Trusting in everyone who has accompanied the Prophet (S)
The Sunnis have trusted in every Muslim who has accompanied the Prophet (S) even for one time as if companionship with the Prophet (S), according to their opinions, has made the companions infallible; therefore they have trusted in all what the companions have narrated (as they have claimed) from the Prophet (S) concerning the laws and the verdicts of the Shari’ah. They have relied on that and acted according to it without researching whether the companions, who have narrated the traditions, were fair, reliable, truthful and faithful or not.
This is not possible at all because companionship itself, even if it is considered as a virtue, cannot be as evidence of infallibility. The companions of the Prophet (S) were like the rest of people; among them there were fair, virtuous, faithful and loyal believers, who were a lot, and also there were among them disobedient and hypocrite people besides that there were some companions whose real states were unknown.
The legal evidences have required that a narrator of a single tradition must be fair and trustworthy even if he was one of the Prophet’s companions but as for the unfair and untrustworthy narrator, his traditions would be of no value at all according to definite evidences. As for the unknown companions, they would be proved to be fair and then it could be relied on their tradition concerning the branches of Islam and not the main principles but if they were proved to be unfair, it would be not possible to act according to their traditions.
This is what we know of the opinion of the Sunnis concerning the traditions narrated by a single narrator. There is no disagreement between us and them about this matter. But they have insisted on relying on the traditions narrated by the companions without researching or pondering on the fairness and truthfulness of the narrators believing that the companions all in all were fair and trustworthy as if they wanted to sanctify the Prophet (S) by considering all his companions as fair and faithful. This is a great mistake and ignorance that we deem them to be far above.
Sanctifying the Prophet (S) is by sanctifying his Sunna and keeping it safe from the distortion of the fabricators. The Prophet (S) has warned his umma of the fabricators when he has said: “Fabricators will fabricate a lot of lies against me. He, who fabricates lies against me deliberately, will be in Hell.”
If our (Sunni) brothers ponder on the clear verses of the Qur'an, they will find them full of the mention of the hypocrites and the harm they have caused to the Prophet (S). Allah has said: “When the hypocrites come to you, they say: We bear witness that you are most surely Allah's Messenger; and Allah knows that you are most surely His Messenger, and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are surely liars” (Qur’an 63:1) and: “…and when the eyes turned dull, and the hearts rose up to the throats, and you began to think diverse thoughts of Allah. There the believers were tried and they were shaken with severe shaking. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts was a disease began to say: Allah and His Messenger did not promise us (victory) but only delusion” (Qur’an 33:10-12)
“And from among those who are round about you of the dwellers of the desert there are hypocrites, and from among the people of Medina (also); they are stubborn in hypocrisy; you do not know them; We know them” (Qur’an 9:101)1 and: “Certainly they sought (to sow) dissension before, and they meditated plots against you until the truth came, and Allah's commandment prevailed although they were averse (from it” (Qur’an 9:48) and: “They swear by Allah that they did not speak, and certainly they did speak, the word of unbelief, and disbelieved after their Islam, and they had determined upon what they have not been able to effect, and they did not find fault except because Allah and His Messenger enriched them out of His grace; therefore if they repent, it will be good for them; and if they turn back, Allah will chastise them with a painful chastisement in this world and the hereafter” (Qur’an 9:74)
Would that I know where the hypocrites have gone after the Prophet (S)? They have caused him a lot of pains and distresses throughout his lifetime. They rolled the rocks before him 2 and tried to prevent him from spreading the Qur'an. The historians mentioned that the Prophet (S) had marched to the battle of Uhud with one thousand of his companions but before they reached their destination, three hundred hypocrites had gone back 3 and there might be some other hypocrites who had not gone back for fear of being exposed.
Even if there were only these three hundred hypocrites among this thousand of the Muslims, it would be enough evidence confirming that hypocrisy was spread at the time of the revelation; then how could it be ceased only when the revelation stopped and the Prophet (S) went to the better world? Was the existence of the Prophet (S) the reason behind the hypocrisy of the hypocrites? Was his death the reason behind their faith, fairness and their being the best of the people after the prophets? How did they change just when the Prophet (S) died to be, after being hypocrites, sacred and holy people that no one could suspect whatever crimes and sins they committed? What was the purpose of this blind obstinacy that disgusted the hearing, the sights and the hearts?!
The Qur'an and the Sunna have many evidences proving that the hypocrites have remained on their hypocrisy without repenting. Allah has said: “And Muhammad is no more than a messenger; the messengers have already passed away before him; if then he dies or is killed will you turn back upon your heels? And whoever turns back upon his heels, he will by no means do harm to Allah in the least and Allah will reward the grateful” (Qur’an 3:144). .
Al-Bukhari mentioned in his Sahih 4 a tradition narrated by Abu Hurayra that the Prophet (S) had said: “While I will be standing (on the Day of Resurrection), a group of people will come. When I know them, a man (an angel) will come out between me and them saying to them: “Come on!” I will say: “Where to?” He will say: “To Hell, by Allah.” I will ask: “What for?” he will say: “They have apostatized after you.” Then another group will come. When I know them, a man (an angel) will come out between me and them saying to them: “Come on!” I will ask: “Where to?” He will say: “To Hell, by Allah.” I will say: “What for?” He will say: “They have apostatized after you.” I think that only a very few of them will be rescued.”
Al-Bukhari has mentioned in the same chapter a tradition narrated by Asma’ bint Abu Bakr that the Prophet (S) had said: “I will be at the pond (on the Day of Resurrection) to see who will come to me from you. Many people will be taken before me. I will say: “O my Lord, they are from me and from my umma.” It will be said: “Do you know what they have done after you? By Allah, they have kept on turning back on their heels (apostatizing).” Ibn Maleeka often prayed to Allah by saying: “O Allah, we seek Your protection from turning back on our heels or being seduced from our faith.”
He has also mentioned in the same chapter a tradition narrated by Ibn al-Musayyab that the Prophet (S) had said: “Some of my companions will come to me at the pond but they will be taken away. I will say: “O my Lord, they are my companions!” He will say: “You do not know what they have done after you! They have apostatized.”
He has also mentioned in the same chapter a tradition from Sahl bin Sa’d that the Prophet (S) had said: “I will precede you to the pond (in Paradise). Whoever will come to me, will drink from the pond and whoever will drink, will never be thirsty forever. Some people will come to me. I know them and they know me but then they will be prevented from being with me.” Abu Hazim said: “An-Nu’man bin Abu Ayyash heard this from me and he asked me: “Have you heard this as it is from Sahl?” I said: “Yes, I have.” He said: “I swear that I have heard it from Abu Sa’eed al-Khidri but he added: “…I will say: “They are from me.” It will be said to me: “You do not know what they have changed after you!” I will say: “Away with whoever has changed (the Sunna) after me!”
He has also mentioned a tradition from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet (S) had said: “On the Day of Resurrection some of my companions will come to me but they will be taken away from the pond. I will say: “O my Lord, they are my companions!” He will say: “You do not know what they have changed after you. They have turned back on their heels.”
In the same chapter Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (S) had said: “I will precede you to the pond (in Paradise). Some of you will come to me and then they will be taken away before me. I will say: “O my Lord, they are my companions!” It will be said to me: “You do not know what they have fabricated after you.”
Al-Bukhari has also mentioned in his Sahih 5 a tradition from al-Ala’ bin al-Musayyab that his father had said: “Once I met al-Bara’ bin Aazib and said to him: “Blessed you are! You have accompanied the Prophet (S) and paid homage to him under the tree.” He said: “O my nephew, you do not know what we have changed after him.”
He has mentioned a tradition from Abdullah bin Abbas that the Prophet (S) had said: “…some of my companions will be taken to the left. I will say: “They are my companions! They are my companions!” It will be said to me: “They turned back on their heels (apostatized) since you had left them…” 6
99. Turning away from the infallible imams
The Sunnis have taken the main principles of religion from Abul Hasan al-Ash’ari, al-Matureedi and their likes and they have taken the branches of religion from the four jurisprudents; Malik bin Anas, Abu Haneefa, Ahmad bin Hanbal and ash-Shafi’iy although they have preferred their own opinions to the clear texts that have put the infallible imams of Ahlul Bayt (as) in a position as equal as the Qur'an and made them in the umma as the Ark of Noah in his people; whoever rode on it would be rescued and whoever lagged behind it would drown and as the gate of Hitta (forgiveness) for the Israelites; whoever entered into it would be forgiven. Ahlul Bayt (as) were in the umma as the head to the body and as the two eyes to the head. There are many such prophetic traditions that have put Ahlul Bayt (as) in such a high position.
We have detailed this subject in our book al-Fusool al-Muhimma, chap. 12 and here we quote what we have said there to shed more light on the subject: Our Sunni brothers have turned away from the doctrines of the infallible imams of Ahlul Bayt (as) and paid no attention to their opinions about the principles and the branches of the religion at all. They have not referred to them in interpreting the holy Qur'an except less than their referring to Muqatil bin Sulayman, the fraud and the embodier 7 and they have not relied on their traditions except less than their reliance on the traditions of the Kharijites, the Murjites and the fatalists.
