Ali b. Babawayh Qummi
He died in 329 AH., and was buried in Qum. His son, the famous Shaikh Sadooq is buried in the city of RAY. What must be noted is that while the son is famous as Muhaddith (Traditionist), the father is a renowned Faqih, and a man of Fatwa.
Sometimes, reference is made to both of them as Sadooqain meaning two Sadooqs.
Another great jurist, who was the contemporary of Ali b. Babawayh Qummi, or perhaps a bit senior, is Ayyashi Samarkandi. Though he is better known for his Tafseer, he was a man of diverse capabilities, having made an appreciable contribution to fiqh. Ibn alNadeem in his alFihrist says that Ayyashi's works on Fiqh were well known in Khurasan. Unfortunately, we have no access to any of his books on Fiqh. It seems they have all perished.
Ayyashi was originally a Sunni who later converted to become a Shia. He was a rich man, having inherited considerable wealth from his father. But he invested all his wealth in collecting books, copying important manuscripts and in establishing colleges for training his students.
Shaikh Jaffer b. Qawlawayh
Some chroniclers have included Shaikh Jaffer b. Qawlawayh among the Fuqaha, considering him to have lived during the times of Ali b. Babawayh Qummi and GhaybateSughra. They have also mentioned him as a student of the well known Sa'd b. Abdullah Ashari. But this is an error, since Ibn Qawlawayh was the teacher of Shaikh Mufeed, and his death occurred in either 367 or 368 AH. As such, he cannot be counted as a contemporary of Ali b. Babawayh, nor among the Ulama of GhaybateSughra. The fact is that it was his father Muhammad b. Qawlawayh who lived during GhaybateSughra.
Ibn Abi Aqeel Ummani
This Umman is on the coast of Yemen, and therefore he was also known as Yemeni. He lived during GhaybateKubra, (major occultation) but the date of his death is not known.
BahrulUlloom mentions him as the teacher of Jafar b. Qawlawayh who in turn taught Shaikh Mufeed. This makes it abundantly clear that Jafar b. Qawlawayh was not a contemporary of Ali b. Babawayh as claimed by some. Ibn Abi Aqeel is still quoted in Fiqh by research scholars.
Ibn Junaid Askafi
He died in 381 AH, was also Shaikh Mufeed's tutor. He authored nearly fifty books, and his opinions as a Jurist are still considered and discussed by the Fuqaha. In fact, he and the above mentioned Ibn Abi Aqeel are often referred to as "Al Qadeemain", "the two old and senior ones".
His name was Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Noman. He was a theologian as well as a Faqih. Ibn alNadeem in his alFihrist calls him 'Ibn alMuallim', and eulogizes him as a great theologian (master of Ilmul Kalam). Born in 334 AH., he died in 413 AH. His famous work on Fiqh is known as 'Muqni'ah' which still exists. Shaikh Mufeed is one of the most brilliant scholars of Islam.
Abu Yala Ja'feri, the soninlaw of Shaikh Mufeed, says: "Mufeed slept very little during the nights, devoting most of his time to prayers, studies, teaching or reciting the Holy Quran " .
Shaikh Mufeed is a student of Ibn Abi Aqeel's student.
Seyyid Murtadha Alamul Huda
He born in 355 AH, died in 436 AH. Allama Hilli calls him "the great teacher of Imamiyya Shia" . He was a man of versatility, with a keen taste and talent for literature, theology as well as Fiqh. His verdicts and opinions are taken into account even today. Among his famous works on Fiqh are 'Iintisar', and 'Jamalul Ilmi Wal Amal'. Seyyid Radhi, the compiler of Nahjul Balaghah was his brother, and they both studied from Shaikh Mufeed.
Shaikh Abu Ja'fer Tusi
He was the brilliant star in the Islamic firmament, was from Khurasan. He was born in 385 AH., and at the age of 23, he moved to Baghdad to join the great centre of Islamic knowledge. He lived in Iraq all his life, and came to be known as the sole master of Fiqh after the death of his mentor, Seyyid Murtadha Alamul Huda. He has several books and treatises on Fiqh, Usul, Hadith, Tafseer, Kalam and Rijal.
For the first five years in Baghdad, Shaikh Tusi had the opportunity to study under the supervision of Shaikh Mufeed, gaining reputation as a student of the first rank. After Shaikh Mufeed, he sat at the feet of Seyyid Murtadha till the master died in 436 AH. The entire Shia world turned to Shaikh Tusi who stayed at the helm for the ensuing 24 years. But this was a tumultuous period during which sectarian differences in Baghdad resulted in a lot of bloodshed and destruction. Shaikh Tusi's own house and library were burnt down.
After 12 years in Baghdad, he moved to Najaf where he established the world famous Hawzah Ilmiyyah. He died in 460 AH, and was buried there.
In the earlier days, Shaikh's important work on Fiqh called al-Nihayah was a part of syllabus in the seminaries. The other book "alMabsoot" had broken new grounds for discussion on various subjects of Fiqh, and great Ulama who followed, proudly set forth to give elucidatory marginal notes and commentaries on the Shaikh's opinions. Another important work in Fiqh is alKhilaf by Shaikh Tusi. This is a comparative dissertation on Sunni Shia Fiqh.
Besides these, there are other treatises on Fiqh written by Shaikh. For the last several centuries, whenever Fuqaha mentioned "Shaikh", it was understood to refer to Shaikh Tusi, and if they said 'Shaikhain', they meant Shaikh Mufeed and Shaikh Tusi.
