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A Critical Assessment of Umm Kulthums Marriage to Umar

By: Sayyid Ali al-Husayni al-Milani
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate the Merciful
All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Master, Muhammad, and his pure family, and may the curse of Allah be upon all of their enemies.
Since the early Islamic centuries as of now, many inquiries and investigations have been made and answers given concerning the following narration: The Commander of Faithful, Ali (a.s.) married his daughter to Umar b. Khattab.
As well, books, treatises and articles have been written in this regard. For instance, Sheikh Mufid, may Allah be pleased with him, has authored two well-researched treatises in this regard, of which one has been presented in the book titled Ajwebat Al-Masail Al-Sarawiyah in reply to the tenth question and the other has been presented in Ajwebat Al-Masail Al-Hajibiyah in reply to the fifteenth question.
The present book is the result of research concerning this incident. In this study, first of all, the original narration has been cited from the most famous Sunni books whereupon their chains of transmission as well as their significations have been examined and criticized.
This study aims to examine the story, unveil and clarify the truth and finally put a stop to controversies and disputes in this regard.
And Allah is Felicitous and He is the Helper.

Section 1: The Narrators and Their Narrations
One of the narrations widely known among Sunni Muslims is the narration to which they have made recourse in order to argue that the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) married out his daughter, Umm Kulthum, to Umar. They have transmitted this narration in their sources and we will cite it from their most famous booksOne of the narrations widely known among Sunni Muslims is the narration to which they have made recourse in order to argue that the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) married out his daughter, Umm Kulthum, to Umar. They have transmitted this narration in their sources and we will cite it from their most famous books

1. Ibn Saads Narrations in Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra
As far as we know, the earliest narrator who has passed on this tradition is Muhammad bin Saad b. Mani Zuhri (d. 230 A.H), the author of Al- Tabaqat Al-Kubra. He has included several narrations in his book on this subject which are as follows.

The first narration
Umm Kulthum was the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Her mother was Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (S)1 and Khadijah bint Khuwailid ibn Asad ibn Abdul Uzza ibn Qusai. She was a young girl when Umar married her. The fruit of this marriage was a son called Zaid and a daughter called Ruqayyah. Umm Kulthum remained Umars wife until he was killed.
After Umar, Awn ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib married her

)2, but Awn too died and thereupon, Awns brother, Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib became her husband. He too, passed away.
Then his brother, Abdullah ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib married Umm Kulthum after the death of her sister, Zainab, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.). Umm Kulthum made reference to it saying: I feel embarrassed towards Asma bint Umais whose two sons died when they were in my company, and I am worried about the third one! Umm Kulthum died in Abdullah ibn Jafars house and did not bear a child with anyone of them!

The second narration
Umar ibn Al-Khattab asked Ali ibn Abi Talib for the hand of Umm Kulthum in marriage. Ali said: I have kept my daughters for the sons of Jafar.
Umar said: Marry her to me, O Abul Hasan, for by Allah, there is no man on the face of the earth who seeks to achieve through her good companionship that which I seek to achieve.
Ali said: I have done so.
Then Umar came to the Muhajirun (lit. migrants) between the grave (of Rasul-Allah) and the pulpit. They Ali, Uthman, Zubayr, Talhah and Abd ar-Rahman used to sit there, and whenever a matter used to arrive from the frontiers, Umar would come to them there and consult with them. He came to them and said: Congratulate me.
They congratulated him, and asked: With whom are we congratulating you, O Amirul Mumeneen?
He replied: With the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib.3
Then he told them the story and said that he had heard the Prophet (S) say:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.4
I was a companion of the Prophet and I also loved this relationship to be maintained.

The third narration
Waki ibn Jarrah narrates from Husham ibn Saad, he from Ataa Khurasani that he said: Umar paid forty thousand [dirhams] as dowry [marriage gift] to Umm Kulthum!

The fourth narration
Muhammad ibn Umar Waqidi and others have said, Umar asked Ali for the hand of his daughter, Umm Kulthum, in marriage. Ali replied that she had not yet attained the age (of puberty).
Umar replied: By Allah, this is not true. You do not want her to marry me. If she is underage, send her to me.
Thus, Ali called Umm Kulthum, they prepared her and made her up. Then he asked for a piece of cloth which he folded and handed over to Umm Kulthum telling her to take the garment to Amirul Mumeneen and tell him: My father has sent me to you instructing me to convey you his greetings and said that if you liked the garment, take it or else, return it!
When Umm Kulthum went to Umar, the latter said: May Allah bless you and your father, I like it.
Umm Kulthum returned to his father and said: He did not unfold the garment, but just looked at me!
Then Ali married her to Umar and she bore him a child named Zaid.