If you count all the traditions of Ahlul Bayt (as) that have been mentioned in the books of the Sunnis, you will find them less than the traditions that al-Bukhari alone has mentioned from Akrima, the Kharijite, the Berber and the liar. Worse than all that is that al-Bukhari has never mentioned any tradition from the infallible imams of Ahlul Bayt (as).
He has never mentioned any tradition narrated from Imam as-Sadiq (S), Imam al-Kadhim (S), Imam ar-Redha (S), Imam al-Jawad (S), Imam al-Hasan al-Askari (S), who was coeval with al-Bukhari, nor did he mention any tradition from al-Hasan bin al-Hasan, 8 Zayd bin Ali bin al-Husayn, Yahya bin Zayd, an-Nafs az-Zakiyya al-Kamil bin al-Hasan ar-Redha bin al-Hasan, Ibraheem bin Abdullah, al-Husayn al-Fakhkhi bin Ali bin al-Hasan bin al-Hasan, Yahya bin Abdullah bin al-Hasan, Idrees bin Abdullah, Muhammad bin Ja’far as-Sadiq, Muhammad bin Ibraheem bin Isma’eel bin Ibraheem bin al-Hasan bin al-Hasan known as Ibn Tabataba, al-Qasim ar-Rassiy, Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Zayd bin Ali, Muhammad bin al-Qassim bin Ali bin Umar al-Ashraf bin Zaynol Aabideen, who was coeval with al-Bukhari, 9 nor any other one of the scholars of the Prophet’s progeny like Abdullah bin al-Hasan, Ali bin Ja’far al-Uraydhi and the other personalities of the progeny of Ahlul Bayt (as).
Al-Bukhari has not even narrated anything of the traditions of the elder (grand)son of the Prophet (S), Imam Hasan (as) the master of the youths of Paradise whereas he (al-Bukhari) has mentioned many traditions from the bitter enemy of Ahlul Bayt (as), the Kharijite Imran bin Hattan, who had praised Abdurrahman bin Muljim for killing Imam ‘Ali (as) by saying: “What a strike by a pious man it was!
He just wanted to attain the contentment of the Lord of the Throne.
I often mention him and I think that he is the best of people near Allah for his good deeds.”
I swear by the Lord of the Kaaba and the Sender of the prophets that I have stopped here surprisedly and frightenedly for I have not thought that the matter would reach this extent!
Ibn Khaldoon has uncovered the hidden secret of this matter when saying in his Muqaddima in the chapter he has assigned to talk about jurisprudence after mentioning the Sunni sects: “Ahlul Bayt became irregular with doctrines they had invented and jurisprudence they had established by themselves that they had based according to their belief in criticizing some of the companions 10 and believing in the infallibility of their imams and the truthfulness of their sayings…which all were weak principles 11…the Kharijites have also been irregular; 12 therefore the public (the Sunni) have paid no attention to their doctrines. In fact they have denied them and refuted them.
“We do not know anything about their doctrines and we do not read their books. There is nothing of their books in the countries of the Sunni. The books of the Shia are in their countries where their state was in Morocco, the east and Yemen. The same can be said about the Kharijites. Each of them has books and strange thoughts in jurisprudence...” Ponder on his speech to see the wonders!
Then he came back to talk about the Sunni sects. He said: “The doctrine of Abu Haneefa spread in Iraq, the doctrine of Malik in Hijaz, the doctrine of Ahmad bin Hanbal in Baghdad and Sham and the doctrine of ash-Shafi’iy in Egypt.” Then he said: “Then the jurisprudence of the Sunni perished in Egypt when the state of ar-Rafidha 13 (the Shia) was established. The jurisprudence of Ahlul Bayt 14 spread there and the jurisprudence of the others vanished until the (Shiite) state of al-Ubaydiyeen of ar-Rafidha was overthrown by Saladin Yousuf bin Ayyoub and then the jurisprudence of ash-Shafi’iy came back to Egypt…”
Ibn Khaldoon and his likes said that they were on guidance and on the Sunna whereas Ahlul Bayt (as) were irregular, heretic, deviate and (refusing).
No wonder if a Muslim when hearing this word stands up and sits down and no wonder if he dies regretfully for Islam and its people. There is no power save in Allah, the Great, the Almighty!
Ibn Khaldoon said that Ahlul Bayt (as) were irregular, deviate and heretic whereas it was they, whom Allah had purified from all uncleanness as it had been revealed in the Qur'an,15 whom the Prophet (S) had challenged his enemies with by the order of Allah,16 whom the Qur'an had imposed loving them on the Muslims, 17 whom Allah had imposed their guardianship on the Muslims, 18 who were the ship of rescue 19 when the sea of hypocrisy overflowed, who were the safety of the umma 20 when the storms of disagreement blew, who were the gate of Hitta (forgiveness) 21 whoever entered into it would be forgiven, who were the firmest handhold which should not break off and who were one of the two weighty things 22 that whoever kept to would never go astray and whoever deviated from would never be guided.
It was they whom the Prophet (S) had ordered us to regard as the head to the body 23 and as the eyes to the head and he had forbidden us from preceding them 24 or lagging behind them. The Prophet (S) had said that they (his family) were the protectors of the religion, who would keep it safe from the distortion of the deviants throughout the generations of this umma. 25
The Prophet (S) had declared that knowing (being dutiful to) them (his progeny) would save from Hell, 26 loving them would help to pass to Paradise, submitting to them would save from torment and that the good doings would not benefit the doers except by knowing their (the Prophet’s progeny’s) rights 27 and no one of this umma will step on the Day of Resurrection unless he will be asked about loving them. 28 If a man has spent his age standing, sitting (worshipping Allah) and prostrating between the Kaaba and the temple (of Abraham) without believing in the guardianship of Ahlul Bayt, he will be in Hell.” 29
After all that does it not behoove the Muslim umma to believe in Ahlul Bayt (as), to submit to them and to follow their way? Is any Muslim, who believes in Allah and His Messenger, permitted to follow other than them? How could Ibn Khaldoon consider Ahlul Bayt (as) as heretic so openly and impudently without feeling ashamed or fearing Allah?
Have the Qur’anic verses and the prophetic traditions ordered the Muslims to turn away from Ahlul Bayt (as), whom Allah has purified and made loving them obligatory on the Muslims and whom the Prophet (S) has ordered to keep to in order not to go astray? We have collected all the true traditions talking about the virtues and the high position of Ahlul Bayt (as) in our book Sabeel al-Mo’mineen and so have our scholars done in their books. Refer to them to know the truth and the essence of Ahlul Bayt (as) and their position in Islam.
They have neither committed any guilt nor have they had any defect that requires the (Sunni) Muslims to turn away from them. Would that the people of the four Sunni sects have studied the doctrine of Ahlul Bayt (as) as just a point of argument as they have done to the other doctrines which they have not acted according to! We have not found them dealing with Ahlul Bayt (as) in such a way in any age at all! In fact they have dealt with Ahlul Bayt (as) as if they have not been created yet or as if they have had no any bit of knowledge and wisdom!
Yes, they (the Sunni) often treated the followers (the Shia) of Ahlul Bayt (as) as if they were not Muslims and they fabricated against them all kinds of lies!
The time of oppression and enmity has gone and the age of brotherhood has come. It is time for all the Muslims to enter the town of the prophetic knowledge from its gate, to enter into the gate of Hitta and to resort to the safety of the people of the earth by riding on the ship of rescue of Ahlul Bayt (as). They are to be close to the Shia. The time of disagreement and separation has gone and the morning of the firm relations between the Shia and the Sunni has shone. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.
100. A call for good faith
O brothers, until when will this disagreement last? What are these enmities and hatred for? Allah, the One and Only, is the Lord of us all. Islam is our religion. The holy Qur'an is the Book of all of us. The Kaaba is our Qiblah. The master of the prophets and the last of the messengers Muhammad bin Abdullah is our Prophet. His sayings and doings are our Sunna. The daily five prayers, fasting Ramadan, zakat and hajj are our obligations.
The permissible things are the things that Allah and His Messenger have permitted and the impermissible things are the things that they have prohibited. The truth is what they have determined as the truth and the untruth is what they have rejected. The guardians of Allah and His Messenger are our guardians and the enemies of Allah and His Messenger are our enemies. The day of Resurrection will come no doubt and Allah will resurrect the dead from their graves “..so that He rewards those who do evil, according to their deeds, and He rewards those, who do good, with what is best” (Qur’an 53:31).
Are the Shia and the Sunni not equal in all these?
“…and the believers; they all believe in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers; We make no difference between any of His messengers; and they say: We hear and obey, our Lord! Thy forgiveness (do we crave), and to Thee is the eventual course” (Qur’an 2:285).
In fact the dispute between the Shia and the Sunni about the matters of disagreement is minor and there is no dispute between them about the great matters in the view of the discerning people at all.
