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A comparative study of practical conduct components in the words of Imam Ali and Allameh Hafezian

Zahra Shoushtari
Tehran University,
Tehran, Iran

The practical manner of infallibles (PBUH) and the mystics who have resorted to the honorable Imams manners indicate that the true Islamic mysticism is derived from the teachings of Islam. The Practical manner of the true mystics, particularly those whose practical conduct and greatness are observed in the contemporary period, explain the above fact. Allameh Hafezian is one of the respectable mystics whose manner is a main instance of religious conduct. The devotion of Allameh Hafezian to Imam Ali (PBUH) is proved. Among the precious words of Imam Ali (PBUH), the emphasis has been mostly put on the practical conduct. This issue, has been referred to in the sermon 87 of Nahjul Balagha. In this sermon, features of "Ebadullah " and their practical conducts are stated. The features that are described for Ebadullah by Imam Ali (PBUH) are well reflected in the practical conduct of Allameh Hafezian. A comparative study of the memories and life of this great professor with the sermon "best beloved servants of God " shows that Allameh is a clear example of those who follow the Qur'an and act according to it and regard the Quran as the first principle of their practical conduct. Overcoming passion, achieving the highest levels of trust and certainty in practical manner of Hafezian, represent the supreme position of him in the mystic conduct. The greatness of this admirable professor, being stated by many people, indicates that he was one of the Aulia Allah or as expressed by Imam Ali, he was one of the otad al Arz of his time. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the practical conduct components of Allameh Hafezian by reflecting on the Sermon 87 of Nahjul Balagha.

Key words: Imam Ali (PBUH), mysticism, practical conduct, Nahjul Balagha, nearness, Allameh Hafezian

Islamic mysticism has observed many ups and downs in its history. Although, there exists different ideas and sources of mystics in different periods, reflecting on the practical conduct of Auliya Allah , and especially the contemporaries whose conducts have been fully perceived, can be effective in the reviewing of practical conduct delicacies. Late Allameh Hafezian is among those considered to be real mystics. Investigation of his practical conduct provides effective strategies for those who embark on Tariqa. The main highlights of the practical conduct of this great man is that the foundation of his path (Tariqa) was based on law (Sharia) and there is no distinction between law and Tariga in his conduct. His devotion to Imam Ali reflects this fact. In other words, many of the features in the Word of the Emir (Imam Ali) about the servants of God are clearly reflected in Allameh Hafezians practical manner. In sermon, "87" Imam Ali describes features of Gods devoted servants. This sermon actually has five parts: In the beginning Imam describes the characteristics of true scholars. Those who could create piety and avoid their lust with the assistance of God, and in the shadow of this guidance built their souls.
In the second part: he describes the opposite of the first group and introduces those who acquired others foolishness and have added their internal affairs and tried to mislead others.
In the third part: to complete the last section, advises people to follow the select progeny of the profit (Itrat) and family (Ahlul Bait) who are clear sources of Islamic knowledge, and asks them why they pay attention to ignorant arrogant people while having these treasures?
In the fourth part he refers to some of the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH) and some critical points about the Ahlul Bait and introduces himself then mentions the "Hadith Thaqalayn " as evidence which is so popular among all Muslims.
Finally, in the last part: -the fifth section-, he states the illusions and false beliefs of some people who thought the power would be always in the hands of Umayyad and promises firmly that their reigns would decline.
At the beginning of the sermon, Imam Ali describes the attributes of Aulia Allah, the righteous and seekers of God in the best way. In such a way that "Ibn Abi Hadid" in his "Description of the Nahjul Balagha says: "People of Tariga and the Truth (Haqiqa), have acquired knowledge from this sermon of Imam because he has described the manner of a true mystic. (Description of the Nahjul Balagha, Ibn al-Hadid).
What was considered in the comparative study of Imam Ali and the practical manner of the late Allameh Hafezian was the part... of the sermon. Therefore, the main concern of the author was to answer to the following questions:
- Are there any similarities between the practical manner of professor Hafezian and the theology of Imam Ali?
- Is it possible to apply practically the features that Imam Ali describes for the most beloved servants of God in sermon 87 of Nahjul Balagha to the manner of Professor Hafezian?
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the practical manner of Allameh Hafezian by relying on the theology of Imam Ali (PBUH) based on the sermon "87".