The fifth narration
Wakii ibn Jarrah narrates from Ismail ibn Abi Khalid, he from Aamir Shabi that both Zaid ibn Umar and Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali, died. Ibn Umar offered funeral prayer consisting of four takbirs (Allahu Akbar). He placed Zaid on the side he had stood and Umm Kulthum in the direction of Qiblah and prayed on both of them.

The sixth narration
Ubaidullah ibn Musa says, Israil narrates from Abi Hasin, he from Aamir who said, Ibn Umar offered a funeral prayer on Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali, and her son. He placed Zaid on his side and prayed on those two.
Wakii has reported a similar account from Zaid ibn Habib, from Shaabi and added: During the (funeral) prayer, Hasan and Husain, the sons of Ali, Muhammad ibn Hanafiyah, Abdullah ibn Abbas and Abdullah ibn Jafar stood praying behind ibn Umar.

The seventh narration
Ubaidullah ibn Musa and Israil have narrated from Jabir, he from Aamir Shabi that he said: During the prayer on the corpse of Zaid ibn Umar ibn Khattab, Abdullah ibn Umar led the prayer while Hasan and Husain prayed behind him. Had he known that it was good to say more takbir (Allahu Akbar), he would have said it.

The eighth narration
Ubaidullah ibn Musa narrates from Israil, from Suddi, from Abdullah ibn Baha that he said, I saw Ibn Umar pray on Umm Kulthum and Zaid ibn Umar ibn Khattab and that he placed Zaid on the side where the Imam (the prayer leader) was standing while Hasan and Husain were witnessing the prayer.

The ninth narration
Wakiibn Jarrah, from Hammad ibn Salamah, narrates that Ammar ibn Abi Ammar (Mawla5 of Bani Hashim) said, I was present on the day on which Saeid ibn Aas, who was then the governor of Medina, prayed on those two with eighty people from the companions of Prophet Muhammad (S) following him in prayer.

The tenth narration
Jafar ibn Awn narrates from ibn Jurayh that Nafi said, The bodies of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib and wife of Umar ibn Khattab and her son Zaid were brought in for funeral prayer. On that day Saeid ibn Aas was the prayer leader.

The eleventh narration
Abdullah ibn Numair narrates from Ismail, he from Ibn Abi Khalid who narrates from Aamir that, Ibn Umar offered prayers on the dead bodies of his brother Zaid and that of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali. The corpses of those two were in one casket and Zaids body was on the side close to the prayer leader.6

2. Dulabis Narrations in Al-Durriyat Al-Tahira
Another scholar who has reported and recorded narrations in this regard is Abu Bushr Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Dulabi (d. 310 A.H). In his Al- Durriyat Al-Tahira, he has reported several narrations regarding Umm Kulthum bint Fatima, daughter of the Holy Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his descendants.

The first narration
Al-Dulabi says, I heard Ahmad ibn Abdul Jabbar saying: I heard Yunus ibn Bukair say that he had heard from Ibn Ishaq that Fatima, the daughter of the Holy Prophet (S), gave birth to three sons named Hasan, Husain and Mohsin. The latter died at a young age. She also gave birth to two daughters named Umm Kulthum and Zainab.

The second narration
Ibn Ishaq says, Aasim ibn Umar ibn Qatadah narrated to me as such: Umar asked Ali for the hand of his daughter, Umm Kulthum in marriage and Ali replied that she had not yet attained the age (of maturity).
Umar replied, By Allah, this is not true7 You do not want her to marry me. If she is underage, send her to me.
Thus, Ali gave his daughter Umm Kulthum a dress and asked her to go to Umar and tell him that her father wanted to know what this dress was for. When she came to Umar and gave him the message, he grabbed her hand and forcibly pulled her towards himself. Umm Kulthum asked him to leave her hand, which Umar did and said, You are a very mannered lady with great morals8 Go and tell your father that you are very pretty and you are not what he said of you!
With that Ali married Umm Kulthum to Umar.