Do you not see that when they argue about the necessity of something or its impermissibility, or whether it is desirable or not or it is permissible or when they argue about someone whether he is fair or unfair, faithful or unfaithful, hypocrite or not or that he must be followed because he is the guardian of Allah or he must be opposed because he is the enemy of Allah, they argue to prove that with the legal evidences derived from the Qur'an, the Sunna, the consensus or reason. Each of them relies on what the legal evidences require. If the two parties know that a certain thing has been proved in Islam or not proved or they both doubt about it, they will not dispute or disagree at all.
Al-Bukhari has mentioned in his Sahih 30 a tradition narrated by Abu Salama that the Prophet (S) had said: “If a ruler tries his best to give a judgment and his judgment is correct, he will be rewarded (by Allah) twice and if he tries his best and his judgment is incorrect, he will be rewarded with one reward.”
Ibn Hazm has said in his book al-Milel wen-Nihal 31: “A group of the Muslims thinks that a Muslim will not be transgressive or unbeliever if he issues an opinion or a fatwa. Everyone, who tries his best to look for the truth and then he believes in what he has found, he will be rewarded anyhow. If he is correct, he will be rewarded twice and if he is incorrect, he will be rewarded once. This is the opinion of Abu Layla, Abu Haneefa, ash-Shafi’iy, Sufyan ath-Thawri, Dawood bin Ali and all the companions who have talked about this matter. We have not known any disagreement between them about this matter at all…”
Those who have declared this opinion from among the scholars of the umma, are too many; then what are all these troubles for, O you Muslims?!
Allah has said: “The believers are but brethren, therefore make peace between your brethren and be careful of (your duty to) Allah that mercy may be on you” (Qur’an 49:10) and: “..and do not quarrel for then you will be weak in hearts and your power will depart” (Qur’an 8:46) and: “And be not like those who became divided and disagreed after clear arguments had come to them, and these it is that shall have a grievous chastisement” (Qur’an 3:105).
The Prophet (S) has said: “The protection of the Muslims is one. Every one of them has to strive for the sake of it. They must be as one hand against their enemies. Whoever violates the protection of a Muslim, the curse of Allah, the angels and all the people will be on him. He will not be forgiven on the Day of Resurrection.”
The true traditions about this matter are recurrent especially from Ahlul Bayt (as). Refer to our book al-Fusool al-Muhimma for there is what delights the hearts of the umma especially in the first seven chapters.
1. He, who ponders on this verse and other verses like it, knows well that there have been hypocrites whose faith and fairness were unknown.
2. Some of the companions had rolled rocks in the night of al-Aqaba to frighten the she-camel of the Prophet (S) to make him fall down. That night the Prophet (S) was coming back from the battle of Tabook where he had left Imam ‘Ali (as) in his place in Medina. Ahmad bin Hanbal has mentioned in his Musnad, vol.5 a long tradition narrated by Abu Tufayl about this calamity and at the end of the tradition it has been said that the Prophet (S) had cursed a group of his companions on that day.
3. Mentioned by all the historians who have recorded the events of Uhud.
4. Vol.4, p.94.
5. p.30 chap. (the battle of al-Hudaybiya).
6. Sahih of al-Bukhari, vol.2 p.154.
7. Who believes in embodiment; ascribing human aspects to Allah, the Almighty.
8. He was the imam after his uncle Imam Husayn (as) according to the opinion of the Zaydites and then Zayd and then the others as we have arranged them above.
9. He was killed in Iraq six years before the death of al-Bukhari.
10. I do not know how the jurisprudential doctrines are built on criticizing some of the companions and I do not know how the legal verdicts are derived from criticizing people! Ibn Khaldoon is considered as one of the philosophers…then what is this raving of him?!
11. The Shia have proved the infallibility of their imams in their books with rational and traditional evidences. Here we cannot discuss that because we will be way from the subject of this book. It is enough evidence on their infallibility that they are the equal of the Qur'an and they are the safety of the umma from disagreement; if a tribe of the Arabs disagree with them, they (the Arabs) become as the party of Iblis. The infallible imams are the ship of rescue and the gate of Hitta (forgiveness) for the umma. They are the ones who protect the religion from being distorted and from being interpreted by the ignorants. Blessing and peace be upon them.
12. Ibn Khaldoon has told a lie in this word! He has said that he has not known anything about their doctrines or their books then how could he say that they were irregular, deviate and heretic and how could he know that their principles were weak?
13. Ar-Rafidha means “the refusers”. The Sunni have called the Shia with this name claiming that they (the Shia) have refused the first three caliphs and the companions.
14. He acknowledged that ar-Rafidha (the Shia) had believed in the doctrine of Ahlul Bayt (as).
15. With reference to the Qur’anic verse “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying” (33:33).
16. With reference to the verse: “But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars” (3:61).
17. With reference to the verse “Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives” (42:23).
18. Ad-Daylami and others have mentioned a tradition narrated by Abu Sa’eed al-Khidri that the Prophet (S) had said: “And stop them, for they shall be questioned (37:24)… about the guardianship of Ali.” Al-Wahidy said - as in as-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa - when interpreting this verse: “They will be asked about the guardianship of Ali and Ahlul Bayt.”
19. Ibn Hajar said in his as-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, p.93: “It has been narrated from many ways each confirming the other that the Prophet (S) has said: “The example of my family among you is like the Ark of Noah; whoever rides on it will be rescued.” Muslim added in his Sahih: “…and whoever lags behind it will drown and perish.”
20. The Prophet (S) has said: “The stars are safety for the people of the earth from drowning and my family is safety for my umma from disagreement. If a tribe of the Arabs opposes them (the Prophet’s family), they (the people of the tribe) will disagree among them and will be the party of Iblis.” Mentioned by al-Hakim from Ibn Abbas as in as-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa by Ibn Hajar, 93. Ibn Abu Shayba and Musaddad in their Musnads, at-Tarmithi in Nawadir al-Usool, Abu Ya’la, at-Tabarani and al-Hakim have mentioned a tradition narrated by Salama bin al-Akwa’ that the Prophet (S) had said: “The stars are safety for the inhabitants of the heaven and my family is safety for my umma.” Also mentioned by as-Sayooti in his book Ihya’ al-Mayyit, an-Nabahani in his Arba’een and by others.
21. The Prophet (S) has said: “The example of my family among you is like the Ark of Noah; whoever rides on it will be rescued and whoever lags behind it will drown and like the gate of Hitta of the Israelite.” Mentioned by al-Hakim from Abu Dharr. At-Tabarani mentioned in as-Sagheer and al-Awsat that Abu Sa’eed had said: “I have heard the Prophet (S) saying: “My family among you is like the Ark of Noah; whoever rides on it will be rescued and whoever lags behind it will drown. My family among you is like the gate of Hitta of the Israelites; whoever enters into it will be forgiven.”
22. With reference to the Prophet’s saying “I have left among you what if you keep to, you will never go astray after me; the two weighty things, the Book of Allah and my family. They will never separate until they will come to me at the pond (in Paradise). Be careful how you will deal with them.” Mentioned by at-Tarmithi and al-Hakim as in Ihya’ al-Mayyit by as-Sayooti. It has been mentioned by the most scholars of Hadith with little differences in the wordings. Ibn Hajar said in as-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa: “Know that this tradition has been narrated by more than twenty companions. In some ways of this tradition it has been said that the Prophet (S) had said it in his last (farewell) hajj and in another he had said it in Medina during his illness when his room was full of his companions. In another way he had said it in Ghadeer Khum and in another occasion he had said it after his coming back from at-Ta’if when he had made a speech before the people. There was no contradiction that the Prophet (S) had mentioned this tradition in all these occasions because he had intended to make people take much care of the Qur'an and the pure family of the Prophet (S)…” Refer to as-Sawa’iq, p.92.
23. As-Sabban said in his Is’af, p.114: “Some scholars of Hadith have mentioned in their Sunan a tradition narrated by many companions that the Prophet (S) had said: “My family among you is like the Ark of Noah; whoever rides on it will be rescued and whoever lags behind it will perish or (will drown) in another tradition or (will be thrown in Hell) in a third tradition. In another way narrated by Abu Dharr there was an addition. He said: “I have heard him (the Prophet (S)) saying: “Consider my family among you as the head to the body and as the two eyes to the head.”
24. With reference to the Prophet’s saying about keeping to the two weighty things “…do not precede them so that you may perish and do not teach them because they are more aware than you.” Refer to Rashfat as-Sadi by Abu Bakr al-Alawi, chap.5 and as-Sawai’q al-Muhriqa by Ibn Hajar, chap.11.
25. Al-Mullah mentioned in his Seera that the Prophet (S) had said: “In every generation of my umma there will be virtuous believers from my progeny, who will keep this religion safe from the distortion of the deviants, the fabrication of the liars and the interpretation of the ignorants. Your imams are your delegations to Allah. Be careful whom you will delegate.” As-Sawa’iq by Ibn Hajar, p.92.
26. The Prophet (S) has said: “Knowing the family of Muhammad saves (people) from Hell, loving the family of Muhammad helps to pass to Paradise and submitting to the family of Muhammad saves from torment.” Ash-Shifa’ by Judge Ayyadh, vol.2 p.41.