The descendents of Shaikh Tusi were Ulama of great repute, most outstanding among them was his son Shaikh Abu Ali who was known as Mufeed the second. He wrote a detailed commentary on his father's book alNihaya. The daughters of Shaikh Tusi were also Fuqaha.
The grandson of Shaikh Tusi named Abdul Hasan Muhammad became Marja after the death of his father Abu Ali. His classes were attended by students from far and wide, and he was able to train a good number of Fuqaha. Because of his piety and austere way of life, he was respected by one and all. Imad Tabari says that if it were permissible to recite Salawat upon anyone other than the Apostles, he would choose Abul Hasan Muhammad. He died in 540 AH.
Qadhi Abd alAziz
He is better known as Ibn alBarraj, was a student of both Seyyid Murtadha and Shaikh Tusi. He was sent to Syria by Shaikh Tusi, where he served in Tripoli (in present day Lebanon) as a Qadhi for 20 years. Among the famous books he wrote on FIQH the most noteworthy are 'Muhaddhab' and 'Jawahir'. He died in 481 AH.
Hamza b. Abd alAziz Daylami
He is otherwise known as Salar Daylami died on Saturday, 6th of Holy Ramadhan, 463 AH. He is the student of Shaikh Mufeed and Seyyid Murtadha. He came from Iran, and passed his last days in Khurasan, where he was buried. He is a contemporary of Shaikh Tusi, though Muhaqqiq Hilli has classified him among the followers of Shaikh Tusi. His famous work on Fiqh is "Marasim " .
Seyyid Abu alMakarim Ibn Zehra
He was from Aleppo, and he died in 585 AH. In the faculty of Hadith, he narrates with only one link between him and Shaikh Abu Ali, the son of Shaikh Tusi, and in Fiqh, he had a chain of tutors ending up with Shaikh Tusi. His famous work in Fiqh is " Ghunyah " .
The author of Mustadrakul Wasael says that Ibn Zehra studied alNihayah of Tusi from Ibn alHajib Halabi who studied it from Abdullah Zainulbadi in Najaf, and he had studied it from Shaikh Rasheed alDeen Ali b. Zeerak Qummi and Seyyid Abu Hashim Husayni, both being students of Shaikh Abd alJabbar Razi, a well known student of Shaikh Tusi. Thus we see that Ibn Zehra is connected with Shaikh Tusi by four intervening generations.
In the terminology of Fuqaha, whenever a refrence is made to 'Halabiyyan', they mean Abu alSalah Halabi and Ibn Zehra. And if the reference is made in plural, that is, 'Halabiyyun', then Ibn alBarraj is included.
Ibn Hamza Tusi
He was known as Imad alDeen Tusi of Khurasan, contributed to Fiqh by writing his famous 'Waseelah'. However, historians have to make further research about this Faqih because the date of his death is unknown, and it is not established whether he belonged to the first era of Shaikh Tusi's students or to the later ones. Most probably he died in the second half of the sixth century A.H.
Ibn Idrees alHilli
He is one of the greatest Ulama, known for his independent thinking. He was an Arab, and some chroniclers have mentioned him as the grandson of Shaikh Tusi from his mother's side. But this relation has been disputed by others. He was the first Faqih who differed with the opinions of Shaikh Tusi at the time when Fuqaha had upheld Tusi's verdicts as final for nearly two centuries. However, his criticism of Shaikh Tusi is at time quite harsh and abrasive, bordering on rudeness. He died in 598 AH. at the age of 55.
His famous work on Fiqh is "alSarair" which is still a book of reference. It is said that Ibn Idrees was a student of Seyyid Abu alMakarim b. Zehra but this seems improbable, especially because of Ibn Idrees mentioning him casually as his contemporary, and as one who he had met. In certain matters of Fiqh, they had exchanged some letters.
Shaikh Abul Qasim Ja'far b. Hasan b. Yahya b. Saeed Hilli
He is famous as Muhaqqiq Hilli. He must not be confused with Allama Hilli. Muhaqqiq Hilli was Allama's maternal uncle and also his tutor. He has several books on Fiqh, most popular among them are: Sharae, Maarij, Motabar, Al Mukhtasar Al Nafe etc.
Muhaqqiq Hilli studied from the students of the great masters like Ibn Zehra and Ibn Idrees Hilli. Some have erroneously counted him among those who studied directly from these Fuqaha, forgetting that this was not possible because Muhaqqiq Hilli who died in 676 Hijra could not have attended the lessons of Ibn Idress or Ibn Zehra who had died more than 80 years earlier. Most probably, he was trained by his grandfather and later his father.
Muhaqqiq Hilli is acknowledged as the greatest among Fuqaha, and whenever the term 'Muhaqqiq' is used without any qualification, then it refers to him alone. The great philosopher and mathematician, Khwaja Naseer alDeen Tusi speaks highly of his reminiscence with Muhaqqiq who he met in Hilla, and attended his classes of Fiqh. Muhaqqiq's book 'Sharae' is still a part of curriculum in most of the Hawzas.
Hasan b. Yusuf b. Ali b. Mutahhar Hilli
He is renowned as Allama Hilli was a prodigy. He was born in 648 Hijra, and died in 726 AH. He remained under the tutelage of his maternal uncle Muhaqqiq Hilli for Fiqh, and then proceeded to study from other masters of his era, including Khwaja Naseer alDin Tusi who taught him Philosophy and Logic. Later, he sat with the Sunni Scholars to study their Fiqh.
