam! His beginning is a sperm, his end is carrion and he grows between the two; he is a container of excrement and then he becomes proud231!”
The Prophet (S) addresses the all by saying, “Beware of pride for pride has made Iblis not prostrate himself before Adam!”
138. Mubahala is mutual imprecation.
139. At-Targheeb, vol.3 p.596.
140. Biharul Anwar, vol. 78 p.64.
141. Al-Mahajja al-Baydha”, vol.5 p.243.
142. Sharh Nahjol Balagha, vol. 6 p.357.
143. Biharul Anwar, vol. 72 p.236.
144. Tanbeeh al-Khawatir, p.92.
145. Biharul Anwar, vol. 75 p.194.
147. Tafsir al-Mo’een, p.351.
148. Biharul Anwar, vol. 77 p.89.
149. Tafsir al-Mo’een, p.102.
150. Wassa’il ash-Shia, vol. 8 p.606.
151. Kanzol Ummal, 8328.
152. Tanbeeh al-Khawatir, 25.
153. Ibid., 362.
154. Biharul Anwar, vol. 77 p.67.
155. Ibid., vol.104 p.209.
156. Wassa’il ash-Shia, vol. 11 p.164.
157. Ibid., p.198.
158. Nahjol Balagha, ma xi m no.128.
159. Biharul Anwar, vol. 77 p.82.
160. Kanzol Ummal, 8862.
161. Biharul Anwar, vol. 75 p.311.
162. Al-Kafi, vol. 2 p.232.
163. Biharul Anwar, vol. 75 p.312.
164. Nahjol Balagha, ma xi m no.19.
165. At-Tergheeb, vol.3 p.450.
166. Tuhaf al-Uqool, 18.
167. Tafsir al-Mo’een, 67.
168. Al-Kafi, vol. 2 p.110.
169. Biharul Anwar, vol. 73 p.266.
170. Ghurarul Hikam, chap. R-letter.
177. Biharul Anwar, vol. 73 p.300.
178. Ibid. p.306.
179. Ibid.,69 p.16.
180. Ibid. p.292.
181. Kanzol Ummal, 9720.
183. Ibid., 9739.
184. Tafsir al-Mo’een, 83.
185. Biharul Anwar, vol. 77 p.190.
186. Tanbeeh al-Khawatir, 362.
187. Biharul Anwar, vol. 73 p.105.
188. Biharul Anwar, vol. 75 p.172.
189. Ibid., 77 p.89.
190. Ibid., 103 p.175.
191. Ibid., 75 p.170.
192. Mustadrak Al-Wassa’il, vol.2 p.505.
193. Tafsir al-Mo’een, 96.
194. Biharul Anwar, vol. 75 p.172.
195. Biharul Anwar, vol. 79 p.127.
196. Tafsir al-Mo’een, p.123.
197. Kanzol Ummal, 13182.
198. Biharul Anwar, vol. 79 p.126.
199. Ibid. p.129.
200. Biharul Anwar, vol. 79 p.133.
201. Ibid. vol. 75 p.163.
202. Ibid., p.148.
203. Kanzol Ummal, 2120.
204. Biharul Anwar, vol. 60 p.9.
205. Tuhaf al-Uqool, 23.
206. Tanbeeh al-Khawatir, p.456.
207. Biharul Anwar, vol. 78 p.377.
208. Tafsir al-Mo’een, p.146.
209. That does not fit his level of living or his rank.
210. Biharul Anwar, vol. 72 p.206.
211. Ibid., vol. 71 p.346.
212. Ibid., 78 p.327.
213. Tafsir al-Mo’een, p.374.
214. Men La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqeeh, vol.3 p.173.
215. Kanzol Ummal, 9501.
216. Ghurarul Hikam.
217. Nahjol Balagha, chap.26.
218. Wassa’il ash-Shia, vol. 12 p.423.
219. Biharul Anwar, vol. 71 p.364.
220. Mahram is a woman that one cannot marry be cause she is either his mother, daughter, sister, niece, aunt, grandmother or granddaughter.
221. Biharul Anwar, vol. 103 p.117.
222. Tafsir al-Mo’een, p.408.
223. Refer to the Qur’an, 3:117, 10:13, 21:9, 21:6, 17:16, 69:5, 6:131, 44:37.
224. Biharul Anwar, vol. 77 p.52.
225. Mishkat al-Anwar, 1265.
226. Nahjol Balagha, maxim no.161.
227. Ghurarul Hikam.
228. Biharul Anwar, vol. 78 p.207.
229. Kanzol Ummal, 7729.
230. Tafsir al-Mo’een, 168.
231. Biharul Anwar, vol. 73 p.234.