27. The Prophet (S) has said: “Keep to loving us, Ahlul Bayt. He, who meets Allah with loving us, will enter Paradise by our intercession. I swear by Him, in Whose hand my soul is, that no deed will benefit anyone except by knowing our rights.” Mentioned by at-Tabari in al-Awsat, as-Sayooti in Ihya’ al-Mayyit and an-Nabahni in al-Arba’een.
28. The Prophet (S) has said: “No one will step unless he will be asked about four things; about his age how he has spent it, his body how he has worn it out, his money how he has spent it and from where he has gained it and about loving us Ahlul Bayt.” Mentioned by at-Tabarani from Ibn Abbas, as-Sayooti in Ihya’ul Mayyit and an-Nabahani in al-Arba’een.
29. The Prophet (S) has said: “If a man spends his age between the Kaaba and the temple (of Abraham) praying and fasting but hating Ahlul Bayt, he will be thrown into Hell.” Mentioned by at-Tabarani, al-Hakim and an-Nabahani.
Abu Sa’eed narrated that the Prophet (S) had said: “By Him, in Whose hand my soul is, no man hates us Ahlul Bayt, unless he will be thrown into Hell.” Mentioned by al-Hakim, Ibn Habban and an-Nabahani.
Imam Hasan (as) has said to Mo’awiya bin Khudayj: “The Messenger of Allah has said: “No one hates us and envies us unless he will be tortured on the Day of Resurrection with whips of fire.” Mentioned by at-Tabarani as in Ihya’ul Mayyit.
Jabir bin Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (S) had said: “Once the Prophet (S) made a speech and he said: “O people, whoever hates us Ahlul Bayt, Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Resurrection as a Jew.” Mentioned by at-Tabarani in al-Awsat as in Ihya’ul Mayyit by as-Sayooti and al-Arba’een by an-Nabahani.
30. Vol.4 p.177.
31. vol.3 p.247.
We end our book with the same subject that we have begun with; the imamate after the Prophet (S) because of its importance near Allah and His Messenger and because of its necessity to the umma in its religion and life and because of that the Prophet (S) has spared no effort to fix it for the sake of Allah the Almighty and for the sake of his umma.
He, who has been aware of the way of the Prophet (S) in establishing the state of Islam since the first step, would find that Imam ‘Ali (as) was his vizier, his partner in his affairs, his supporter against his enemies, the container of his knowledge, the heir of his wisdom, his guardian and the caliph after him.
He who has pondered on the Prophet’s sayings and doings in his travel and residing, would find that many of them have declared these matters since the advent of the mission until the last day of his holy life. The Prophet (S) continued to declare these meanings in his wise manner throughout the twenty-three years he had been sent as a prophet until he left to the better world. He praised the virtues of Imam ‘Ali (as), mentioned his high position and glorified his personality on every occasion.
The Prophet (S) declared the important position of Imam ‘Ali (as) in a clear text since the first days of prophethood and before the mission has been spread openly in Mecca when he warned his close relatives at the time of his uncle Sheikh al-Bat~ha’ Abu Talib. He had said to them in the house of Abu Talib while putting his hand on the neck of Imam ‘Ali (as), who was the youngest one among the relatives then: “This (Ali) is my brother, my guardian and my caliph among you. You are to listen to him and to obey him…” 1
Since then the Prophet (S) kept on referring to the caliphate of Imam ‘Ali (as) after him sometimes in clear texts like his saying to Imam ‘Ali (as) when he had left him on Medina during the battle of Tabook “I should not go unless you remain as my caliph” 2 and sometimes in more special meanings like his saying when Burayda has complained against Imam ‘Ali (as) “Do not get involved with Ali! He is from me and I am from him and he will be your guardian after me.” It has been mentioned by Ahmad bin Hanbal in this way.
An-Nassa’iy has mentioned the tradition in this way: “O Burayda, do not offend Ali! He is from me and I am from him and he will be your guardian after me.”
At-Tabarani mentioned the tradition in details that the Prophet (S) had said: “Why do some people disparage Ali? He, who hates Ali, hates me and he, who turns away from Ali, turns away from me. Ali is from me and I am from him. He has been created from my clay and I have been created from the clay of Abraham but I am better than Abraham; “..a progeny one from the other and Allah is Hearing, Knowing (3:34).
O Burayda, have you not known that Ali deserves more than the bondmaid he has taken? He will be your guardian after me.”
Imran bin Husayn narrated: “Four of the Prophet’s companions have agreed to complain of Ali to the Prophet (S). One of them said: “O Messenger of Allah, have you not seen that Ali had done so and so?” The Prophet (S) paid no attention to him. The second one said the same to the Prophet (S) and the Prophet (S) paid no attention to him. The third one said the same and the Prophet (S) paid no attention to him. The fourth one said the same. The Prophet (S) became very angry and he said: “What do you want from Ali? Ali is from me and I am from him and he will be the guardian of every believer after me.”
Wahab bin Hamza said - as in al-Isaba, biography of Wahab: “Once I travelled with Ali and I found that he somehow had turned away from me. When I came back I mentioned Ali to the Prophet (S) and I criticized him. The Prophet (S) said to me: “Do not say this about Ali because he will be your guardian after me.”
At-Tabarani mentioned this tradition of Wahab in al-Kabeer but he said: “…do not say this about Ali because he is the worthiest of the people for being your guardian after me.” 3
The Prophet (S) might have entrusted some of his sincere companions such as Salman al-Farisi with his sayings about appointing Imam ‘Ali (as) as his successor. At-Tabarani mentioned (from Salman) in al-Kabeer that the Prophet (S) had said: “My guardian, the keeper of my secrets, the best one whom I leave after me, the one, who executes my promises and pays my debts, is Ali bin Abi Talib.”
And the Prophet (S) might have distinguished some of those, who had diseases in their hearts such as Burayda, with his special saying about Imam ‘Ali (as). Muhammad bin Hameed ar-Razi mentioned from Burayda that the Prophet (S) had said: “Every prophet has had a guardian and heir. My guardian and heir is Ali bin Abi Talib.”
And like Anas bin Malik who narrated, as mentioned in Hilyatul Awliya’ by Abu Na’eem, that the Prophet (S) had said to him: “O Anas, the first one, who will come to you from this door, is the imam of the pious, the master of the Muslims, the guarder of the religion, the last of the guardians and the leader of the bright-faced people of Paradise.” Anas said: “Then Ali came and the Prophet (S) got up delightedly and embraced him. The Prophet (S) said to him: “You carry out my affairs instead of me, convey to the people my orders and explain to them what they disagree on after me.” 4
Anas also narrated that he had heard the Prophet (S) saying: “I and Ali are proofs before the umma on the day of resurrection.” 5
The Prophet (S) had also entrusted some virtuous women with such traditions like his wife Umm Salama, his uncle’s wife Umm al-Fadhl, Asma’ bint Umays, Umm Sulaym al-Ansariya and their likes. He had also declared this matter (Ali’s right in leading the umma) from above his minbar.
He had revealed it to some of his companions in al-Baqee’ and hinted at it on the day of brotherhood in Mecca before the hijra and the other time in Medina on the day of brotherhood between the Muhajireen and the Ansar. In both occasions the Prophet (S) had taken Imam Ali (S) as his brother preferring him to the all other Muslims saying to him: “You are to me as Aaron was to Moses but there will be no prophet after me.”
Such the Prophet (S) had done when he had closed all the doors of the companions leading to the mosque except the door of Imam ‘Ali (as). 6
The first caliph Abu Bakr narrated that the Prophet (S) had said: “Ali to me is as my position near Allah.” 7
The Prophet (S) had said: “My hand and Ali’s hand are the same in justice.” 8
The Prophet (S) had interpreted the verse (7) of the “the warner and the guide” mentioned in the sura of ar-Ra’d (13) by saying: “I am the warner and Ali is the guide. O Ali, by you the people will be guided after me.” 9
The Prophet (S) had said: “Ali to me is as my head to my body.” 10
He had also said: “Ali is with the Qur'an and the Qur'an is with Ali; they do never separate until they will come to me at the pond (in Paradise).” 11
The Prophet (S) had also said: “I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate and whoever wants to get knowledge has to come through the gate.” 12
The Prophet (S) had said: “I am the house of wisdom and Ali is its gate.” 13
He had also said: “O Ali, you explain to my umma what they will disagree on after me.” 14
He had also said: “He, who obeys me, obeys Allah and he, who disobeys me, disobeys Allah. He, who obeys Ali, obeys me and he, who disobeys Ali, disobeys me.” 15
There are many other traditions like these ones talking about the same meaning even if their wordings are somehow different. These traditions have given Imam ‘Ali (as) a position near the Prophet (S) that no prophet can give except to the guardian and the caliph after him. This is the meaning of the traditions that comes to mind according to the rules of the language.
There are other true traditions that have given Imam ‘Ali (as) and the infallible imams after him the position of the caliphate after the Prophet (S) and have imposed on the umma to obey them. The Prophet (S) has bound the umma with the two ropes (the Qur'an and the Prophet’s family) and tied the umma; the scholars and the ignorants, the free and the slaves, the rulers and the public to the two weighty things until the Day of Resurrection. He has not excluded any one of the umma; neither Abu Bakr, nor Umar, nor Othman, nor and nor… whether men or women…the two weighty things are the Book of Allah and the infallible imams (S) of the Prophet’s progeny.