The devotion of Allameh Hafezian to Imam Ali (PBUH)
As it is suggested from the memories, sayings, poems and real greatness of Allameh Hafezian, he showed a special devotion to the Holy Prophet PBUH and infallible Imams (PBUT). One of his valuable works is the Preserved Tablet which is about the most obvious example of the perfect man, the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him and his progeny. Professor Hafezian "R.A " in his work believes that the Preserved Tablet is the blessed chest of the Holy prophet in which all the secrets of the universe are reserved. All contents of this tablet praise the Holy Prophet of Islam (PBUH). (Nasiri Savadkohi, 189: 2011).
What is realized from the quoted memories of Allameh, is his great devotion to Imam Ali "PBUH". It seems that Ali "PBUH" showed a special grace to him; a story that his older daughter narrated explains this fact. She narrates that when Allameh was young and before migrating to India, he worked at a shelter a in the mountains of Khalaj Mashhad (which are located near Mashhad), suddenly, he saw that Imam Ali "PBUH" arrived and took Allemehs right index finger and pressed it, then said you are going to serve my Shiites a lot. It was a strange prophecy, because his service to Islam and Shi'ism, especially in India and Pakistan is obvious. His index finger had also strange effects, especially for the treatment of diseases and a lot of criticisms have been addressed in this case (Hakimi, 2011: 43). This honor indicated a close significant relationship with Imam Ali. In his prayers and words remained from him, a special attention has been paid to the theology of Imam Ali.

Practical conduct of Allameh Hafezian
On the practical conducts levels and its foundations a Hadith is quoted from the Prophet -peace be upon him and his progeny-: ی ی ی ی ی (Sajjadi, 2008: 13). According to this Hadith, mystics believe that the law of Sharia is the foundation for the practical conduct and truth. Thus, the law of Sharia is based on practical mysticism. Practical mysticism refers to the rituals and practices of self-purification and originate from Islamic sources, the ideas of Auliya Allah (PBUT), Tariqa scholars and men of knowledge so that, knowledge seekers could use it to attain the truth. The results of practical mysticism are the spiritual transformation of human, self-purification and sanctity (Dahbashi and Mirbagheri Fard, 2013: 21 and 22).
What is important in the spiritual journey of professor Hafezian, is that his conduct was absolutely based on Sharia. He was a man of obedience, vigil, and ultimately submitted to law. His spiritual journey was composed of piety, obedience, practice of Islamic law and finally serving the people.
One of the advantages of Allamehs life is his scientific and practical knowledge of mysticism which is mixed with the Quran and Ahlul Bayt (PBUT); revelation of Almighty God, being the Quran, is the source of the mysticism, and all the divine mystics and great Shia scholars believe that the words of mystics about scientific and practical mysticism are derived from the Qur'an. Allameh Hafezian (R.A) was a pioneer in the practical mysticism and an unparalleled person in worshipping, devotion, ignoring the forbidden acts (Ataei Khorasani, 109: 2011).
As it is evident from Allameh Hafezians acts, his conduct was based on the law of Sharia. Imam Ali (PBUH) in the sermon "beloved servants of God " has referred to this fact: ی ی ی ی . Imam Ali (PBUH) in this part of the Sermon points out that the most beloved servant of God is the one who has relied on the Quran and sharia; The Quran is his leader. Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi, in the interpretation of this part of the sermon, explains the need for both scientific and practical aspects of conduct and believes that getting assistance from the guidance of infallibles and rescuing by calling them are some features of pure servants of God ی ی ی ....
So in explaining the history and biographies of great mystics, a special attention should be paid to this fact to assure that the trajectory of this mystics was Quran and Itrat. Although some researchers have tried to search for Islamic mysticism somewhere out of Islams structure. So we can state that Allameh Hafezian has reached these blessings through faith and piety. Therefore, this divine journey should not be confused with non-divine journeys. It must be said that the late Mr. Hafezian (RA) strongly opposed some of these minor and non-religious mysticisms (Hakimi, 45: 2011).
It is clear and Im sure
It is my religion and my faith,
That anything except but the fourteen infallibles,
Is a poisoning sherbet
Written by Allameh Hafezian
Components of practical conduct based on the sermon "beloved servants of God"
The practical circumstances of Allameh suggests that special attention should be paid to the components of practical conduct such as overcoming the evil passion, devotion, piety, trust, belief and love.
In the following, further evaluation and implementation of this component will be discussed according to the sermon 87 of Nahjul Balagha:
- overcoming the evil passion of the self
One of the characteristics of "beloved servants of Allah" according to Imam Ali is to overcome the sermon to refer people to overcome the evil passion of the self: ! ی ی (Nahjul Balagha, sermon 87).
Professor Hafezian, also, put much emphasis on austerity to deal with the evil passion of the self. The austerity is of two types: (1) the evil austerity, (2) the divine austerity. Evil austerity is the one that the person overcomes his passions only for himself and not for God, but the divine austerity is the one that the person overcomes his passions only for the sake of God. Whatever the divine self does is for the sake of God (Hakimi, 39: 2011).
This famous mystic using Quranic verses and familiarity with Ahlul Bait tried seriously to purify his soul; the purification and refinement of the self for him was a significant priority (Ataei Khorasani, 2011: 109).
Hojatoleslam Mousavi Motlaq speaks about Allamehs struggle with his soul: it is your servitude that makes you to Pray to Qibla instead of idols, in this place which is abundant with idols India. Late Hafezian had destroyed the idol of his evil passion from inside "(from oral statements of Hojatoleslam Mousavi Motlaq).