His works include several memorable books and treatises on Fiqh, Usool, Theology (i.e. Kalam), Logic, Philosophy and Rijal. We know of at least hundred books written by him, some of which are still in the form of manuscripts. Each book of this great Faqih is enough to portray his precocity and genius. Among the noteworthy books on Fiqh are Irshad, Qawaid, Tahreer, Tadhkiratul Fuqaha and Tabsiratul Mutallimeen, the last being studied by the students of Hawza till today. Later Fuqaha wrote extensive commentaries on Allama's works.
This is the title given to Allama Hilli's son. His first name was Muhammad. Born in 682 AH., he studied under his father Allama Hilli who was so impressed by the son's brilliance that he called him Fakhr al Muhaqqiqeen. In his preface to Qawaid, Allama writes his son's name showering much praise on him, and at the end of the book prays that his son would attend to his incomplete works. His famous book on Fiqh is 'Aydhah AlFawaid' which he wrote to elucidate some difficult parts of his father's Qawaid. The opinions and deductions by this great Faqih are still taken into account by the Fuqaha. He died in 771 A.H.
Muhammad b. Makki
He is also known as ShaheedeAwwal hailed from Jabel Amil in South Lebanon, where Shias have lived for many centuries. He was born in 734 A.H., and pursued his studies under the care of great Fuqaha of his time, among them the illustrious FakhrulMuhaqqiqeen.
The most renowned and popular work on Fiqh by Shaheed is al-Lum'ah which was written by him during his short term in the prison which ended with his execution. He was martyred as a result of a fatwa issued by a Maliki faqih, supported by Shafei, in the year 786 A.H.
It is a strange coincidence that two centuries later, a faqih who wrote a commentary on alLuma'ah (i.e. SharheLuma'ah) was also executed and martyred. He came to be known as Shaheed Thani.
Other works by Shaheed Awwal on Fiqh are Duroos, Dhikra, Bayan, Alfiyyah, all of them are of highest order, and have received great attention from the later day Fuqaha.
Three great Fuqaha, namely, Muhaqqiq Hilli, Allama Hilli, and ShaheedeAwwal who lived during the 7th and the 8th centuries have left the principle textbooks on Fiqh, which were then elucidated by the jurists who followed. The only other text worthy of mention was by Shaikh Murtadha Ansari who died nearly 150 years ago.
The most distinctive feature of the family of ShaheedeAwwal is that practically every member of the household was a Faqih. His wife Ummu Ali and his daughter Ummu Hasan were both Fuqaha of the first order. Ladies were instructed to refer to them for any problems of Fiqh; in fact, the daughter of Shaheed was known as "Shaikhah" or "Sittul Mashaikh", (Sayyidatul Mashaikh) among the women. Shaheed had three sons, all of them Fuqaha.
He was from Hilla, studied from Shaheed Awwal. He died in 826 A.H., therefore is known to be among the Fuqaha of the ninth century Hijra. The most important book on Fiqh written by him is Kanzul Irfan, in which he has compiled all those verses of the Holy Quran which form the basis of Fiqh, and had deduced from them several rules of Islamic jurisprudence. Of course, there exist several books by Shia as well as Sunni scholars written in the same vein but 'Kanzul Irfan' stands out prominently as one of the best, if not the best.
Abul Abbas Ahmad b. Fahd Hilli Asadi
He was popularly known as 'Jamal alSalikeen', was born in 757 AH. and died in 841 AH. He is among the students of ShaheedeAwwal and Fakhrul Muhaqqiqeen. He also studied Hadith and Fiqh from Fadhil Miqdad Ali b. alKhazin and Shaikh Bahauddin Ali b. Abdulkarim. Though he was better known for his works on ethics, morals and mysticism, like 'Uddatu AlDa'ee, his works in Fiqh include valuable book called 'al Muhaddhab alBare' and commentaries on the works by Allama Hilli and Shaheed.
Shaikh Ali b. Hilal Jazaeri
He was a man of piety and virtue, and a master of traditional as well as rational sciences. His tutor in Fiqh was Ibn Fahd Hilli, and he himself produced brilliant students like Muhaqqiq Karaki, and Ibn Abi Jamhur Ahsai. He was known as Shaikh-ul-Islam in his era.
Shaikh Ali b. Abd alAali Karaki
He is better known as Muhaqqiq Karaki or even Muhaqqiq Thani (i.e. Muhaqqiq the second) was originally from Jabal Amel, south Lebanon. He completed his studies in Sham and Iraq, before coming to Iran during the reign of Shah Tahmasp, the first. Then an unprecedented thing happened. The Shah bestowed the title of "Shaikh-ul-Islam" upon Muhaqqiq Karaki, granting him an instrument of total authority over the affairs of the state, and appointing himself as the Muhaqqiq's representative ruler! After Muhaqqiq Karaki, this seat was occupied by his student Shaikh Ali Minshar, the fatherinlaw of Shaikh Bahai, the latter occupying it after the Shaikh's death.
Upon his arrival in Iran, he established a great Hawza in Qazwain and later in Isfehan, training several students of repute, with the result that Iran once again became centre of Fiqh years after Sadooqain. He studied under the distinguished tutelage of Ali b. Hilal Jazaeri, who had studied from Ibn. Fahd Hilli. And as we know Ibn Fahd was a student of the students of Shaheed Awwal. This way, Muhaqqiq Karaki is linked with Shaheed through two generations.
Among his own famous works on Fiqh are "Jamiul Maqasid" which, in fact, is a commentary on Qawaid by Allama Hilli. He also wrote marginal elucidations and notes on the books of Fiqh by Muhaqqiq Hilli and ShaheedeAwwal. His son, Shaikh Abd al Aali was also a great FAQIH. Muhaqqiq Karaki died in 940 AH.