The Prophet (S) has warned all of his umma of being deviated from the truth if they would not keep to these two weighty things and he has told them that these two weighty things would never separate and the earth would never be empty of them until they would come to him at the pond (in Paradise) and by this the truth has shone and there would be no way for suspicion. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.
The Prophet (S) was not satisfied with the traditions of “the two weighty things”. He compared his progeny once to the Ark of Noah, that whoever boards it is rescued and whoever lags behind it drowns, and another time to the Gate of Hitta of the Israelites that whoever enters into it is forgiven. The Prophet (S) has considered his progeny as safety for the people of the earth that would keep them safe from disagreement so that whenever a tribe opposed them (the Prophet’s progeny), it would be the party of Iblis.
The Prophet (S) had spared no effort to bind his umma to obey his progeny and to follow them. He excluded no one of the umma from that.
How could any of the umma have an excuse to turn away from Ahlul Bayt (as) after they have become as the Ark of Noah and as the Gate of Hitta and after they have been the equal of the Qur'an that no Muslim could find a substitute for them?
Someone might say: How could the Prophet’s companions, if the Prophet (S) had determined something, contradict his order? Why did ‘Ali (as) not try to get his promised right? Why did he not dispute or asked for his right? Why did he keep to his house throughout the period of the rule of the three caliphs and he always was loyal in advising them? What would the Shia say about the Prophet’s saying “My umma will never agree unanimously on deviation or untruth”? Why did ‘Ali (as) and his followers of the Hashemites or other than the Hashemites not protest against the homage on the Day of as-Saqeefa? Why had the caliphate of ‘Ali (as) not been revealed by Allah in a clear verse like the verses of monotheism, prophethood, justice and resurrection?
The answer: as for their (the companions’) contradicting the prophetic traditions, you have known this well from this book and the many occasions of their contradictions have been shown too clearly.
The conduct of the changeable people of politics and ambition and their followers from among the Prophet’s companions have showed us that they have followed the prophetic traditions concerning the mere affairs of obligations such as the prayer which should be towards the qiblah and fasting which should be in Ramadan and the likes but as for the traditions concerning the affairs of politics such as caliphate, emirate, managing the affairs of the state and the rule, they thought that following these traditions was not necessary and they often followed their own opinions as we have detailed that in our books al-Muraja’at and al-Fusool al-Muhimma. 16
As for saying that Imam ‘Ali (as) had given up his right and not asked for it, and had kept to his house, and advised the caliphs sincerely and the opinion of the Shia about non-agreement of the umma on deviation, we have explained these subjects in details in our book al-Muraja’at. 17
As for protesting or not against the homage (of the caliphate) on the day of as-Saqeefa, we have detailed that in our book al-Muraja’at, muraja’a no.102.
As for that Allah has not revealed a clear verse in the Qur'an about the caliphate of Imam ‘Ali (as) like the verses of monotheism, justice, prophethood and resurrection, we refer the questioners to the detailed word in our thesis “Falsafat al-Meethaq wel-Wilaya: the philosophy of the covenant and guardianship” 18 where the truth has shone clearly.
The Prophet (S) had kept on preparing Imam ‘Ali (as) to have his position in the umma since the first days of the mission. He has declared that in different ways until he became ill at the last moments of his holy life. He lay in his room, which was crowded with his companions. He said: “O people, I am about to die and be taken to the other world soon. I have advised you to beware of your affairs. I have left among you the Book of Allah, the Almighty, and my family.” Then he has lifted Imam Ali’s hand and said: “This is Ali. He is with the Qur'an and the Qur'an is with him. They do not separate until they will come to me at the pond…” 19
When the Prophet (S) had been inspired by the revelation that it would be near to him to leave for the better world, he, due to his great care for the matter of guardianship, announced that he would go to perform the hajj. It was the last (farewell) hajj in his life. He left Medina with about ninety thousand Muslims or more 20 besides those who joined him along the way and in Arafa. When it was the day of the stop on Mount Arafa, the Prophet (S) made a speech before the hajjis advising and preaching.
From among what he had said to them was: “O people, I am about to be called (for death) and I will respond. I have left among you what if you keep to, you will never go astray; the Book of Allah and my family. They will never separate until they will come to me at the pond (in Paradise). Beware how you will regard me in dealing with them!”
There were many situations before this one and after it in which the Prophet (S) had bound the umma with the two ropes and the two weighty things (the Book of Allah and the infallible imams). He promised the umma of remaining on guidance if it would keep to these two weighty things and warned it of being deviated if it would turn away from them. He told the umma that these two things would not separate and the earth would not become empty of them.
These situations of the Prophet (S) were not general but his situation on the day of Arafat and then his situation on the day of al-Ghadeer were before great masses of the umma. 21
Before the Prophet (S) left Arafa, he had made a speech before the Muslims who were looking at him and listening with their ears and hearts. He said loudly: “Ali is from me and I am from Ali and no one is to carry out my affairs except me or Ali.” 22
How a great covenant it was; light for the tongue, heavy in the scales! It gave ‘Ali (as) the authority to carry out the affairs of the Prophet (S) as the same as the authority of the Prophet (S) himself in carrying out his own affairs. It was a permission to ‘Ali (as) to legislate the legal verdicts the Prophet (S) had entrusted him with when the people would face problems after the death of the Prophet (S). 23
The Prophet (S) made Imam ‘Ali (as) participate in his mission and entrusted him with the revelation of Allah as Aaron had been to Moses except that ‘Ali (as) was not a prophet but he was a vizier and a guardian. Imam ‘Ali (as) imitated the Prophet (S), followed his orders and carried out all that with which he had entrusted him.
In this wise way the Prophet (S) has declared the matter of guardianship and in these intelligent manners he has spread it among the umma. He has advanced step by step with his different traditions and various manners according to the requirements of the different occasions and conditions of the umma.
He did not close the way of misinterpretation (of the traditions) before the opponents in order not to embarrass them and then they might turn from Allah and His Messenger; therefore he behaved wisely to bring the opponents gradually towards the matter he feared the opponents would deny and this wise conduct was one of his miracles.
In this way the Prophet (S) has decreased their rage and anger and has calmed their nerves. They, little by little, accepted the matter apparently whereas their hearts denied it. This has led the Prophet (S) to fear for the religion and the umma. When he came back from the last (farewell) hajj with the great number of the pilgrims, he felt a great fear inside him. He prayed to Allah to have mercy on him and to protect him from people. When he arrived at Ghadeer Khum, Allah revealed to him: “O Messenger! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people” (Qur’an 5:67)24.
Let the umma ponder on this verse with its severe threat: “O Messenger! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message”
to see that the position of guardianship in their Islamic religion is a little less than the position of prophethood and they both are of the same kind especially after Allah has said at the end of the verse: “..surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people”.
Do you not see that the threat in this verse (if not announcing guardianship) is like the threat (if giving up monotheism) mentioned in this verse: “And certainly, it has been revealed to you and to those before you: Surely if you associate (with Allah), your work would certainly come to naught and you would certainly be of the losers”? (Qur’an 39:65).
If the Muslims ponder on the verse, they will know that the consequences of the threat concern those who oppose announcing the matter of guardianship, and not the Prophet (S). Far be it from Allah to threaten His Messenger! It is like His saying: “Surely if you associate (with Allah), your work would certainly come to naught and you would certainly be of the losers”.
The threat is to those, who associate other gods with Allah, and not to the master of the prophets (S).
When the verse was revealed to the Prophet (S), he dismounted from his sumpter and asked the Muslims, who were with him, to dismount. He sent for the advanced pilgrims to come back and he waited for the late ones to arrive. When all the people gathered in one place, the Prophet (S) led them in offering the prayer and then he asked his companions to make him a minbar. They made a minbar of the saddles of the camels between two trees to make a shadow for the Prophet (S).
The Prophet (S) ascended the minbar and seated Imam ‘Ali (as) on one step lower than him. He made a speech before the great mass of the pilgrims. He began his speech with the name of Allah. He praised Allah and said whatever he liked loudly to make the all hear him. They directed their ears and hearts towards him.
Here is some of his speech he made on that day: “O people, I think I am about to be called (die) 25 and thus I must respond. I am responsible and you are responsible, 26 then what do you say?” They said: “We witness that you have informed, advised and striven. May Allah bless you.” He said: “Do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle, and that His Heaven is true, His Hell is true, death is true, the Resurrection after death is true, that there is no doubt that the Day of Judgment will come, and that Allah will resurrect the dead from their graves?” They said: “Yes, we bear witness”. 27 He said: “O Allah, bear witness.”
Then he said: “O people, Allah is my Lord and I am the lord of the believers. I am worthier of the believers than themselves. 28 Of whomsoever I had been guardian, Ali here is to be his Guardian. O Allah, be a supporter of whoever supports him (Ali) and an enemy of whoever opposes him.”
