Ayatullah Sayyid Mahmud Hashemi Shahroudi
Ayatullah Sayyid Mahmud Hashemi Shahroudi was born in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq in 1948(th 2nd of Dhu`l-Qa'dah 1367 A.H.) His ancestors are originally from Shahrood, an east-central city in Iran.
His father Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Husayni Shahroudi, is the first one who compiled and wrote the utterances of his great teacher, the great Ayatollah Khoee(A.H.) on Fiqh(Islamic jurisprudence) and Usul-al-Fiqh(the principles of Fiqh).
After graduating from Alavieh primary school, he started his Islamic studies. Due to his brilliant talent and intelligence, He could pass the introductory and advanced levels in very few years, then he attended Ayatollah Sadr's classes on Usul-al-Fiqh and Kharij-Fiqh (post advanced Fiqh) .At the same time he took part the late Imam Khumayni's and Ayatullah Khoee's courses and not only was highly respected by these two great scholars but , other Islamic studies centers were interestingly eager to profit from his genius on Islamic sciences and Fiqh.
Before he finished his third decade of his life , on the 27th of Rabi' I, 1399 (A.H.) he was given the high title of Ijtihad (the authority of independent decision making on Fiqh) by Ayatullah Shaheed Sayyid Muhammad Baquir Sadr. The great Ayatullah Sadr has written in a part of Ayatullah Hashemi's Ijtihad Certification,
"Today you are one of the Mujtahids who is a great hope for Islam and Muslims, I pray to the most high Allah for your success".
In 1974 he was jailed and suffered many tormenting physical and psychotic tortures by the Baathist Saddam's regime in Iraq.. After the demonstrations which were held in Najaf for the victory of Islamic revolution of Iran, Iraqi regime accused him of holding demonstrations and pursued him but the great Ayatollah Sadr ordered him to come back to Iran as his fully authorized representative to Imam Khomeini(R.A.).
After he came to Iran he was as a communicator between the late Imam Khomeini(R.A.) and the martyred Ayatullah Sadr.He had considered the reinforcement of Islamic revolution of Iran and its leadership as his duty and campaigned against Islam enemies' threats. At the same time, he tried to reinforce the Islamic campaign's of Iraqi nation against the Iraqi regime.
Due to his great genius, special talent and his domination on Islamic sciences , he introduced himself as a brilliant scholar and Faqih (religious jurist) in many conferences and seminars on Islamic topics in Iran and abroad , such as the Congress of Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah in which he presented an article entitled,"The Deposit in Foreign Banks and profiting from its interest from the Islamic schools point of view".
He actively took part in the Congress of Islamic Thought, the Congress of Ahlulbayt World Assembly, the Assembly of Islamic Faiths Approximation,the assemblies of Hawzah Ilmiyah (the Grand Islamic Seminary)in Qom ,and the seminars in the holy city of Mashhad. He was in charge of the chairman of the first Congress of Imam Khomeini(R.A.) on "The Role of Time and Place in Ijtihad"and also the first Congress of the Fiqh Encyclopedia based on Ahlulbait (ShiaHoly Imams) school.
The Supreme Leader Ayatullah Khamenei states about him ,"You are a brilliant scholar in science and action and praise be to Allah that you have obtained a high rank in Fiqh and its related fields".
Since 1981, he has started his high courses on Kharij-Fiqh (post advanced Fiqh) and Usul-al-Fiqh in the holy city of Qom and a great number of scholars and Islamic centers students have profited from his courses.
In August 1999,He was apppointed by Ayatollah Khamenei as the Head of Iran's Judiciary.
Ayatollah Hashemi's Ijtihad Certification by Ayatullah Shaheed Sadr
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, peace be upon his best creatures,
Muhammad(S.A.W.) and his holy off spring .
Now, our honorable scholar, Hujjat-al-Islam Sayyid Mahmud Hashemi has passed a significant part of his life for studying Fiqh, Usul-al-Fiqh and Shari'ah(Islamic laws), and The Most Glorified Allah has assisted him and has favouned success to him to gain the high rank of ((Ijtihad)) and praise be to the Most High Allah for this favour.
Nowadays, He is one of the Mujtahids(religious jurist) that Islam and Muslims are in a great need of people like him.
Hereby,I charge him as my fully authorized representative in all affairs which are related to me such as financial affairs and others, so that all of my adherents and all of the scholars who are my agent are permited to pay all the payments according to Islamic laws to him.
I pray the Almighty Allah to preserve him as a treasure for Islam and Muslims.
Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr
27th of Rabi' II,1399(A.H.) coinciding 1979
Ayatollah Hashemi's Present Responsibilities
1-The Head of I.R. Iran's Judiciary.
2-The former member of Faqihs (religious jurists) in Guardian Council of Iran's Consititution.
3-The member of the State Expediency Assembly.
4-The member of Islamic Sciences Teachers Society in Hawzah Ilmiyah (the chief Islamic school in Qum).
5-The member of Supreme Council of Policy Making at the Hawzah Ilmiyah.
6- The member of Supreme Council of Ahlulbayt World Assembly.
7- The member of Supreme Council of Islamic Faiths Approximation.
8-The president of Figh Encyclopeidia Institute of Ahlulbayt's (Shia Holy Imams) School and also the Al-Qadeer Islamic Studies Center.
9-The represantative of Assembly of Expert (For choosing the Supreme Leader of Islamic Revolution).
Ayatollah Hashemi's Publised works:
1-Bohuth-Fi-Elm-al-Usul: the compiled utterances of the great Ayatullah Sadr on Usul-al-Fiqh.
2-Qa'idat al-Firaq Va At-tajavoz A book on Fiqh rules.
3-Bohuth Fi Al-Fiqh:A discussion on Fiqh about Khums (a fifth of the property which is given to Islamic state).
4- An-Nadrat-al-Kawniayah .
5- Muhazirat Fi Ath-thowrat al-Husayniah:Some Discussions on Imam Husayn's Movement.
6-Mo'tiyat Ayah al-Mavaddah:A research about one of the verses of Holy Quran concerning the Holy Prophet's request to be amicable with his family.
7-Masdar At-Tashri' Va Nezam Al-Hokm Fi al-Islam :A Discussion of the Islamic State and its Roots.
8-At-Tafsir al-Mozuei Le-Nahj-al-Balaghah: A Topical Exegesis on Nahj-al-Balaghah.
9-Maqalat Fiqhiyah: some articles on Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
10-As-Sawm Tarbiah Va Hidayah: A discussion on Fasting.
Some other books by Ayatollah Hashemi
1-Bohuth Fi Al-Fiqh:A discussion on renting in Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence).
2-Qaidah La-To'ad :A book on the Fiqh rules.
3-Al-Ijtihad Va At-Taqlid:A book on the authority of independent decision making on Fiqh and Islamic laws and following of a leading jurist by his adherents.
4-Bohuth Fi al-Fiqh:A book on the contract of Co-Partnership in Fiqh.
5-Bohuth Fi Al-Fiqh:A book on the contracts of Cooperation.
6-Bohuth Fi al-Fiqh: A book on making purchases.
7-Bohuth Fi-Tashri' Al-Jinaei:Abook on the Islamic criminal laws.
8- Ahkam al-Ammah Le-Oqud: The Sunnies' rules about contracts.
9-Bohuth-Fiqhigya Hadithah: The new studies of Fiqh.
10-Ta'liqat Ala Al- Usul :Some discussion on Usul-al-Fiqh.