From: Usul al-Kafi
19 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p) was requested to comment on the verse: “They have taken their religious leaders and their monks as their overlords besides God…” (Q, 9:31)
The Imam (p) explained: By God! They (the religious leaders and monks) never asked them (the Christians) for their worship. Had they invited them, they would never have responded positively. Actually the leaders and monks have pronounced lawful what was unlawful and vice versa. Thus, they (Christians) worship them unknowingly (by following their innovations).
Innovations, guesswork and analogies
*Translator’s Note: The term ‘innovations’ means any kind of change, amendment, deviation, abrogation or addition, however small it may be. Any change in the original teachings of Islam revealed by God, on the basis of any kind of logic, argument or guesswork whatsoever is strictly forbidden. The framework of Islam has been created by God and is, therefore, perfect. No one, however qualified, is competent to gauge the secrets of the Divine Commandments of God, the All-wise and the Just.
120 Prophet Muhammad (p): Whenever innovations appear in my people, then the religious scholars must rise to the occasion and make their true knowledge manifest, and may the curse of God fall on one who does not do so.
121 Prophet Muhammad (p): One who glorifies an innovator is virtually demolishing (the edifice of) Islam.
122 When Prophet Muhammad (p) refused to approve the repentance of a heretic, he was asked: And why is it so, O Prophet of God?
The Prophet (p): Because, the infatuation with heresy has taken root in their hearts.
123 Prophet Muhammad (p): Against every deviation from or innovation in the authentic framework of Islam which spreads after my demise, intended to weaken the faith (of the believers), a defender from my descendants will rise to the occasion who will be (divinely) entrusted to defend the original values of religion. He will speak on behalf of the weak. Therefore, all of you who have eyes, be careful and stick to your reliance on God.
124 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p): People, who believe in speculation, search for knowledge on the basis of speculations and surmises. These speculations and surmises only take them further away from the truth. The Religion of God has nothing to do with surmises.
125 Imam Musa al-Kazim (p) was asked: On what basis should I believe in the Oneness of God?
The Imam (p): Do not enter into the folds of innovators. One who acts on the basis of his guesswork perishes, and one who turns away from the progeny of the Prophet Muhammad (p) goes astray, and one who turns away from the Book of God and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (p) becomes an infidel.
126 Prophet Muhammad (p): Innovations misguide and misguidance leads to hell.
127 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p): Sunnah [tradition of the Holy Prophet (p)] cannot be guessed. Do you not see that women have to compensate for their fasts (missed during the period of their menstruation) after the month of Ramadan, but they do not have to compensate for their daily prayers (missed during the period) after the period is over? If Sunnah is based on guesswork, religion will perish.
Translator’s note: This saying of the Imam (p) requires an explanation. With regards to the relative importance of the daily prayers and fasting, the importance of daily prayers is more pivotal than that of fasting because the essentiality of daily prayers is mentioned in about fifty verses of the Noble Quran. On the basis of guesswork, it can easily be deduced that a woman must compensate for the prayers missed daily during her period of menstruation because they are much more important and essential than the prescribed fasts. But according to religious tenets, she has to compensate for the fasts which have been missed and not for the missed prayers. The deduction on the basis of guesswork will, therefore, be contrary to the religious tenets. Guesswork should, therefore, never be resorted to in religious matters.
128 Imam Musa al-Kazim (p) was asked about speculations (drawing conclusions on the basis of superficial appearances and analogies).
The Imam (p): Why should you speculate? God cannot be questioned as to why He has permitted certain things and prohibited others.
129 Imam Ali (p): One who bases his mind on conjectures will always remain in ambiguity, and one who bases the religin of God on his guesswork will always remain in doubt. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (p) also said that one, who announces his verdicts before people on the basis of his own opinion, innovates in the religion of God. And one who innovates in the religion of God, contradicts God and what God has declared permissible and pronounced forbidden.
130 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p): Satan assessed the rank of Adam on the basis of his own creation and said: “…(O God
You have created me from fire and created Adam from clay” (Q, 7:12). If he had assessed the spirit with which God had created Adam, (p) he would have understood that Adam excelled Satan greatly in brilliance and radiance.