The Prophet (PBUH) stated: Allah said: devotion is a secret of my secrets, I put it in the heart of my servant because I love him. (Qushayri, 2011: 323). Abubakar Daqaq said: lack of devoted, depends on the religious devotion, because if God Almighty wants to make the devotee more devoted, will make him an infallible devotee (Mokhlas) rather than the one who strives for being a devoted (Mokhles)person(Qushayri, 2011: 324). In the field of devotion, God's special and elected servants are of two kinds: First "as Mokhlesin" those who achieve the devotion in intention, speech and behavior through austerity and effort. This sermon and some of the signs of the Quran reflect on this matter: ی ی. Supplicating Allah, devoted to Him in religion (Yunus: 22).
The second kind is the position of Mokhlasin which is more precious than the first one. God bestows it to His servant after he fought with his passion and achieved sincerity in thought and speech and behavior; God gives it to chosen servant, and grants him with a spiritual perfection. The phrase, " and some verses of the Quran refer to this high position. Such as: ی" (Safat: 40). (Mesbah Yazdi, 2008: 5)

Remembrance is one of the issues that have been emphasized on a lot, and according to the noble verse of the Quran, it is believed to be a mean to achieve rejoice and satisfaction: * И * (Ar-Rad:28). This fact is also emphasized on, in the sermon: ʘ. This part of the sermon, refers to the continuation of Gods remembrance which is one of the attributes of is devoted servants and mystics.
Ayatollah Haj Sheikh Abdolqaem Shoshtari expresses Allame Hafezians treatment with students and states his orders concerning the remembrance of God: Allama Hafezian (RA) had his own categorization to make students remember God:
1. He prescribed verbal remembrance for beginners.
2. For the intermediates, he prescribed verbal and spiritual remembrance.
3. For progressive seekers, he prescribed verbal, spiritual and functional remembrance.
4. For the advance, he prescribed verbal, spiritual, functional and heart remembrance. (Mousavi Motlaq, 74: 2010), yet, Allameh was interested in secretly held remembrance.
One day I asked my dear master about what he meant by the heart remembrance? It cant be spoken of or be written about he Said (Mousavi Motlaq, 160: 2011).
Heart remembrance makes the heart always remember God because by endurance, human loses its color and takes the color of his God. (Shushtari, 210: 2005)

Trust is one of the mystical positions and mystics cite some verses from the Quran about it:* ی ی ی ی * (Forqan: 58) . The word trust means to rely on someone and idiomatically here it means to trust in God and His will and to give up on human and their (Qushayri, 1995: 254). Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi discussing sermon 87 of Imam Ali, states that the first part of the sermon, " ی " refers to the position of trust: stepping in the path is impossible - except by Gods assistance -except that the servant trusts in God and entrust himself to him so that he/she can get help from His grace and power. Because the risks are so high that a human cannot pass this way properly, with his/her limited power "(Shirazi, 2000: 543).
Gabriel came to the Prophet (PBUH) and said: O Messenger, Allah Almighty have a gift for you that He has not given it to any soul before.
Prophet asked: What is the gift? Patience he said.
There is something better than patience, what is it? I asked. Contentment, he replied.
There is something better than that, what is it? I asked. Satisfaction, he replied.
There is something better than that, what is it? I asked. Piety, he replied.
There is something better than that, what is it? I asked. Devotion, he replied.
There is something better than that, what is it? I asked. Certainty, he replied.
There is of course something better than that. What is it? I asked. To achieve all these one must trust in God, he replied. O Gabriel, what is the interpretation of "trust" in God? I asked. To know that Gods creations are of no benefit or hurt, dont give anything or prevent it, one must give up on them. When the servant came to this degree, he/she does not work for other than Allah, and his/her heart doesnt go astray, and is not afraid of anyone except for Him, does not love anyone except for Him, this is the meaning of trust, he replied (Ghaffari, 2005: 172).
78 years of Allamehs blessed and dignified life is the indication of honesty, morality, piety and trust. (Recalling of the wise ...). As Allamehs daughter states in the beginning of the book secrets of Hafez: his first lesson was to trust in Allah's essence.
In front of the king of love and life
Read a chapter from the Holy book
Or stop trusting in others
Then whatever you want is yours
Written by Allameh Hafezian