He is better known as Shaheed-eThani (the second Shaheed), is among the greatest Shia Fuqaha. He was born in 911 AH. in Jabal Amel, but he must have lived in Toos for a considerable time, as he occasionally signed his name as "alToosi, al-Shami " .
He was a widely travelled man, having visited Egypt, Syria, Hijaz, Baitul Muqaddas, Iraq and Constantinople (Istanbul). Always in pursuit of knowledge, he studied from nearly twelve Sunni Ulama of Fiqh. Apart from the proficiency in Fiqh, he was well versed in Usool, Philosophy, Irfan, Medicine and Astronomy.
He was a man of piety, known for his austere way of life. His students have recorded in his biography that Shaheed maintained his family by selling the woods cut by himself during the nights, and then sat to teach during the day. While in Ba'lbak, he conducted classes in Fiqh according to five schools, i.e. Ja'fari, Hanafi, Shafei, Maliki and Hambali. His famous work is the commentary on alLum'ah which had been authored by ShaheedeAwwal. His commentary, Sharh-e- Lum'ah is a part of curriculum in almost every Hawza even today. He studied from Muhaqqiq Karaki before the later migrated to Iran.
ShaheedeThani's son wrote the famous book on Usool, called Ma'alimulUsool. ShaheedeThani was martyred in 966 AH.
Ahmad b. Muhammad Ardabili
He is popularly known as Muqaddas Ardabili was proverbial for his piety and austerity. He is also well known for his extensive research in Shia Fiqh. He lived in Najaf, during the Safavid rule in Iran.
It is said that Shah Abbas Safavi very much wanted him to come and live in Iran, but Ardabili would not relent. Because of the esteem in which he held Muqaddas Ardabili, Shah Abbas wrote him to give an order or a command which he would dutifully fulfil. Once it so happened that a fugitive Momin from Iran came to Muqaddas Ardabili in Najaf, requesting him to write to the Shah recommending a pardon or reprieve. Muqaddas wrote:
"The holder of temporary rule, Abbas, is advised that although this man was initially a transgressor, he now seems to be oppressed. If you pardon him, Allah may forgive some of your lapses. From the slave of Master of Wilayat (i.e. Imam Ali (A.S.)) Ahmad Ardabili".
In reply, Shah Abbas wrote:
"I bring to your esteemed notice that Abbas has rendered the service ordered by you feeling profoundly obliged. I hope you will not forget this devotee of yours in your good prayers. From a dog on the threshold of Ali (A.S.) Abbas " .
Ardabili's refusal to migrate to Iran in spite of the Shah's persistent requests, proved a blessing to the Hawza of Najaf. It grew in strength, and became as lively as the Hawza of Isfehan. The same way, the continuous presence of ShaheedeThani, his son Shaikh Hasan, the author of Ma'alim, and his nephew Seyyid Muhammad, the author of Madarik, lent considerable strength and vigour to the Hawza of Sham and Jabal Amel in Lebanon. In fact, the later two deprived themselves of visiting the shrine of Hadhrat Imam Redha (A.S) fearing that they might be persuaded to live in Iran.
Though we do not know the exact names of Ardabili's tutors, he certainly acquired his training from the students of ShaheedeThani In return, he tutored the son of Shaheed and his nephew.
Ardabili's noteworthy contribution to Fiqh is his commentary on Irshad and his Ayatul Ahkam. His profound treatment of the subject is still valued by the FUQAHA. He died in 993 Hijra.
Shaikh Bahauddin Ameli
He is more popular as Shaikh Bahai is from Jabel Amel, Lebanon. Accompanied by his father Shaikh Husain b. Abd alSamad, he travelled to Iran as a child. Later, he travelled extensively to various Islamic countries in search of great scholars from whom he acquired knowledge. Because of his creative talent and perception, he became a master of several faculties and has books on various subjects to his credit. He was a man of literature, a poet, a philosopher, a mathematician, a Faqeeh as well as a Mufassir, and had a considerable experience in ancient medicine.
He is the first Faqih who wrote a handbook on Fiqh for simple layman in Persian language. The book, "Jame Abbasi" still exists. But Fiqh has not been counted as his exclusive subject, because the scope of his interests was so very wide. From his tour of Egypt, Sham, Hijaz, Iraq, Palestine, Azerbaijan and Herat, the man had actually become a walking encyclopaedia. In spite of his diverse interests, he trained great Fuqaha like Mulla Sadra Shirazi, Majlisi the first, (i.e. the father of Majlisi the second who authored Biharul Anwar), Muhaqqiq Sabzwari and Fadhil Jawad. As mentioned earlier, after the death of his fatherinlaw, Shaikh Ali Minshar, Bahai occupied the seat of 'Shaikh-ul-Islam' in Iran. His wife was also a Faqih.
Shaikh Bahai was born in 953 AH. and died in 1030 AH.
Mulla Muhammad Baqir Sabzwari
He was a man of many sided talents. Since he remained attached to the college of Isfehan which was renowned for both FIQH and PHILOSOPHY, he became a master of rational as well as traditional sciences. He has two famous works on FIQH, namely, 'DHAKHEERAH' and 'KIFAYAH', and is frequently mentioned by the contemporaries as well as later day FUQAHA. In philosophy) he wrote a comprehensive commentary of Abu Ali Sina's SHIFA on ILAHIYYAT (i.e. Divinities or Theology).
Mulla Sabzwari, also known as Muhaqqiq Sabzwari, was taught by Shaikh Bahai and Mulla Mohamed Taqi Majlisi (the first Majlisi). He died in 1090 AH.