The third narration
Ahmad ibn Abdul Jabbar narrates from Yunus ibn Bukair, from Khalid ibn Saleh, from Waqid ibn Abdullah ibn Umar, from some of his relatives that Umar ibn Khattab Umar ibn Khattab asked Ali for the hand of his daughter, Umm Kalthum bint Fatima (daughter of the Holy Prophet (S)) in marriage.
Ali said to him, She has other guardians also, wait until I get their permission. Then Ali (a.s.) went to Fatimas sons and informed them about Umars proposal whereupon they said, Marry her to him.
Ali called Umm Kulthum, who was then a young girl then, and said to her, Go to the Commander of the Faithful, and tell him: My father sends you his regards and says that he has fulfilled your wish.
Upon reaching Umars house, Umm Kulthum conveyed him her fathers message whereupon Umar grabbed her and held her to his bosom
and said, I sought Umm Kulthums hand in marriage and her father married her to me.
They said to Umar, What do you mean? She is a little girl?!
Umar said, "Do not disparage me [for marrying a young girl], for I heard the Prophet say, upon him be blessings and peace:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my means and lineage.
I desired to place myself in the Prophet's lineage through this marriage.

The fourth narration
Abdul Rahman ibn Khalid ibn Muni says, Habib, the writer of Malik ibn Anass book, narrates from Abdul Aziz Darawerdi, from Zaid ibn Aslam, from his father, who was the freed slave of Umar ibn Khattab, saying, Umar asked Ali for Umm Kulthums hand in marriage whereupon Ali discussed the matter with Abbas, Aqil and Hasan. Aqil was annoyed telling Ali, The lapse of days and months will only add to your lack of insight and astuteness in your work. By Allah, if you do this, such and such will happen.
Ali told Abbas, By Allah, he is not talking wishfully, but the whip of Umar has impelled him to say what you are hearing.9
Therefore, Hazrat Amir (a.s.) did not declare his acceptance to this marriage to be out of good will.
Of course the surprising part is in the rest of the above narration, where we are seeing that the opinion of Amirul Muuminin Ali (a.s.) changed at once; and that too was not because of the threats from Umar, but because of the urge of Umar to form a relationship with the Messenger of Allah (S)
.
Then Ali turned to Aqil and said, Oh Aqil, I swear by Allah that it is not because of my inclination to you and your opinion, but Umar ibn Khattab informed me that he heard the Messenger of Allah (S) say:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.

The fifth narration
Abdul Aziz ibn Muni has narrated from Abu Al- Darda Marwazi, from Khalid ibn Khedash; also, Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Sulaiman ibn Bilal ibn Abi Al-Darda Ansari has reported from Abu Jamahir Muhammad ibn Uthman who said, Abdullah ibn Zaid ibn Aslam, from his father, from his grandfather, narrated that Umar ibn Khattab, married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib, with a dowry of 40,000 dirhams!

The sixth narration
Abu Osama Abdullah ibn Muhammad, from Hajjaj ibn Abi Muni, from his grandfather, from Zuhri who narrates, Umar ibn Khattab married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali and his wife Fatima and they were blessed with a baby boy named Zaid.

The seventh narration
Ahmad ibn Abdul Jabbar, from Yunus ibn Bukair, from Ibn Ishaq who narrated, Umar ibn Khattab married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali and they were blessed with a baby boy named Zaid and a daughter. Umar died whilst she was alive.

The eighth narration
Abu Osamah Abdullah ibn Muhammad Halabi, from Hajjaj ibn Abi Muni, from his father, from Zuhri who narrates, After Umar ibn Khattab, Awn ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib married Umm Kulthum
and she did not bear a child from Awn, until the latter died.

The ninth narration
Ahmad ibn Abdul Jabbar, from Yunus ibn Bukair, from Ishaq, who narrates, When Umar, the husband of Umm Kulthum bint Ali, died, Awn ibn Jafar married Umm Kulthum and he also died in her lifetime without her bearing a child with him.