In sermon 87, Imam Ali refers to certainty as one of the most popular features of Gods special servants: یی ی . To achieve this position has different stages which are referred to as "the knowledge of certainty" "certainty of the sight" and "certainty of the truth " in Quran. The last stage is the "certainty of the Truth" that is the perfect intuition in which the human being sees the hidden world as bright as sun (Makarem Shirazi, 2000: 549).
Certainty is the origin of all circumstances and everything is leading up to it. All states have certainty in appearance, but the True certainty is the soul of all states. (Dabashi and Mirbagheri, 2013: 276). Sahl states: certainty is resulted from the abundance of faith and of its searching at the heart (Qushayri, 1995: 276). When the Seeker achieved sight and started seeing the truth with his heart and the light of Truth shined in his heart and his mortal self, left him for the everlasting Truth, and was released from the belonging, and abandoned all determinations, then would achieve certainly. Certainty removes the dark veils and reaches the basis of religion. (Khorasani Ataei, 2011: 111).
Allameh Hafezian who went to Qazvin to meet Ayatollah Mojtaba Qazvini, referred to this fact in a verse, and pointed out that the certainty requires the will of God; as is his arrival to that City:
Get mad in this path
Pay no attention to any one
God wanted you to be so
You want it, and God gives you His blessing
God makes you to go to Qazvin
God makes you to go to the mountain of certainty
Written by Allameh Hafezian
The Guardianship authority of Professor Hafezian
Pegs of the ground
In terms of mystics, Aulia Allah are God's elect public servants whose authority is believe to be superior to other believers. There has been stated different hierarchies for Aulia Allah in mystical texts. In this context, mystics often cite the hadith of the Prophet (PBUH): . ɡ ..
(Abo naeim Esfahani Beata, Vol. 1: 9; Meybodi, 1992, vol. 2: 562; Nasaf, 2007: 79, 80).
Based on this Hadith, Gods chosen servants are of six classes. The number of each class is also fixed: Group I: three hundred, the second group: forty, Group III: Seven, Group IV: five, group V: three, the final group: one.
However, in this hadith, the name of each classs members are not statute, but mystics have considered a name for each class. Hajviri, based on this hadith, has described the properties of Aulia allah and their characteristics. He said the Aulia Allah fall into two categories: the first group is hidden from the sight of others and themselves. This group not only do not know each other but also are unaware of their own circumstances. The number of this group is four thousand ones. The second group are those who know each other and need each others permission in doing their tasks. Haiviri presents a more accurate categorization: but the members of Gods righteous soldiers is three hundred and are called Akhyar, the other forty are Abdal, seven others who are expressed as Abrar reading, four others are Otads, three others are called Naqibs , and one other called Qotb and Qous (Hajviri, 2007: 321). According to Hajviri, the second category includes: 1 Akhyar, 2 Abdal, 3 Abrar, 4 Otad, 5 Naqib, 6-Qotb (Qaus).
This naming is also stated in other mystical texts. In the interpretation of the Kashf al-Asrar, Meybodi refers to the above Hadith and introduces the selected servants in six categories. From his perspective, there are three hundred Aulia, forty Abdals, seven Otads, five guardians Naghibs- , three sovereign Mokhtar- and one Qaus. He believes that when Ghaus dies, one from the sovereign (Mokhtars) becomes the Qaus, and when a sovereign dies, one of the guardians takes his place, the same is true for other categories. When one the Aulia Allah dies, a true person from the category of common people becomes aulia Allah (Meybodi, 1992, vol. 2: 562).
The title Vali is attributed to someone who is capable of knowing the truth, and the light and glory of God is reflected in them. These people are known by God and God is known by these people. But in the subjective sense it is referred to someone who achieves self-purification and becomes familiar with God; such person tries to obey the Truth. In the objective sense it is referred to someone who has achieved the nearness of God, and God put him in the halo of His blessings. (Dabashi and Mirbagheri Fard, 2013: 230).