Aqa Husain Khwansari
He is also known as Muhaqqiq Khwansari, lived in the times of famous traditionists like Mulla Muhsin Faidh KASHANI, and Allama Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (the second). He was married to the sister of Muhaqqiq Sabzwari. Both of them shared common propensities, and therefore turned out to be brilliant masters of rational and traditional sciences.
Muhaqqiq Khwansari wrote 'MASHARIQ alSHUMOOS' in Fiqh. In fact, it is a splendid elucidation of 'DUROOS' by ShaheedeAwaal. He died in 1098 AH.
He is better known as Jamal Khwansari was Muhaqqiq Khwansari's son, equally proficient in rational as well as traditional sciences. His work in Fiqh is the famous margin of elucidatory notes on SHARHE LUMAH. He has so many students of distinction to his credit, like Seyyid Ibrahim Qazwaini and others. The famous Seyyid Mahdi BahrUlUloom is linked to him through two generations of teachers.
Shaikh Bahauddin Isfehani
He is famous as 'FADHILeHINDI' was a Faqih of the first rank, whose opinions are valued even today. He wrote a commentary on Allama Hilli's "QAWAID", the book is called "KASHF alLITHAM". He died in 1137 AH. during the days of Afghan rebellion.
Muhammad Baqir b. Muhammad Akmal
He is popular as 'WAHEED BEHBEHANI', is, in fact, the saviour of IJTIHAD, and is therefore called 'USTADUL KULL'. He contributed to FIQH in two ways: one, he trained a number of FUQAHA, each of whom became well famed MUJTAHID of Shia school. The glittering names of Ulama like Seyyid Mahdi Bahrul Uloom, Shaikh Jafar Kashiful Ghita, Mirza Abul Qasim Qummi, Haj Mulla Mehdi Nuraqi, Seyyid Ali the author of "RIYADH", Mirza Mehdi Shahrastani, and many others remind us of the greatness of the master.
Secondly, he stood firm against the innovative onslaught of Akhbaris, and dealt them a death blow, from which Akhbari school has never recovered.
Waheed Behbehani rose at the time when Safavid empire had declined, and Isfehan had ceased to enjoy a central place. He migrated to Iraq, along with his tutor Seyyid Sadruddin Rizvi, and settled in KERBALA. Because of his piety and austere way of life, his students held him in very high esteem.
Behbehani is related to Allama Majlisi through his mother. His grandmother Amena Begum, was a woman of erudition and FIQH, married to Mulla Saleh Mezandarani, a man of profound knowledge. We have instances when Amena Begum has taken part in difficult discussions with her husband, and solving theological problems.
He was born in 1116 AH. and died in 1205 AH.
Seyyid Mehdi Bahrul Uloom
He is a Faqih who has been rightly placed in the immediate rank after our MASOOMEEN (AS), because of his piety and virtue. His contribution to Fiqh exists in the form of verses. Shaikh Jafar Kashiful Ghita, himself a Faqeeh of the first order, used to wipe Bahrul Uloom's slippers with the end part of his turban.
He was born in 1155 AH., and died in 1212 AH.
Shaikh Muhammad Hasan
He is the author of an encyclopaedic work on FIQH, "JAWAHIRUL KALAM", was born in 1202 AH. He is of Arab descent. This great work has become monumental; the author spent thirty years of his prime life for its completion. The last edition printed in Iran ran into fifty volumes, each volume consisting of about 400 pages. The work is an indispensable companion of every FAQIH worth any name, since each line in it requires profound pondering and elucidation. One could say that Shaikh Mohammad Hasan was an ideal example of devotion and dedication. He died in 1266 AH., having commenced the extra ordinary work at the age of 25.
Shaikh was a student of Shaikh Ja'far Kashiful Ghita, as well as of Seyyid Jawad, the author of 'MIFTAHUL KARAMAH'. In his time, he was a sole Marja, having established a great Hawza of his own in NAJAF. He is referred to as 'SAHIBeJAWAHIR'.
Shaikh Murtadha Ansari
He was a descendent of the Prophet's noble companion, Jabir b. Abdullah Ansari. He was born on 18th Dhul Hajj (the day of IddeGhadeer) 1214 AH. in Dezful. For 20 years, he studied in Iran before leaving for Iraq. After a brief stay there, he decided to return to Iran. When he met Mulla Ahmed Nuraqi, the author of 'ME'RAJU SSA'ADAH' and 'MUSTANAD ALSHIAH', in Kashan, Shaikh decided to remain there under his tutelage. In 1252 AH. he decided to visit the holy shrines of Iraq, but this sojourn was destined to be final, for here he started his own classes which made him world famous. He became an indisputable MARJA' after the death of SahibeJawahir.
Shaikh was a genius of extra ordinary calibre. In Usool and FIQH, his originality and analytic mind enabled him to blaze a new path, a path which has been adopted and followed by all the subsequent FUQAHA. His two great works, 'RASAIL' and 'MAKASIB' are an inalienable part of the curriculum in modern Hawzas. We can say that after Muhaqqiq Hilli, Allama Hilli and ShaheedeAwwal, the figure of Shaikh Murtadha Ansari towers highest among the Shia FUQAHA. He is rightly known as ' KHATIMUL FUQAHA WAL MUJTAHEDEEN' .
He died in Najaf in 1281 AH.