Then he said: “O people, I will go ahead of you and you will arrive at my Pond (in Heaven) which is wider than the distance between Busra and Sana’a. It has receptacles as numerous as the stars, and two cups of gold and two of silver.
“I will ask you about the two weighty things that I have left for you when you come to me to see how you dealt with them. The greater weighty thing is Allah’s book; the Holy Qur’an. One end is in Allah’s hand and the other is in your hands. Keep it and you will not deviate. The other weighty thing is my family and my descendents. The Most Kind the Omniscient had told me that both of them would not separate until they come to my Pond.” 29
This tradition is true and recurrent 30 but Sheikh al-Bishri (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his argument with me about this tradition: “Trusting in the companions or not requires to interpret the tradition (of al-Ghadeer) whether it was recurrent or not. The Sunnis said that the word “mawla-guardian” was used to refer to different meanings as mentioned in the holy Qur'an.
“Once it means “the worthier” as Allah has said addressing the unbelievers: “Your abode is the fire; it is worthier of you” (Qur’an 57:15).
Another time it means “supporter” as Allah has said: “That is because Allah is the Supporter of those who believe and the unbelievers shall have no supporter for them (Qur’an 47:11).
Sometimes it means “heir” as Allah has said: “And to every one We have appointed heirs of what parents and near relatives leave” (Qur’an 4:33).
Sometimes it means “relatives” as Allah has said: “And surely I fear my cousins after me” (Qur’an 19:5).
Sometimes it means “friend”. Allah has said: “The day on which a friend shall not avail (his) friend aught” (Qur’an 44:41).
“Also the word “wali” means the one who is worthier to carry out the affairs of someone like saying “the wali of an underage one”. It also means “assistant” or “beloved”. The tradition might mean “Whoever I was his supporter, his friend or his beloved, Ali is the same” and this meaning would comply with the dignity of the companions and the imamate of the three caliphs (may Allah be pleased with them).”
I replied: “I know that your heart does not believe in what you have said and your soul does not accept it. You recognize well the excellent wisdom of the Prophet (S), his infallibility and his last prophethood and that he was the master of the wise men and the last of the prophets.
“Nor does he speak out of desire. It is naught but revelation that is revealed. The Lord of Mighty Power has taught him” (53:3-5).
“If philosophers of other sects ask you about what has happened on the day of Ghadeer Khum by saying: “Why did the Prophet (S) prevent the many thousands of the Muslims from keeping on their ways? Why did he order them to stay in the desert under the heat of summer? Why did he send for the advanced pilgrims to come back and wait until the late pilgrims would join him? Why did he make them stop at that desert without food or water to make a speech before them by the order of Allah at the crossroad from which they would separate towards their countries?
What made him tell them at the beginning of his speech that he would die before long? He said: “I am about to be called (die) and thus I must respond. I am responsible and you are responsible.” What was the matter that the Prophet (S) would be responsible for informing it and the umma would be responsible for obedience?
Why did the Prophet (S) ask them: “Do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle, and that His Heaven is true, His Hell is true, death is true, the Resurrection after death is true, that there is no doubt that the Day of Judgment will come, and that Allah will resurrect the dead from their graves?” They said: “Yes, we bear witness to that.”
Why did he take Ali’s hand and lift it until the white of their armpits appeared and said: “O people, Allah is my Lord and I am the lord of the believers? Why did he interpret his word “I am the lord of the believers” by saying: “I am worthier of the believers than themselves”? Why did he say after that: “Of whomsoever I had been guardian, Ali here is to be his guardian. O Allah, be a supporter of whoever supports him (Ali) and an enemy of whoever opposes him. Assist whoever assists him and disappoint whoever disappoints him”?
Why did he pray for him with such prayers that did not befit save the imams of the truth and the real caliphs? Why did he make them witness that he was worthier of them than themselves and when they said yes, he said: “Whoever I had been his guardian, here is Ali to be his guardian.”?
Why did he compare his family to the Qur'an? Why did he make his family as the example for the believers until the Day of Resurrection? Why was his family equal to the Qur'an? Why did he say that they would never separate? Why did he say that whoever kept to them (the Qur'an and the Prophet’s family) would be guided and that whoever turned away from them would deviate? What was all this great interest of the Prophet (S) for? 31 What was the task that needed all these fore procedures? What was the purpose behind the situation on that famous day?
What was the matter that Allah had ordered the Prophet (S) to announce when He had revealed to him: “O Messenger! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people” (Qur’an 5:67).
What task was it that required Allah to stress on it in this way and to insist on announcing it with a kind of threat? In the announcement of what matter did the Prophet (S) fear sedition? Why did he need the protection of Allah against the hypocrites in order to announce this matter?
By Allah, if you have been asked all these questions, would you answer that Allah and His Messenger just have wanted to show the assistance and the friendship of ‘Ali (as) to the Muslims and nothing else? I do not think that you are satisfied with this answer nor do I think that you see it is possible for Allah, the Lord of the worlds and for His Messenger, the master of the wise and the last of the prophets (S).
You are loftier than to think that the Prophet (S) may expend all his determinations to declare something that does not need to be declared or to clarify something that is clear to conscience and sight and no doubt that you glorify the Prophet’s doings and sayings from being despised by the rational or being criticized by philosophers and wise men. There is no doubt that you know the wisdom and the infallibility of the Prophet’s doings and sayings. Allah has said: “Most surely it is the Word of an honored messenger. Mighty, having an honorable place with the Lord of the Dominion. One (to be) obeyed, and faithful in trust. And your companion is not gone mad” (Qur’an 81:19-22).
Would it be possible for the Prophet (S) to worry himself with explaining the clear things and expressing the obvious matters and to present for these clear things preludes and introductions which had nothing to do with those clear things? Allah and His Messenger are far above that!
You, may Allah assist the truth by you, know that what befitted the Prophet’s position and interest in that hot weather and befitted his sayings and doings on the day of al-Ghadeer was to announce his covenant; to appoint the one who would be in his place and who would be his successor. All the evidences on that day confirmed that the Prophet (S) had intended to appoint the guardian and the caliph after him. The tradition is a clear text determining the caliphate of Imam Ali (S) and it does not accept any other interpretation and there is no way to turn it to any other meaning. This is clear “..for him who hath a heart, or giveth ear with full intelligence” (50:37).
This tradition was not safe from being abbreviated by omitting some parts of it because the authority and the majority at that time were with the changeable oppositionists who were the people of the power and the rule. Nevertheless the remainder of the tradition is enough to show the truth; yet it is wonderful that it has remained! In fact it has remained: “..that he who would perish might perish by clear proof and he who would live might live by clear proof” (8:42 )
and Allah has the conclusive argument over people!
As for the Shia, they have true traditions from Imam Abu Abdullah as-Sadiq (S) from his fathers (S) that the Prophet (S) had determined clearly and openly on the day of al-Ghadeer that Imam ‘Ali (as) would be the caliph after him and that the Prophet (S) had ordered his companions to greet Imam ‘Ali (as) by calling him as Ameerul Mo'mineen (the commander of the believers). Some of the companions greeted him without saying anything and some others greeted him after they had asked the Prophet (S): “O Messenger of Allah, is this from Allah and His Messenger?” the Prophet (S) said: “Yes, it is from Allah and His Messenger.” 32
The truth has been clarified then and the morning has shone for the seers! Praise be to Allah!
Allah has said: “Certainly they sought (to sow) dissension before, and they meditated plots against you until the truth came, and Allah's commandment prevailed although they were averse (from it)” (Qur’an 9:48).
The opponents did not imagine that the Prophet (S) would take that situation which he had taken on the day of al-Ghadeer at all. When he surprised them with it and carried out what Allah had ordered him to do, they found that opposing him at the end of his mission (after the Arabs had submitted to him and the people had become Muslims group by group) would be useless. In fact they found that their opposition would bring them disasters and ordeals because it would cause their decline especially or the decline of Islam and the Arabs in general and consequently they would lose the aim they looked forward to and the position they got themselves prepared for.
Therefore they found that it would be better for them to be somehow patient and to give up rising at that moment. They decided to wait until the Prophet (S) would leave to the better world in order that their rising would not be against the Prophet (S) himself. Hence they behaved tactfully as possible as they could and they kept to the Islamic rituals and did well in defending them. Allah had revealed to the Prophet (S) about what they had hidden in their hearts and informed him of what they would do after him but the religion must be perfected, the favor must be completed and the mission must be informed of.
“..that he who would perish might perish by clear proof, and he who would live might live by clear proof..” (8:42)
“..and nothing rests on the Messenger but clear delivering (of the message)” (29:18).
Yes, the Prophet (S) had recommended his guardian to receive the people, when opposing him, with magnanimity, to prefer them to his own right, to face that ordeal with patience and reliance on Allah to save Islam from any danger and to prefer the general welfare to the personal benefits and he had ordered the umma to be patient before that ordeal.