131 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p)
: Whatever Prophet Muhammad (p) has declared as permissible, will remain permissible till the Day of Judgment, and whatever Prophet Muhammad (p) has declared forbidden, will remain forbidden till the Day of Judgment. This will neither change, nor will anyone bring any change in it. Imam Ali (p) also said that no one introduces an innovation without forsaking the way of the Prophet Muhammad (p).
132 Abu Hanifa (an Islamic jurist of the Sunni sect) came to see Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p). Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p)
: Abu Hanifa, I gather that you deduce (religious matters) on the basis of analogies.
The Imam (p) advised him
: Never do that. The first one who did that was Satan, when he said: “…O God! You have created me from fire and Adam from clay” (Q, 7:12). He compared fire with clay on the basis of guesswork. If he had compared the elegance and quintessence of Adam with the elegance and quintessence of fire, he would have realized which one was superior.
133 A person put a question to Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p)
: Had this matter been different what would your answer have been?
The Imam (p)
: Wait! Whatever answer I give is of and from the Prophet Muhammad (p) himself. We never say anything on our own.
134 Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (p)
: Do not trust anyone except God, otherwise you will no longer remain a believer. All bonds due to any reason, merits of inheritance, kinship, confidences, innovations and ambiguities, will fade out save those established by the Noble Quran.
Refer to the Noble Quran and the Prophet (p) for every problem
135 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p): Verily, God, the Glorious, the Elevated, has revealed the quintessence of everything in the Noble Quran, and by God! He has not omitted anything, which His servants may need to the extent that no one can say: Would that it had been revealed in the Noble Quran, because that has already been revealed.
136 Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (p): God, the Most High, has not left out anything which the Community, the Muslims, the followers of Prophet Muhammad (p) need; and explained exact interpretations of the same to His Prophet (p). He has also prescribed specific limits for everything, and set signposts for guidance to the destinations and also specified penalties, for those who transgress (these limits).
137 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p): There is nothing which has not been mentioned in the Book or in the Sunnah [the way of Prophet Muhammad (p)].
138 Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (p) addressing a group of believers: Whenever I say something to you, you may ask me about its reference in the Book of God (the Noble Quran).
Then, during his discourse the Imam (p) said, that Prophet Muhammad (p) has prohibited people from indulging in gossip like, ‘he said this’ and ‘this has been said about him’, and squandering wealth, assets or capital and also from asking too many questions.
A Believer: O son of Prophet Muhammad (p), where is all this in the Book of God?
The Imam (p): Verily, God – the Mighty, the Majestic, says: “In most of their secret talks there is no good but if one exhorts to a deed of charity or justice or conciliation between men (secrecy is, however, permissible)…” (Q, 4:114). “And do not give away your property which Allah has made for you a (means of) support to the weak of understanding . . .” (Q, 4:5) “O you who believe! do not put questions about things which if declared to you may disappoint you,. . . “ (Q, 5: 101)
139 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p): There is not a single difference of opinion between two persons, whose solution is not given in the Book of God, the Mighty, the Glorious. But their intelligence cannot understand its depth.
140 Imam Ali (p): O people, verily God, the Glorious, the Elevated, appointed His Prophet for you, and sent down His Book with true guidance, while you were unaware of the Book and the One who revealed it … So, this is the Noble Quran. Ask it whatever you have to ask. It will, however, never speak to you. I shall inform you about it. It contains the knowledge of everything that has passed, and also that which is going to happen till the Day of Judgment, and is the final word on all matters between you and the solution of all your differences, and if you ask me about it, I shall certainly inform you.
141 Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p): I am the descendant of Prophet Muhammad (p). I most thoroughly know the Book of God. In it is mentioned the beginning of the Creation. and also whatever is going to happen till the Day of Judgment. It contains all information about the heaven and the earth, Paradise and Hell, and the news of all that has happened and all that is going to happen. I know all that as if I were looking at the palm of my hand. God says: “…And We revealed the Book to you explaining everything clearly…” (Q, 16:89).
142 Imam Musa al-Kazim (p) was asked: Is everything included in the Book of God and the Sunnah?
The Imam (p): Yes, everything is included in the Book and the Sunnah.