Haj Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi
He is popularly known as 'Mirza Shirazi Buzurg' was born in Shiraz on 15th Jamad AlAwwal 1230 AH. He did his preliminary studies in Isfahan and then migrated to Najaf to join the Hawza of 'SAHIBeJAWAHIR'. After the death of "SahibeJawahir", he joined the classes of Shaikh Murtadha Ansari, becoming one of the most brilliant and highly regarded students. After the death of Shaikh Ansari, he became the sole Marja, his tenure lasting for 23 years. He is famous for his Tobacco fatwa which led to the abrogation of the notorious British monopoly in Iran.
Unfortunately, we do not have any of his written work on Fiqh, but his verdicts and IJTEHAD have been known through his great students, like, Mulla Muhammad Kadhim Khurasani, Seyyid Muhammad Kadhim Taba Tabai, Haji Redha Hamdani, and Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi. He died in 1312 AH.
Akhund Mulla Muhammad Kadhim Khurasani
He was born in Tus in 1255 AH., in a family not known for any contribution to FIQH. At the age of 22, he came to Tehran for a brief study in Philosophy and then travelled to Najaf where he had an opportunity of joining the lessons of Shaikh Ansari for two years. Thereafter, he studied under the tutelage of Mirza Shirazi Bururg.
When his master, Mirza Shirazi left for Samarra, Akhund Khurasani decided to stay behind in Najaf. Here he started his own Hawza. Because of his effective style of teaching he attracted many students. It is reported that at one given time, he taught nearly 1200 students, out of whom nearly 200 were of the rank of IJTEHAD.
Great FUQAHA of our time, like Seyyid Abul Hasan Isfehani, Haji Shaikh Muhammad Hasan Isfehani, Haji Seyyid Husain Burujardi, Seyyid Husain Qummi, Aqa ZiaudDeen Iraqi were all his students. The Hawza of Akhund is distinguished for its extensive and analytic treatment of UsoolalFiqh. His great work 'KIFAYAH' is studied even today with utmost care. It is a work which has necessitated writing elucidatory footnotes and commentaries. Many Ulama of repute have attended to this need, and nearly 120 commentaries exist to explain what Akhund had to say.
Akhund Khurasani gave a fatwa in favour of MASHRUTIYYAT which was adopted in the state constitution of Iran. Akhund died in 1329 AH.
Mirza Husain Naeeni
He was born on 17th Dhul Qa'dah 1276 AH. in Naeen. He was a student of Mirza Shirazi Buzurg and Seyyid Muhammad Fisharaki Isfehani. In his major contribution to Usoolul-Fiqh, he differed in many matters with Akhund Khurasani, disputing the latter's conclusions. Many students were trained by him in Fiqh. He is also famous for his political treatise called 'TANZEEHUL UMMAH'. He died in Najaf in 1355 AH.
Ayatullah Seyyid Abul Hasan Isfehani
He was born in 1277 AH. in one of the villages on the outskirts of Isfehan. He was a Faqih of the first rank, and a sole Marja after the death of his contemporary, Mirz Husain Naeeni. The tenure of his Marjaiyyah is particularly known for its commendable administration. After his preliminary training in Isfehan he travelled to Najaf and gradually joined the lessons of Akhund Khurasani, who soon recognised the talents of his disciple His famous Amaliyya in FIQH is 'WASEELATU NNAJAT' which due to its comprehensive nature, has been elucidated by many FUQAHA including Ayatullah Khomeini. Among his famous students were Ayatullah Seyyid Mohsin AlHakim, Ayatullah Seyyid Meelani, Ayatullah Mirza Hashim Amuli and others.
He died in Najaf on 9th Dhul Hijjah in 1365 AH.
Ayatullah Seyyid Husain Burujardi
He was born in Burujard in 1292 AH. He was a student of masters like Akhund Khurasani and Aqa Zia Iraqi. FIQH was his special interest, and in order to master it fully, he studied FIQH of all the Islamic schools of thought. While citing the Traditions of Masoomeen (AS) to support any of his deductions, Seyyid Husain Burujardi is known to have brought so many new aspects to light. He also had a keen insight in the science of RIJAL. Shaheed Mutahhari and Ayatullah Shaikh Husain Muntadhar are among his numerous worthy students.
He died in Qum on 13th Shawaal 1381 AH. at the ripe age of 90.
Ayatullah Seyyid Muhsin AlHakim
He was born in 1306 AH. in a family renowned for its scholarship. He studied under the tutelage of great FUQAHA, like Ayatullah Seyyid Muhammad Kadhim Yazdi, Ayatullah Mirza Husain Naeeni, Ayatullah Zia Iraqi and others.
He became a sole Marja after the death of Ayatullah Seyyid Husain Burujardi, with whom his family tree shared a common lineage finally reaching Ameerul Mumineen Imam Ali b. Abu Talib (AS). The Hawza of Najaf grew immensely under his Marjaiyya, boasting nearly an unprecedented figure of 8000 students. He also instituted several changes in the curriculum of the Hawzas, which have had far reaching effects. His famous work in FIQH is 'MUSTAMSAK' which is acknowledged as the most exhaustive and enlightening commentary on the first part of alUrwatul Wuthqa. The style and skill of his reasoning established him among the FUQAHA of the first rank. He is also well known for his clear fatwa against Communism, declaring it an ideology of KUFR and ATHEISM.
He died on 27the RabiulAwwal 1390 AH. in Najaf and was buried in the great and modern library he had established.
Ayatullah al-Uzma Imam Khomeini
Ayatullah al-Uzma Sayyid Ruhullah Musavi Khomeini was born on 20 Jamadi al-Akhir 1320/ 24 September 1902, the anniversary of the birth of Hazrat Fatima, in the small town of Khumayn, some 160 kilometres to the southwest of Qum.