Huthayfa bin al-Yaman narrated that the Prophet (S) had said: “After me there will be imams, who will not act according to my guidance and will not follow my Sunna. Among them there will be some men, whose hearts are hearts of devils in bodies of human beings.” Huthayfa asked: “O Messenger of Allah, if I live until then, what shall I do?” The Prophet (S) said: “You should listen to and obey the emir even if he beats you and takes your monies. Listen to him and obey him!”33
Abdullah bin Mas’ood narrated that the Prophet (S) had said: “After me there will be selfishness and some things that you will deny.” The companions asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what do you order us to do if we live until then?” He said: “You should do your duties and ask Allah for what you deserve.” 34
Abu Dharr often narrated: “My friend, the Messenger of Allah (S) has advised me to listen to and to obey (the emir) even if he is a slave with amputated limbs.”35
Salama al-Ju’fi asked the Prophet (S): “O prophet of Allah, if there will be emirs asking us for their rights but preventing us from our rights, what do you order us to do then?” The Prophet (S) said: “Listen to them and obey them. They will be responsible for their duties and you will be responsible for your duties.” 36
Umm Salama narrated that the Prophet (S) had said: “There will be emirs (ruling) over you. You will know (their bad deeds) and you will deny (them). He, who will know, will be innocent and he, who will deny, will be safe.” 37 The companions asked the Prophet (S): “Should we fight them?” He said: “No, you should not as long as they offer prayers.” 38
The traditions having this meaning are many and recurrent especially the traditions that have been narrated from Ahlul Bayt (as).
Therefore Ahlul Bayt (as) were patient unwillingly following these sacred orders of the Prophet (S) and other recommendations and advice that the Prophet (S) had especially entrusted them with to keep the umma safe from dangers, to keep the unity of the Muslims, to prefer the religion to the personal rights and to spare the power of the Muslims. Therefore Ahlul Bayt (as) (as we have said in our book al-Muraja’at and other books) always advised the rulers and the men of authority with sincere advice and gave them their loyal consultations although they felt bitter pains inside them for their lost rights but they always preferred the benefit of the umma and the benefits of the Muslims to their own.
They, although their position had been usurped, always carried out their duties towards the umma according to the rational and legal base of preferring the more important thing to the important thing. Therefore Imam ‘Ali (as) had been sincere and loyal in giving his advice to the three caliphs and in responding to their needs when consulting with him about the different affairs of the state.
When Imam ‘Ali (as) had become desperate of getting his right of the caliphate, he took the way of meekness and reconciliation towards the rulers. He saw his legal throne in their hands but he neither fought them for it nor did he try to remove them from it. He tried his best to keep the umma away from any danger, to guard the unity of the Muslims, to defend the religion and to prefer the afterlife to the worldly life.
He had been surrounded by serious matters and disasters; the caliphate with its legal texts and covenants that called for him with a voice that made his heart and his followers’ hearts bleed besides prevailing seditions that were about to turn the Arabia over, to lead the Arabs to rise and to make Islam liable to be invaded by the hypocrites of Medina and the Arabs of the desert who were hypocrites as the holy Qur'an had said, in fact they were the severest in disbelief and hypocrisy and they were far away from the limits of Allah and His Messenger, besides (at-Tulaqa’) 39 of the people of Mecca, who had hidden enmity and rage, and the other tyrants and enemies of the truth who had become strong and powerful after the death of the Prophet (S).
The Muslims had become like sheep in a winter night between wolves and savage beasts; Musaylama the liar, Tulayha bin Khuwaylid the quack, Saja’ bint al-Harith the impostor and their followers who were ready to do away with Islam besides the Romans, the kings of Persia and the other kings of the world who had lain in wait for the Muslims besides many other figures who were full of spite against the Prophet (S), his family and his companions and full of spite against Islam intending to tear down all its bases and pillars.
They found, after the death of the Prophet (S), that the time had come for them to attack Islam. They wanted to seize the opportunity of the anarchy that had taken place after the death of the Prophet (S) before power and order would return to Islam. Ameerul Mo'mineen Imam ‘Ali (as) stopped between these two dangers; the loss of the caliphate or the decline of Islam. It was natural for him to sacrifice his right of the caliphate for the sake of Islam and for the sake of the general welfare of the umma; therefore he kept to his house.
He did not pay homage until he was taken out of his house by force to pay homage (to Abu Bakr). He refused to pay homage willingly to keep his right and to protest against those who had extorted his right and against their followers until the Day of Judgment. If he had paid homage, he would have had no evidence on his right later on nor would his followers have any authority at all. But by doing that, Imam ‘Ali (as) had kept Islam and the Muslims safe and he had kept his right of the emirate of the believers and this showed his discernment, magnanimity, patience and preferring the general welfare too wisely.
Surely Imam ‘Ali (as) had gained a high position near Allah by giving up his right of such a great and important matter (the caliphate of the Muslims) just for the sake of the religion, the umma and the public benefits. His aim behind doing this was to win the best reward from Allah, the Almighty and to be closer to the Lord of the worlds.
“Glory be to your Lord, the Lord of Honor, above what they describe and peace be on the messengers and all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds” (Qur’an 37:180-182)
and the blessing of Allah on the master of the prophets and the last of the Messengers Muhammad and his pure progeny.
This book has been completed with the grace of Allah, praise be to Him, in Soor 40 on Wednesday, the tenth of Rajab, 1375 AH, by the poor slave of Allah, who looks forward to the mercy of Allah, Abdul Hussayn bin 41 Sharif Yousuf bin Sharif Jawad bin Sharif Isma’eel bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Sharafuddeen, whose name was Ibrahim, bin Zein al-Aabideen bin Ali Nooruddeen bin Nooruddeen Ali bin Izziddeen al-Husayn bin Muhammad bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Muhammad bin Tajuddeen, who was famous as Abul Hasan bin Muhammad, whose surname was Shamsuddeen, bin Abdullah, whose surname was Jalaluddeen, bin Ahmed bin Hamza bin Sa’dullah bin Hamza bin Abus-Sa’adat Muhammad bin Abu Muhammad Abdullah, the head of the chiefs of the Talibites 42 in Baghdad, bin Abul Harth Muhammad bin Abul Hasan Ali, who was famous as ibnud Daylamiyya, bin Abu Tahir Abdullah bin Abul Hasan Muhammad al-Muhaddith bin Abut Tayyib Tahir bin al-Husayn al-Qat’ei bin Musa Abu Sibha bin Ibrahim al-Murtadha bin Imam al-Kadhim bin Imam as-Sadiq bin Imam al-Baqir bin Imam Zeinul Aabideen bin Imam Abu Abdullah al-Husayn, the Master of the martyrs, the grandson of the Prophet and the son of Amirul Mu’mineen, the master of the guardians, Ali bin Abi Talib.
Allah’s blessing and peace be upon the Prophet and all of his progeny and praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.
1. We have mentioned this tradition in our book al-Muraja’at with its series of narrators and sources from the books of the Sunni. Refer to Muraja’a no. 20 and 22. Ponder on the Prophet’s saying to his close relative, among whom were his uncles like Abu Talib and others “You are to listen to him (Ali) and to obey him” which has showed that Imam ‘Ali (as) since those first days was to the Prophet (S) as Aaron was to Moses except that there would be no prophet after Prophet Muhammad (S).
2. You find this text in a true tradition having more than ten aspects of Ali’s each of which nominating him to the imamate. Refer to our book al-Muraja’at, muraja’a no.26-34.
3. Refer to al-Muraja’at, muraja’a no.36.
4. Al-Muraja’at, muraja’a no.68.
5. Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.157.
6. Al-Muraja’at, muraja’a no.32.
7. As-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa by Ibn Hajar, p. 106, chap. 11 when talking about the verse 14 mentioned in this chapter.
8. Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.153, al-Muraja’at, p.167, 172 third edition.
9. Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.157.
10. As-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa by Ibn Hajar, p.75 part 2 chap.9 narrated by al-Bara’ and ad-Daylami from Ibn Abbas.
11. Mustadrak of al-Hakim, vol.3 p.124, Talkhees al-Mustadrak by ath-Thahabi.
12. Mentioned by at-Tabarani from Ibn Abbas as in al-Jami’ as-Sagheer by as-Sayooti, p.107 and al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, vol.3 p.126-127 in two ways; from Ibn Abbas and Jabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari. Al-Hakim has proved the tradition to be true with many exact evidences. Ahmad bin Muhammad bin as- Siddeeq al-Maghribi has written a book to prove the truthfulness of this tradition and he has called it “Fat~h al-Melik al-Aliy bisihhat Hadeeth Bab Medeenatul Ilm Ali” printed in Egypt in 1354 A.H. Let the fair researchers refer to it because it has good information and facts. The enemies of Ahlul Bayt (as), who have denied this tradition, have no value near us because they have no evidence in denying this tradition which has become as a proverb narrated by everyone and everywhere. We have pondered on their denying this tradition and we have found that it was out of impudence and fanaticism as Salahuddeen al-Ala’iy has declared by saying: “They have no evidence in denying this tradition save pretending that it is a fabricated tradition.”
13. Mentioned by at-Tarmithi and Ibn Jareer in their Sahihs and quoted from them by some scholars like al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.401.
