When Umar died, Ali (a.s.) went to Umm Kulthum, got hold of her hand and brought her to his house.5
In view of the above details and assuming that the narrations are true and authentic, we say
: ―The opponents cannot use these narrations to base their arguments and prove their side of the story or to make us accept anything in this regard. This is because the utmost conclusion that can be drawn from these narrations is that the marriage contract took place under threat and intimidating promises. It was only after these threats that Umm Kulthum went to Umar‘s house. When Umar was killed, the Imam (a.s.) went to Umm Kulthum and took her to his house.
On the other hand, perhaps this saying of Imam Ja‘far Sadiq (a.s.) i.e., Ali (a.s.) held her hand and took her to his house is a proof of what some scholars have stated that Umar died before Umm Kulthum attained the age of puberty.
Therefore, what merit does this proposal and the imposed marriage which was characterized by threat and intimidation does it earn Umar? What defect and flaw does such a proposal and marriage exact on the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) and the Household of the Prophet, peace be upon them? Can such a marriage be an indication of the two sides being sincere friends of each other?
When Umar threatens the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.), in the manner demonstrated by the narrations, to usurp and get this girl, how may his threats have been for usurping the caliphate which forcibly silenced the Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) and his followers compelling them to pay allegiance to him?! In fact, we can say that this usurpation was meant to eliminate the effects of that usurpation.
Indeed, Hajjaj ibn Yusuf Thaqafi learnt this same method from Umar as evidenced by this historical narration: Muhammad ibn Idris Shafe‘i (d.) says: When Hajjaj ibn Yusuf married the daughter of Abdullah ibn Ja‘far, Khalid ibn Yazid ibn Muawiyah told Abdul Malik ibn Marwan
Did you leave Hajjaj to marry the daughter of Abdullah ibn Ja‘far?‖ He said: Yes, what is wrong with it?
: By Allah, this is the worst shame.‖ Abdul Malik asked: How is that?
: I swear by Allah! O Commander of the Faithful, ever since I married Ramlah, the daughter of Zubair, the enmity I had in my heart toward Zubair, has perished. Khalid goes on saying: It seems Abdul Malik was asleep and I woke him up with these words of mine. Then and there he wrote a letter to Hajjaj making him to divorce Abdullah‘s daughter. Hajjaj complied with Abdul Malik‘s order and divorced her.6
Final word concerning the marriage of Umm Kulthum
Considering the investigation and research conducted in regard to Umm Kulthum‘s marriage, a question that does arise is: Whom did Umm Kulthum marry finally? In answer to this question, we must say that it was clarified earlier that, based on the saying of Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.), he had kept his daughters for the sons of his brother, Ja‘far. In fact, this was done by the order of the Messenger of Allah (S) because one day the holy Prophet (S) looked at Ali‘s and Ja‘far‘s children whereupon the Prophet (S) said:
“Our daughters are for our sons and our sons are for our daughters”.7
However, when it comes to Umm Kulthum, there is a narration which says
: Umar asked Ali for Umm Kulthum‘s hand in marriage. Ali (AS) made the excuse that she was too young and he further said that he had kept her for the son of his brother, Ja‘far…8
Likewise it is seen in this narration that the Imam (a.s.) did not specify which son of Ja‘far he had kept his daughter for, but we know that he meant either Awn or Muhammad. This is because, as mentioned earlier, the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) had married his daughter Zainab (a.s.) to Abdullah, who was the eldest of his brothers.
Among the Sunni scholars, whose opinions and reports we are discussing in this book, there is no difference as to the fact that Awn was killed in the battle of Shushtar, during the reign of Umar‘s caliphate. Hence, based on the aforementioned narrations which we assume to be authentic, Umm Kulthum was married to Umar during this time.
When it comes to Muhammad, ibn Ja‘far, Ibn Hajar comments as such
: Abu Umar has narrated from Waqidi that Muhammad‘s nickname was Abul Qasim. He married Umm Kulthum after Umar‘s death. He further says: Muhammad was martyred in the battle of Shushtar.