The arrival of Ayatullah Ha'iri in Qum not only brought about a revival of its madrasas but also began a process whereby the city became in effect the spiritual capital of Iran, a process that was completed by the political struggle launched there by Imam Khomeini some forty years later. The Imam followed Ha'iri to Qum after an interval of roughly four months. This move was the first important turning point in his life.
After his arrival in Qum in 1922 or 1923, the Imam first devoted himself to completing the preliminary stage of madrasa education known as sutuh; this he did by studying with teachers such as Shaykh Muhammad Riza Najafi Masjid-i Shahi, Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khwansari, and Sayyid 'Ali Yasribi Kashani.
Imam Khomeini therefore concentrated during the years of Ayatullah Burujirdi's leadership in Qum on giving instruction in fiqh and gathering round him students who later became his associates in the movement that led to the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime.
The emphases of the Imam's activity began to change with the death of Ayatullah Burujirdi on March 31, 1961, for he now emerged as one of the successors to Burujirdi's position of leadership. This emergence was signalled by the publication of some of his writings on fiqh, most importantly the basic handbook of religious practice entitled, like others of its genre, Tauzih al-Masa'il. He was soon accepted as marja'-i taqlid by a large number of Iranian Shi'is. His leadership role was, however, destined to go far beyond that traditional for a marja'-i taqlid and to attain a comprehensiveness unique in the history of the Shi'i 'ulama'.
A more serious confrontation was not long in coming. In January 1963, the Shah announced a six-point program of reform that he termed the White Revolution, an American-inspired package of measures designed to give his regime a liberal and progressive facade.
For his own part, Imam Khomeini issued on January 22, 1963 a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. In imitation, perhaps, of his father, who had taken an armored column to Qum in 1928 in order to intimidate certain outspoken 'ulama', the Shah came to Qum two days later. Faced with a boycott by all the dignitaries of the city, he delivered a speech harshly attacking the 'ulama' as a class.
Confrontation turned to insurrection some two months later. The beginning of Muharram, always a time of heightened religious awareness and sensitivity, saw demonstrators in Tehran carrying pictures of the Imam and denouncing the Shah in front of his own palace. On the afternoon of 'Ashura (June 3, 1963), Imam Khomeini delivered a speech at the Fayziya madrasa in which he drew parallels between the Umayyad caliph Yazid and the Shah and warned the Shah that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country.*
This warning was remarkably prescient, for on January 16, 1979, the Shah was indeed obliged to leave Iran amidst scenes of popular rejoicing. The immediate effect of the Imam's speech was, however, his arrest two days later at 3 o'clock in the morning by a group of commandos who hastily transferred him to the Qasr prison in Tehran.
As dawn broke on June 3, the news of his arrest spread first through Qum and then to other cities. In Qum, Tehran, Shiraz, Mashhad and Varamin, masses of angry demonstrators were confronted by tanks and ruthlessly slaughtered. It was not until six days later that order was fully restored. This uprising of 15 Khurdad 1342 (the day in the Iranian calendar on which it began) marked a turning point in Iranian history.
The movement of 15 Khurdad may therefore be characterized as the prelude to the Islamic Revolution of 1978-79; the goals of that revolution and its leadership had already been determined.
Shortly before dawn on November 4, 1964, again a detachment of commandos surrounded the Imam's house in Qum, arrested him, and this time took him directly to Mehrabad airport in Tehran for immediate banishment to Turkey.From there he was deported to Najaf(Iraq).
Once settled in Najaf, Imam Khomeini began teaching fiqh at the Shaykh Murtaza Ansari madrasa. His lectures were well attended, by students not only from Iran but also from Iraq, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Persian Gulf states.
In 1978-1979 he successfully led the historical Islamic revolution in Iran and on 11th February,1979 the Islamic Republic was established in in Iran.He expired on 4th June 1989 in Tehran.
In various branches of Islamic sciences he authored hundreds of books and treatises.
The website regarding Imam Khomieni
Ayatullah Seyyid Abul Qasim alKhoei
He was born in Khuy, on 15th Rajab, 1317 AH. He came to Najaf at the age of 13 with his father Seyyid Ali Akbar ElKhoee. After completing his preliminary studies at the age of 20, he joined the final classes under great tutors like Shaikh alShariah Isfehani, Shaikh Muhammad Husain Isfehani, Shaikh Zia Iraqi and Mirza Husain alNaeeni. Ayatullah ElKhoee's main contribution was to Usool alFiqh, but he was also a great FAQEEH, in a sense that his classes on FIQH were attended by some of the most prominent scholars of his time. After the death of Ayatullah Seyyid Muhsin AlHakim in 1971 AD. he became a sole Marja. His tenure of Marjaiyyah was tumultuous, and it lasted for nearly 22 years. He died on 8th Safar 1413 AH. (i.e. 8th August 1992).
It is said that the number of great FUQAHA trained by him during the five decades of constant teaching exceeds one thousand.
The website regrading Ayatullah al-Uzma Khoei
Ayatullah al-Uzma Sistani
For more than half a century, the late Ayatullah Uzm Khou'i has been a clear source for many scholars who have been his students and later became eminent `alims. One of the most eminent among the students of the Late Ayatullah Khou'i is Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Husayni Sistani, who is known for his genius, knowledge, and talent. Hereby, we shall try to give a brief account (a biography) of this remarkable personality:
1- His Birth and Upbringing :
Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Husayni Sistani was born in Rabi`ul Awwal 1349 A.H. (1930 A.D.) in Mashhad, into a family known for its religious background. He learned Arabic literature and rhetoric. While he learned theological and rational sciences from many eminent and well-known religiousscholars in Khurasan. Ayatullah Sistani attended many lectures at the Kharij stage and benefitted from the knowledge of Allamah Muhaqqiq Mirza Mahdi Isfahani. He also benefited from the knowledge of `Allamah Mirza Mehdi Isfahani. After that, in 1948, Sistani traveled to Qom - in the lifetime of the late Ayatullah Boroujerdi - and began studying in its seminary.