14. Mustadrak of al-Hakim, vol.3 p.122. Al-Hakim said that it had been a true tradition according to the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim but they had not mentioned it.
15. Ibid. vol.3 p.121, Talkhees al-Mustadrak by ath-Thahabi in the same page. They said it was true according to al-Bukhari and Muslim.
16. Refer to muraja’a no.84 p.262-265 third edition and chap.8 in al-Fusool al-Muhimma, p.81-85 second edition.
17. Muraja’a no.82 and 84.
18. From p.17 to the end of the thesis.
19. As-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, chap.2 p.75.
20. As in al-Halabi’s Seera and ad-Dahlani’s Seera.
21. Ibn Hajar said in as-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa: “Know that this tradition has been narrated by more than twenty companions. In some ways of this tradition it has been said that the Prophet (S) had said it in his last (farewell) hajj and in another occasion he had said it in Medina during his illness when his room was full of his companions. In another way he had said it in Ghadeer Khum and in another occasion he had said it after his coming back from at-Ta’if when he had made a speech before the people. There was no contradiction that the Prophet (S) had mentioned this tradition in all these occasions because he had intended to make people take much care of the Qur'an and the pure family of the Prophet (S)…” Refer to as-Sawa’iq, p.89.
Ibn Hajar acknowledged that the Prophet (S) had declared the tradition of ath-Thaqalayn “the two weighty things” in many occasions and that it had been narrated by more than twenty companions. Even if the Prophet (S) had not declared this tradition except in these two occasions; on the day of Arafa and on the day of al-Ghadeer, it would have been a recurrent tradition because those, who had heard it and narrated it from the Prophet (S), were about ninety thousands at least in each of those two occasions.
22. Mentioned by Ahmad bin Hanbal in his Musnad, vol.4 p.164 from Habashi bin Junada in many ways all of which were true. Ahmad has mentioned the tradition from Yahya bin Adam from Israel bin Younus from his grandfather as-Subay’iy from Habashi and all these narrators were reliable according to al-Bukhari and Muslim who had mentioned their traditions in their Sahihs. It has also been mentioned by Ibn Maja in his Sunan, vol.1 p.92 and by at-Tarmithi and an-Nassa’iy in their Sunans. Refer to Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.153.
23. This is the meaning of carrying out the affairs of the Prophet (S) that Imam ‘Ali (as) was the only one who had been permitted to do. The jurisprudents carry out the principles and branches of the religion as Allah and His Messenger have legislated, the people of Hadith carry out the traditions of the Prophet (S) and the scholars carry out the knowledge of the Prophet (S) but no one has a right to legislate legal verdicts after Allah and His Messenger. He, who ascribes fabricated lies to Allah or His Messenger, will be in Hell.
24. The Shia have no doubt that this verse have been revealed about the guardianship of Imam ‘Ali (as) on the day of Ghadeer Khum. The true traditions narrated from our infallible imams (S) are many and recurrent. As for the traditions narrated by the Sunnis, al-Wahidi has mentioned in his book Asbab an-Nuzool, p.50 when interpreting this verse a tradition narrated in two ways from Attiyya that Abu Sa’eed al-Khidri had said: “This was revealed in Ghadeer Khum concerning Ali bin Abu Talib.” The same has been mentioned by Abu Na’eem in his book Nuzool al-Qur'an with two series of narrators one from Abu Sa’eed and the other from Abu Rafi’ and mentioned by Ibraheem bin Muhammad al-Hamaweeni in his book al-Fara’id in many ways from Abu Hurayra. Abu Ishaq ath-Tha’labi has mentioned it in at-Tafseer al-Kabeer. Al-Ayyashi has mentioned in his Tafseer - as in Majma’ul Bayan - that Ibn Abu Umayr narrated from Ibn Uthayna from al-Kalbi from Abu Salih that Ibn Abbas and Jabir bin Abdullah had said: “Allah has ordered Prophet Muhammad (S) to present Ali before the people and to inform them of his guardianship. The Prophet (S) feared that the people might say that he had favored his cousin or they would criticize him. Allah revealed to him this verse and then he announced the guardianship of Ali on the day of Ghadeer Khum.” In Majma’ul Bayan it has been mentioned: “This very tradition has been narrated to us by Abul Hamd from al-Hakim Abul Qasim al-Hasakani from Abu Umayr in the book Shawahid at-Tanzeel li-Qawa’id at-Tafseel wet-Ta’weel. It has also been mentioned in Majma’ul Bayan that Hayyan bin Ali al-Alawi had narrated from Abu Salih that Ibn Abbas had said: “This verse was revealed concerning Ali. The Prophet (S) took Ali’s hand and said: “Whoever I am his guardian, here is Ali to be his guardian. O Allah, support whoever supports him and be the enemy of whoever opposes him…”
What confirms this meaning is that before the revelation of this verse, the prayers were offered, zakat was collected, fasting in Ramadan and the hajj to the Kaaba were performed, the permissible things were clear and the prohibited things were clear, the penalties were executed, the Shari’ah was firm and the verdicts were fixed. Then what was that thing that Allah had ordered the Prophet (S) and insisted on him to announce and threatened him severely if he would not announce? Was it but the matter of the caliphate that the Prophet (S) feared of sedition if he announced and that he needed to be protected from the harm of people when carrying it out?
25. He told them that he was about to die to warn them that it was time to announce his covenant of appointing the caliph after him and that he could not delay that for fear that he might leave this world before confirming this task which the umma could not do without.
26. Since his covenant to his brother ‘Ali (as) was heavy for the people of competition, envy, enmity and hypocrisy, he wanted, before declaring the covenant, to excuse his situation to reconcile their hearts so he said: “I am responsible and you are responsible” to make them know that he was ordered by Allah and he was responsible to carry out the order of Allah and that they were ordered to obey and they responsible for their obedience; therefore there was no way to give up informing of the order of Allah and that there was no way for them but to submit to the order of Allah and His Messenger. Ad-Daylami mentioned a tradition narrated by Abu Sa’eed al-Khidri that the Prophet (S) had said: “Question them! They are responsible for the guardianship of Ali.” Al-Wahidi said: “They are responsible for the guardianship of Ali and Ahlul Bayt (as).”
27. He, who ponders on this speech, will know that it has intended to show that the guardianship of ‘Ali (as) was one of the basic principles (usool) of the religion as the Shia have believed. The Prophet (S) asked them first: “Do you not witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah… there is no doubt that the Day of Judgment will come, and that Allah will resurrect the dead from their graves?” Then he mentioned the matter of guardianship after that immediately to make them know that guardianship was as important as the matters he had asked them about and they acknowledged. This is clear to whoever knows the styles of speech in the language.
28. It means: (Allah is worthier of me than myself and I am worthier of the believers than themselves and whoever I am worthier of him than himself , Ali is worthier of him than himself).
29. Such it has been mentioned by at-Tabari, Ibn Jareer, al-Hakim and at-Tarmithi from Zayd bin Arqam. Many other scholars have mentioned the tradition from Zayd bin Arqam in the same way mentioned above such as Ibn Hajar al-Haythami in as-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqa, chap.5 p.25.
30. We have proved the truthfulness of this tradition in our book al-Muraja’at, muraja’a no.56 with true evidences.
31. Glory and praise be to Allah! How wonderful the result of this great interest was! As the Prophet (S) had put ‘Ali (as) and the infallible imams (S) of his progeny in the same position of the Qur'an and as its equal in the scales that they had the right to order, to forbid, to judge and to be the leaders of the people, but we found that they had become among the rabble of Taym, Adiy, Aal Abul Aas and the likes without having any role in managing the affairs of the umma! The authority was among other than them! Alas! They had become victims and captives drawn with their ties to the mosque of Damascus before the sights and the hearings of the Muslims who neither denied that nor did they feel sorry for them!
32. Refer to Usool al-Kafi by Muhammad bin Ya’qoob al-Kulayni.
33. Sahih of Muslim, vol.2 p.120 and other books of Hadith. He, who knows what has befallen upon the Muslims after the death of the Prophet (S), recognizes that that time was not for dispute and nothing could be done save being patient before the harm because the disputes would lead to the decline of the Muslims.
34. Sahih of Muslim, vol.2 p.18.
35. Ibid. vol.2.
36. Ibid. vol.2 p.119.
37. It means: he, who knows the abominable (impermissible) doings and he is not in doubt about them, will be innocent of their sin and punishment because he can change those abominable doings with his hand or tongue but if he is unable to do that, he can hate those doings and deny them with his heart.
38. Sahih of Muslim, vol.2 p.122. Praise be to Allah! This is the end of our comments on the book “An-Nass wel-Ijtihad” by the poor slave of Allah and the son of His two slaves, the guilty and the mistaken Abdul Husayn Sharafuddeen al-Musawi al-Aamily. Praise be to Allah first and last and blessing and peace be upon Muhammad and his progeny.
39. They were the polytheists of Mecca. The Prophet (S) had forgiven them and set them free when conquering Mecca and then they became Muslims unwillingly.
40. A city in Lebanon.
41. Bin and ibn mean “son of”.
42. Related to the progeny of Abu Talib.