The tenth narration
Ibn Ishaq says, My father Ishaaq ibn Yasaar narrates from Hasan ibn Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, who said, When Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib was widowed of Umar, her brothers Hasan and Husain went to her and said, You are known as the first lady of Islam and the daughter of the best lady of the world. We swear by Allah that if you leave your decision to Ali, he will definitely marry you to one of his orphans
and if you wish to get much wealth, you will definitely get it.
I swear by Allah, no sooner they got up than Ali arrived while he was leaning on his walking stick. Praising and thanking Allah, he reminded them of their status and dignity to the Prophet of Allah (S) and said: O the children of Fatima, you are aware of your status and dignity and you know well that I have given you priority over my other children owing to your position and relationship to the Messenger of Allah (S).
They said, You are right, may Allah bless you and may He reward you on our behalf.
Ali turned to his daughter and said, My daughter, Allah has granted you the authority to handle your matter yourself, but I wish you leave that to me.
Umm Kulthum said, Dear father, I swear by Allah that I am also a woman, and I too have the aspirations and desires of all other women. I would love to enjoy the world as much as any other women do; I wish to decide for myself what I should do in this regard.
Ali said, My daughter, I swear by Allah that it is not your view but rather that of these two!
Then he stood up and said, You will either do this or you will never talk to any of these two!
Hasan and Husain grabbed their fathers dress and said, Dear father, sit down. By Allah, we cannot afford to miss you. Then they told Umm Kulthum, Leave the decision of your marriage to him.
Umm Kulthum said, I have done so.
Ali said, I will marry you to Awn ibn Jafar, who is an adolescent.
Thereupon, Ali returned to Umm Kulthum taking her four thousand dirham. Then he informed his nephew and sent her to him.
Hasan ibn Hasan says: By Allah, ever since the beginning of creation as of now, I know of no love to be like her love of Awn.0

The eleventh narration
Abu Ishaq, Ibrahim ibn Yaqub ibn Ishaq Jouzjani narrates from Yazid ibn Haroon, from Hammad ibn Salamah, from Ammar ibn Abi Ammar that he said, Both Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali, and Zaid, the son of Umar died. We shrouded those two and Saeid ibn Aas offered funeral prayer on them with Hasan, Husain and Abu Hurairah praying behind him.

The twelfth narration
Ibrahim ibn Yaqub narrates from Yazid ibn Haroon, he from Ismail ibn Abi Khalid that he said, Aamir was asked as to how the prayer on the corpses of men and women were offered to which he replied, When I arrived, I saw Abdullah ibn Umar offering funeral prayer on his brother and his mother Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib.10

3. Hakim Nishaburis Narration in Al-Mustadrak
Hakim, Abu Abdullah Nishaburi (d. 405 A.H.), has narrated only one tradition in this regard as follows: Hassan ibn Yaqub and Ibrahim ibn Ismat, both fair and just, from Sarri ibn Khuzaymah, from Mualla ibn Asad,11 from Wuhaib ibn Khalid, from Jafar ibn Muhammad [i.e. Imam Sadiq (a.s.)], from his father, from Ali ibn Hussain, who said, Umar asked Ali for the hand of Umm Kulthum in marriage and said, Marry her to me.
Ali said, I have kept my daughters for Jafars son.
Umar said, Marry her to me, for by Allah, there is no man on earth who seeks to achieve through her good companionship that which I seek to achieve!
Then Umar came to the Muhajirun and said, Dont you congratulate me?
They asked, With whom are we congratulating you, O Commander of the Faithful?
He replied, With the daughter of Ali and Fatima, daughter of the Messenger of Allah (S). I head the Messenger of Allah (S) say:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.
I desired to include myself in the Prophet's lineage through this marriage.
After reporting this narration, Hakim then says, This tradition is authentic in terms of the chain of transmission, but Bukhari and Muslim have not narrated it.12

4. Bayhaqis Narrations in Al-Sunan Al-Kubra
Abu Bakr Bayhaqi (d. 457 A.H.) has reported some narrations in this regard which are as follows.