Dignities of Allameh Hafezian
One of the features of Aulia Allah the dignity. Dignity is a sign of the people of supervision or leaders. Dignity is an extraordinary task done by the leader but with the permission of God. Although dignity is done by non-prophets and by the permission of God is similar to miracle, it is different from miracle because the intention of miracle is challenging of others. But dignity is a gift from God bestowed onto the Aulia Allah (Dabashi and Mirbagheri Fard, 2013: 232).
According to a Qudsi hadith: ی ی ی ی ی.
O servant obey me so that I make you look like me, when I say unto a thing: Be! then it is, so be it, then when you say unto a thing be so it is.
God says in the Holy Quran: * ی ی ی* but His command, when He intendeth a thing, is only that He saith unto it: Be! And it is. The purpose of Gods will doesnt mean God Himself. God's purpose is His manifestation in Aulia Allah, or the prophet of God. The word is added to the statement. And is possessive (the oral statements of Shoshtari).
One of the dignities of Allameh was proven when I heard an old man told my Uncle: sir! Now that you prayed, this sick person will be healed? And he said, No! I only pray and God heals, we cant heal. (Hafezian, 2011: 49).
Allameh Seyed Abol Hasan Hafezians (R.A) dignity has been seen and proven for anyone. He was a mystic and could solve many problems and his prayer was heard by God. Mohammad Hakimi says: he himself told me: my devotion is effective in disease. He humbly Nevers said my will, he always called it devotion. This means that if a patient with incurable disease came to him, he would heal him by prayers. (Hakimi, 2011: 31).
Professor Abol Gaem Shoshtari states: "During my company with this great Allameh, he never claimed any authority." Emphatically he pointed out that his moral character is pure and genuine dignity. That even a Hindu ascetic is able to heal the bite a snake.
One night I was his guest, I said its been said that in India you used to walk on Indus River, is it right?
I knew a kind of swimming by which I can swam while sanding and an ascetic next to the river who was engaged in austerity, came and asked me whether you like to conquer water. I said no. I know a kind swimming. Ascetic said that you actually did an extraordinary work and now you are so humble about it. He said.
One day I was at the shrine of Imam Reza (PBUH), I said to Imam Reza. I took pity that I didnt live in your presence, if I were, I would serve you and your guests. I was inspired to go to Mr. Hafezian. I went directly from the shrine to the home of Mr. Hafezian. As I sat, he said go to the adjacent room bring two boxes. When I did, he said take the scissors and open the box. I did. He took two precious jewelries out of the box. He said these should soon be installed in the shrine of Imam Reza (PBUH) and you're the first person that is aware of the presence of these two jewelries, and you are the first person who prepares them. You were in the shrine and spoke with Imam Reza, he noticed you and granted task on you. I wondered how Allame knew that.
New shrine of Imam Reza (PBUH) was built and was to be installed in its place on the due date. Enshrine was put in its place. The architecture who was in charge of installing the enshrine, read a poem spontaneously addressed to Mr. Hafezian when installed all the bottom marbles of the shrine. While, he was not a poet and it was the first and last poem he cited during his lifetime.
Ordered an enshrine of gold and silver
For a Shah who is like sun
Everyone who kisses the shrine will say
Thanks to Hafezians efforts
Perhaps this poem is an endorsement from Samen Hujaj (Hmam Reza) for Hafezians pure act.

Investigation of practical manner and memories left from the late Professor Hafezian indicates many similarities in his practical conduct and theology of infallible Imam Ali. His devotion to the Imams and Imam Ali PBUH indicates this. It is a comparative study of the sermon "beloved servants of God" of Nahjul Balagha in which the features and conducts of Gods beloved servants are mentioned. The comparative study of the sermon "best beloved servants of God" of Nahjul Balagha that states the characteristics and conducts of the most beloved servants of God, has shown that Allameh Hafezian is one of the clear examples of Gods chosen servants who have relied on the orders of religion and taken the way of faith. Indeed, there is no separation and contradiction between his practical conduct and Mostafavi Sharia. So his conduct is a religious conduct (based on Sharia). In this regard, he had overcome his ego by doing prayers and achieved a heartfelt sincerity; he had perceived the highest level of trust and certainly called Haq al Yaqin (reality of certainty). His sincere trust which was the result of his lingual and heartfelt prayers confirms this fact. In addition, the greatness of Allameh represents his Velayat authority. Healing the sick and having the responsibility of people are some of the features that indicate his greatness. However, his humility never allowed him to claim any authority during his dignified life.
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