It has been said that Muhammad lived until the time of Imam Ali (a.s.) and was in the company of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) during the battle of Siffin.
In his Al-Ikhwah, Dar Qutni writes: It is said that Muhammad was martyred in the battle of Siffin. In this battle, he fought with Ubaidullah ibn Umar ibn Khattab and they fought each other to their death.
In this respect, Marzbani too writes in Mu‟jam Al-Shuara
: Muhammad ibn Ja‘far and Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr were in Egypt. When Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was killed, Muhammad went into hiding. A person from the clan of Ak and the tribe of Ghafiq advised him to leave Egypt and he fled there for Palestine where he went to one of maternal uncles from Khath‘am clan. He saved Muhammad from Muawiyah‘s mischief. Later on, Muhammad composed a poem describing this incident.
He further writes
: ―This has been proven and it rejects Waqidi who said that Muhammad was martyred in the battle of Shushtar.9
So, the person who married Umm Kulthum, after Umar‘s death, based on the foregoing supposition, is Muhammad ibn Ja‘far and, as was stated earlier, Ibn Abd al-Barr has confirmed this. Concerning Abdullah too, it is necessary to know that he is likely to have married Umm Kulthum after the death of his wife Zainab (S.A). That is because according to Ibn Abd al- Barr, Abdullah was alive until the year 80 of the Islamic lunar calendar and he lived for ninety years.
1. It is worth mentioning that the previous edition of this book lacked this section as it was added only in the wake of a request by some scholars and seminarians. That was because my study was focused only on Sunni traditions and narrations in connection with the subject matter. It is expected that this section will be supplementary and that it will throw further light on the answers given briefly in this book.
2. Of course in this topic there are other traditions in the sources of the Shia which after a careful evaluation, we have realized that on the part of their documents, they have been tampered with and disclaimed.
3. Al-Kafi, 5/346 tradition number 1 and 2.
4. Iddah is a waiting period of (four months and ten days) during which a lady who has lost her husband, must stay away from marriage.
5. Al-Kafi, 6/115 and 116 tradition number 2, this information because of its application in the aforesaid law, it has also been mentioned in the books of Islamic laws.
6. Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, 6/205.
7. Man la Yahdhuruhu Al-Faqih, 3/249 tradition number 1184.
8. Dhakhair Uqba, 288; Kanzul Ummal, 13/269 tradition number 37586.
9. Al-Isabah, 6/7.
Summary of the Book
The discussion was about Umm Kulthum‘s marriage to Umar. The story was narrated from the most famous books authored by Sunni scholars. In this study, we unveiled the most hidden aspects of the story carefully examining the chains of the narrations, their significations, the narrators and their goals. The truth of the matter was explained and substantiated and the controversies came to an end.
Assuming that Hazrat Zahra (a.s.) had a daughter by the name of Umm Kulthum and that marriage in Islam takes place only when the formula of marriage contract is recited, therefore, based on the few narrations mentioned in Kulayni‘s Al-Kafi, we can conclude that: Umar asked Ali (a.s.) for Umm Kulthum‘s hand in marriage and the Imam (a.s.) made the excuse that she was too young and that she was engaged to her cousin. After Umar‘s repeated proposal, frequenting and resorting to threat to intimidate the Commander of the Faithful, (a.s.) and Bani Hashemi, the Imam left the matter to be decided by his uncle Abbas; the marriage took place in the sense that only a marriage contract was concluded without Ali (a.s.) and his daughter consenting to it.
That was why no sooner Umar died than Ali (a.s.) returned his daughter to his house. Hence, what has been narrated in some Sunni books about the girl dressing up and going to Umar under the pretext of handing over a piece of garment is baseless and undocumented scientifically. The same is the case with the report about Umm Kulthum‘s death occurring simultaneously with the death of her child from Umar.
The conclusion is that this incident cannot be used to cover up Umar‘s conduct towards the household of the Prophet (S) during Lady Zahra‘s lifetime. Likewise, they cannot use this story to argue that the Commander of the Faithful, Ali, peace be upon him, was in good and friendly terms with Umar.