The first narration
Abu Abdullah, Hafidh (i.e. Hakim, the author of Al-Mustadrak) from Hassan ibn Yaqub and Ibrahim ibn Ismat, reports that Sarri ibn Khuzaymah reported from Mualla ibn Asad, he from Wuhaib ibn Khalid who narrated, Jafar ibn Muhammad (i.e.Imam Sadiq (a.s.)) reported from his father, he from Ali ibn Hussain; Likewise from Abul Abbas, Muhammad ibn Yaqub, from Ahmad ibn Abdul Jabbar, from Yunus ibn Bukair, from ibn Ishaq, from Abu Jafar (i.e. Imam Baqir (a.s.)), from his father, from Ali ibn Hussain that: When Umar married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib, he came to the Muhajirun between the grave (of the Messenger of Allah) and the pulpit where the people in attendance congratulated him and wished him well.
Addressing the people, Umar said, Behold! I swear by Allah that what impelled me to marry her, was a tradition that I had heard from the Messenger of Allah (S) who said:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.
Having quoted this narration, Bayhaqi says, This is the text of Ibn Ishaqs narration, but it is, in terms of the chain of transmission, considered to be mursal13 and hasan (good). That is because it has also been narrated with a broken chain of transmission.

The second narration
Abu Husain ibn Bishran reported from Dalaj ibn Ahmad, from Musa ibn Haroon, from Sufyan, from Waki ibn Jarrah, from Rooh ibn Ubadah, from Ibn Jurayj, from Ibn Abi Malikah, from Hasan ibn Hasan and he from his father that he said: Umar asked Imam Ali for the hand of Bibi Umm Kulthum in marriage. Ali said, She is too young to be married.
Umar said, I heard the Prophet of Allah (S) say:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.
I desired to place myself in the Prophet's lineage through this marriage.
Ali turned to Hasan and Husain and said, Marry Umm Kulthum to your uncle!
They said, Umm Kulthum, like all other women, is free to choose whomever as husband.
Ali stood up angrily
) but Hasan pulled his lap and said, We cannot afford to miss you.
Ali said, Then marry her to Umar.14
Bayhaqi has included this narration again under The Narrations about Fathers Marrying out Their Virgin Daughters.15
Turkmani, the author of the book of Al-Jouhar Al-Naqi, says, Bayhaqi, in this section of his book, has narrated the marriage of the Prophet and a six-year-old Aisha, the marriage of Umar and Alis daughter at a young age, and some of the Prophets companions who married out their young daughters. As for Aisha and Alis daughter, they were young (and had not yet reached the age of puberty).

5. Khatib Baghdadis Narrations in Tarikh Baghdad
Khatib Baghdadi (d. 463 A.H.) explaining the biography of Ibrahim ibn Mahran Marwazi in his Tarikh Baghdad, narrates a tradition with his chain of transmission. The narration reads: Laith ibn Saad Qaysi, a servant of Bani Rafaah in the year 171 AH in Egypt, reports from Musa ibn Ali ibn Rabah Lakhmi, from his father, from Uqba ibn Aamir Juhani, who narrated: Umar ibn Al-Khattab asked Ali ibn Abi Talib for the hand of Umm Kulthum (daughter of Fatima) in marriage, and frequently visiting Alis house on this matter. He told Ali, O Abul Hassan, what has made me to come to you time and again is a saying which I heard from the Prophet of Allah (S) that:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.
I wish to place myself in the Prophet's lineage through this marriage.
Ali stood up and called for his daughter, made her up
) and then sent her to Amirul Mumeneen, Umar. Seeing Umm Kulthum, Umar stood up and grabbed her ankle and said, 'Tell your father that I am willing, I am willing, I am willing.
When the girl returned to his father, Ali said, What did Amirul Mumeneen say?
Umm Kulthum said, When Umar saw me, he got up, took me in his lap, kissed me
), and when I got up to leave, he grabbed my ankle and said, 'Tell your father that I am willing.
Then Ali married her to Umar. She gave birth to Zaid ibn Umar ibn Khattab who lived until he grew old and died.16

6. Ibn Abd Al-Barrs Narrations in Al-Istiab
Ibn Abd Al-Barr Qurtubi (d. 643 A.H.) has also reported some narrations in this regard which are as follows:

The first narration
Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib, was born before the demise of the Prophet of Allah (S). Her mother was Fatima Zahra, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (S). Umar ibn Khattab asked Ali ibn Abi Talib for her hand in marriage.
Ali said, She is young.
Umar said, Marry her to me! I shall observe her dignity more than anyone else.
Ali said, I will send her to you, if you like her, I shall marry her to you.
Ali then sent the girl with a piece of cloth and told her to say [to Umar] 'This is the scarf that I was talking about'. She conveyed these words to Umar, who said, Tell your father that I have accepted. Umar then touched the girl's calf pulling aside the garment.17
She exclaimed, 'You have done this to me? If it hadn't been for the fact that you are the Commander of the Faithful, I would have broken your nose'. The girl went home and repeated the episode to her father, stating 'You sent me to a foul man.'
With that Ali said, My daughter, he is your husband.
Thereupon, Umar went over to the Muhajirun near the pulpit of the Prophet (S), where the early Muhajirun used to gather. Addressing them, he said, Congratulate me.
They said, What for, O Amirul Muumeneen?
He said, I have married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib. I heard the Prophet of Allah (S) say:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.
I was related to the Prophet (S) but I wish to place myself in the Prophet's lineage through this marriage.
The Muhajirun congratulated him.

The second narration
Abdul Warith reports from Qasim, from Khushani, from Ibn Abi Umar, from Sufyan, from Amr ibn Dinar, from Muhammad (Ibn Hanafiyah) the son of Ali, who narrates, Umar ibn Khattab asked Ali for her daughters hand (Umm Kulthum) in marriage. Ali replied that she was too young.
They told Umar, Ali has rejected you.
Umar returned to Ali to ask again for his daughters hand in marriage.
Ali said, I will send her to you, if you like her, she will be your wife.
Then Ali sent her daughter to Umar, and Umar pulled away the cloth from her calf
). Umm Kulthum said, Take off your hands! Were it not for the fact that you are the Commander of the Faithful, I would have blinded you.

The third narration
Ibn Wahab reports from Abdul Rahman ibn Zaid ibn Aslam, from his father, from his grandfather who narrates that: Umar ibn Khattab married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib with a dowry of four thousand dirham!

The fourth narration
Abu Umar says: Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib, gave birth to two children named Zaid and Ruqayyah from Umar ibn Khattab. She and her son Zaid died on the same day.
Zaid was injured in a battle which took place overnight among Bani Adi clan. He had gone to settle the dispute between the warring parties when someone hit him in the dark. He got fatally injured and collapsed. A while later he died, his death coinciding with the death of his mother.
Ibn Umar prayed on both of them as suggested by Hasan ibn Ali.
As they say, two traditions were performed about these two people: None of them inherited from the other, since it was not clear who passed away first.
Zaids corpse was placed in front of his mothers corpse on the side where the prayer leader stood.1

7. Ibn Athirs Narrations in Usd Al-Ghabah
Ibn Athir Jazari (d. 630 A.H.) has also related some narrations in this regard in his book titled Usd Al-Ghabah. His narrations are as follows:

The first narration
Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (S) was born before the demise of the Holy Prophet (S).
Umar ibn Khattab asked Ali ibn Abi Talib for his daughters hand in marriage. Ali replied that she was too young.
Umar said. There is no man who seeks to achieve through her good companionship that which I seek to achieve.
Ali said, I will send her to you and if you are pleased, I shall marry her to you.
Then Ali sent Umm Kulthum to Umar with a piece of cloth and instructed her to tell Umar that it was the cloth he was talking about.
Umm Kulthum conveyed Umar her fathers message. Umar told her, I am pleased, may Allah be pleased with you. He then touched her!
Why are you doing this? Umm Kulthum objected. Had it not been for the fact that you are Commander of the Faithful, I would have broken your nose.
Then she went home and repeated the episode to her father, stating 'You sent me to a foul old man.'
With that Ali said, 'My daughter, he is your husband'.
Thereupon, Umar went to the place of the Muhajirun near the pulpit of the Prophet (S), where the early Muhajirun used to gather. He sat beside them and said, Congratulate me.
They said, What for, O Amirul Muumeneen?
He said, I have married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib. I heard the Prophet of Allah (S) say:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.
I was related to the Prophet (S) but I wish to place myself in the Prophet's lineage through this marriage.
Then the Muhajirun congratulated him.
Umar married Umm Kulthum with a dowry of forty thousand dirhams! The fruit of this marriage was two children named Zaid son of the Greater Umar and Ruqayyah. Umm Kulthum and her son, Zaid, died on the same day.
Zaid was injured in the battle which took place overnight among Bani Adi clan. He had gone to solve the dispute between the two warring sides when someone hit him in the dark. He got fatally injured and collapsed. Zaid was alive for a while but then he breathed his last on the same day as his mother.
Ibn Umar prayed on both of them as proposed by Hasan ibn Ali. When Umar was killed, Awn ibn Jafar married Umm Kulthum!

The second narration
Abdul Wahab ibn Ali ibn Ali Amin reports from Abu Fadhl Muhammad ibn Nasir, from Khatib Abu Tahir Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Saqar, from Abul Barakat Ahmad ibn Abdul Wahid ibn Fadhl ibn Nadhif ibn Abdullah Farra who narrates that he told Ahmad: Has Abu Muhammad Hassan ibn Rashiq narrated to you?
He said, Yes, Abu Bushr Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hammad Dulabi reported from Ahmad ibn Abdul Jabbar, from Yunus ibn Bukair, from Ibn Ishaq, from Hasan ibn Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib who said: When Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) was widowed of Umar, her brothers Hasan and Husain went to her saying: You are known as the chief of Muslim women and the daughter of the best lady. We swear by Allah that if you leave your decision to Ali, he will definitely marry you to one of his orphans
) and if you wish to get substantial wealth
, you will definitely get it.
I swear by Allah, no sooner did they stand up than Ali arrived while he was leaning on his walking stick. Praising and thanking Allah, he reminded them of their status and dignity to the Prophet of Allah (S) and said: O the children of Fatima, you are aware of your status and dignity and you know well that I have given you priority over my other children owing to your position and relationship to the Messenger of Allah (S).
They said: You are right, may Allah bless you and may He reward you on our behalf.
Ali turned to his daughter and said: My daughter, Allah has granted you the authority to handle your matter yourself, but I wish you to leave that to me.
Umm Kulthum said: Dear father, I swear by Allah that I am also a woman, and I too have the aspirations of other women
, I would love to enjoy the world as much as any other women; I wish to decide for myself what I should do regarding this matter.
Ali said: My daughter, I swear by Allah that it is not your view but it is that of these two!
Then he stood up and said: You will either do this or you will never talk to any of these two!
Hasan and Husain grabbed their fathers lap and said: Dear father, sit down. By Allah, we cannot afford to miss you. Turning to Umm Kulthum, they said: Leave your matter to him.
I have done so, Umm Kulthum answered.
Ali said: I will marry you to Awn ibn Jafar, who is an adolescent. Thereupon, Ali returned to Umm Kulthum giving her four thousand dirham and sending her to Awn.
This narration has also been reported by Abu Umar.

8. Ibn Hajars Narrations in Al-Isabah
Ibn Hajar Asqalani, who died in the year 852 A.H., has also reported some narrations in this regard which are as under:

The first narration
Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib was a descendant of Hashim, her mother was Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (S). She was born during the lifetime of the Prophet of Allah, peace be upon him and his descendants.
Abu Umar says, She was born before the demise of the Holy Prophet (S).
Ibn Abi Umar Maqdisi says: Sufyan reported from Umar, from Muhammad ibn Ali [Imam Baqir (a.s.)] that he said: Umar ibn Khattab asked Ali for her daughters hand (Umm Kulthum) in marriage. Ali replied that she was too young.
They told Umar, Ali has rejected you.
Umar returned to Ali to ask again for his daughters hand in marriage.
Ali said: I will send her to you, if you like her, she will be your wife.
Then Ali sent her daughter to Umar who pulled away the cloth from her calf! Umm Kulthum said: Take off your hands! Were it not for the fact that you are the Commander of the Faithful, I would have blinded you.

The second narration
Ibn Wahab reports from Abdul Rahman Ibn Zaid Ibn Aslam, from his father, from his grandfather who narrates that Umar married Umm Kulthum with a dowry of forty thousand dirham!

The third narration
Zubair says: Umm Kulthum bore two children from Umar by the names of Zaid and Ruqayyah. Umm Kulthum passed away on the same day as her son.
Zaid was injured during the battle that took place amongst Bani Adi, where he had gone to settle the dispute between the warring parties when someone hit him in the dark. He got fatally injured and collapsed. His mother was also sick, and they both died on the same day.

The fourth narration
In his Al-Durriyat Al-Tahirah Abu Bushr Dulabi narrates on the authority of Ibn Ishaq: Hasan ibn Hasan ibn Ali says: When Umar, the husband of Umm Kulthum died and she was widowed of him, her brothers Hasan and Husain went to her and said to her: If you yourself make your decision and want to get substantial wealth, you shall definitely get it.‖ Then Ali entered the house, thanked and praised Allah and said: My daughter, Allah has granted you the authority to handle your matter yourself, but I wish you leave the matter to me.
Umm Kulthum said: Dear father, I swear by Allah that I am also a woman, and I too have the aspirations and desires of all other women and I would love to enjoy the world as much as any other women do.
Ali said: My daughter, I swear by Allah that it is not your view but rather that of these two!
Then he stood up and said: You either do this or I will never talk to any of these two!
They surrounded Umm Kulthum and wanted her to accept the proposal.
She accepted and got married to Awn ibn Jafar.

The fifth narration
Dar Qutni has referred to Umm Kulthum in in Al- Ikhwah and has said: When Awn died, his brother Muhammad married Umm Kulthum! After a while, Awn too died whereupon his brother Abdullah married her
) and Umm Kulthum died in Abdullah's house.
Ibn Saad has also reported a narration similar to the above saying at the end: Umm Kulthum used to refer to the incident saying: I feel embarrassed towards Asma bint Umais whose two sons died when they were in my company, and I am worried about the third one.
Umm Kulthum died in Abdullah ibn Jafars house and did not bear a child with anyone of them.

The sixth narration
Ibn Saad reports from Anas Ibn Ayadh, from Jafar ibn Muhammad, from his father who said: Umar ibn Khattab asked Ali for his daughters hand in marriage. Ali said: ―I have kept my daughters for the sons of Jafar.
Umar said: Marry her to me, for by Allah, there is no man on earth who seeks to achieve through her good companionship that which I seek to achieve.
Ali said: I have accepted.
Umar went to the place of the Muhajirun and told them: Congratulate me.
They congratulated him, and asked: Whom have you married? He replied: ―I have married the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Indeed, the Prophet of Allah (S) said:

Every means will be cut off and every lineage severed on the Day of Judgment except my lineage.
I had given the Prophet a daughter, but I also loved to (marry a daughter from his family).18
1. In spite of the fact that in Sunni sources the greeting (salawat) after the Holy Prophets name is written incompletely, we, as the Prophet (S) himself recommended, have written it completely.
2. We have used signs of exclamation
in our translation of some of the weird, unthinkable and objectionable passages cited from their sources.
3. Ibn Sa'ad, Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra vol.8 p.338 (ed. Dar Al-Kotob Al-'Ilmiyyah, Beirut 1990)
4. Some translators have translated this tradition as such: On the Judgment Day every means will be cut off and every lineage severed except my lineage.
5. A freed slave is known as Mawla
6. Al-Tabaqatu Al-Kubra,8/338 340.
7. In the printed copy of the book, it has been written in this part of the books as such: There is a word here which is not readable! But the original sentence is this: No, I swear by Allah! That is not true.
8. In the printed copy of the book, it has been written as such: There is a word here which is not readable! But in the tradition of Muhibuddin Al-Tabari, there is not any word.
9. From the collection of traditions and the above statement, it is concluded that Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was against this marriage and because of the threats from Umar, Aqil wanted this marriage to take place and his anger too, was because of this.
10. Al-Durriyat Al-Tahirah, 157 165.
11. In the text of Al-Mustadrak , it has been recorded as ―Mualla ibn Rashid‖ which is wrong.
12. Al-Mustadrak, 3/153, Ma‟rifat Al-Sahabah (Manaqib Amirul Mu‟uminin Ali ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him), No. 4684).
13. Hurried or a tradition in which the chain of narrators is omitted
14. Al-Sunan Al-Kubra, 7/101 and 102 numbers 13393 and 13394.
15. Al-Sunan Al-Kubra, 7/185 number 13660.
16. Tarikh Baghdad, 6/180.
17. Al-Isti‟ab, 4/509 & 510.
18. Al-Isabah, 8/464 and 465.
1. Ibn Saads Narrations in Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra
2. Dulabis Narrations in Al-Durriyat Al-Tahira
3. Hakim Nishaburis Narration in Al-Mustadrak
4. Bayhaqis Narrations in Al-Sunan Al-Kubra
5. Khatib Baghdadis Narrations in Tarikh Baghdad
6. Ibn Abd Al-Barrs Narrations in Al-Istiab
7. Ibn Athirs Narrations in Usd Al-Ghabah
8. Ibn Hajars Narrations in Al-Isabah

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