He benefited greatly from vast knowledge of the late Ayatullah Boroujerdi, especially in Usool and Fiqh; thus he agreed with almost all of his points of view. There, he also attended the lectures of Ayatullah Hujjat Kuhkamar'i. His thirst for religious knowledge led Sistani to migrate to Najaf in 1951, where he attended some lectures of Ayatullah Hakeem, Shaykh Husayn Hilli, and the late Ayatullah Khou'i. In particular, he attended the lectures of Ayatullah Khou'i on Fiqh and Usool for more than ten years. Sistani also completed series of lessons on Usool which he learned under Ayatullah Shaykh Husayn Hilli.
Meanwhile - exactly from the year 1948 until now, Ayatullah Sistani has been teaching the Kharij stage (based on the book titled "al-Makaasib" by Shaykh Ansaari). He also teaches the book of Tahaara (purity) and many parts of the book on Prayers, in addition to parts of the book of Khums (the one-fifth tax). In 1964, Ayatullah Sistani began teaching the Kharij stage of Usool, and up until the year 1990 he has completed three series of lectures on this subject.
2- His Scientific Genius:
Ayatullah Sistani is one of the few students who obtained a degree of Ijtihad. He is known for his intelligence and his vast research activities on biographies. He is also well acquainted with many theories on many scientific subjects of the Hawzah. Ayatullah Sistani was involved in scientific competitions with martyr Muhammad Baqir Sadr. This had been certificated by the late Ayatullah Khou'i and also by `Allamah Shaykh Husayn Hilli whom both had confirmed his being a Mujtahid on two separate certification dated 1960, in which the two Ayatullahs had appreciated his personality and knowledge.
It is worthy to say that until that date, Ayatullah Khou'i had never certificated any of his students' knowledge or Ijtihad, except for Ayatullah Sistani and Ayatullah Shaykh Ali Falsafi (an eminent `alim in the Hawzah of Mashhad. On the other hand, the famous `Allamah Shaykh Agha Buzurgh Tehrani wrote a letter to Ayatullah Sistani in 1960 in which he eulogized him for his intellectual talents on biographies and hadith. This means that Ayatullah Sistani, had been granted his high scientific rank when he was only thirty-one years old.
3- His works:
Ayatullah Sistani began teaching the Kharij stage on Fiqh, Usool, and biography 34 years ago. He held many lectures on the book entitled "Makaasib", and on many subjects such as purity, prayers, judgment, khums, and other rules of Fiqh like usury, Taqiyyah (precaution), and the rule known as "ilzam" (obligation). Sistani also taught Usool for three complete sessions - some of which are ready for publication, like his research on the scientific roots (principles), "ta`adul and taraajeeh", some researches on Fiqh, some chapters about prayers, the rule of Taqiyyah and ilzam.
Many eminent scholars, such as `Allamah Shaykh Mahdi Murwaarid, `Allamah Sayyid Habib Husaynan, `Allamah Sayyid Murtadha Isfahani, `Allamah Sayyid Ahmad Madad, `Allamah Shaykh Baqir Irwaani, and many other teachers in the hawzah, have recorded his researches. During that, Ayatullah Sistani was busy in compiling important books and some treatises, in addition to what he had written on Fiqh and Usul. Hereunder, are some of Ayatullah Sistani's books and treatises:
1- Explanation on "al-`Urwa al-Wuthqah". 2- Researches on Usul. 3- The book of Qadhaa' (judgment). 4- The book of Sale and Choices. 5- A treatise on doubtful clothes. 6- A treatise on the rule of "Yadd" (hand). 7- A treatise on the traveller's prayers. 8- A treatise on the rule of "tajaawuz" & "Faraagh". 9- A treatise on "Qiblah". 10- A treatise on "Taqiyyah" (precaution). 11- A treatise on the rule of "ilzam" (obligation). 12- A treatise on ijtihad & imitation. 13- A treatise on the rule of "La Dharar wa la Dhiraar". 14- A treatise on Usury. 15- A treatise on that the correspondence of ibn abi `Umayr is reliable. 16- A criticize on the treatise titled "The correction of Chains" of Ardabili. 17- An explanation on the book titled "Mashyakhat al-Tahthibayn". 18- A treatise on the past methods in regard to the reliable narrations. with many other handwritten compilations and treatises on rules for the imitators.
4- His Methodology in Researching & Teaching:
Ayatullah Uzma Sistani has his own method of teaching which differs from other teachers and scholars. For example, his method in teaching Usul distinguishes with the following features:
A) He speaks about the history of the research he is discussing, to know its fundamental sources which might be philosophical, like the issue of the simplicity of "mushtaqq" and its constructions. Or, they might be concerned with beliefs and policy, like the research of "ta`aadul and taraajeeh", in which he had explained that the difference of hadiths returns to intellectual clashes and the political circumstances of that time during which the Holy Imams(A.S.) had lived.
B) Ayatullah Sistani always connects between the thought of Hawzah and the contemporary civilizations. In his discussing the literal meaning and distinguishing between it and the highest meaning, and whether this difference is subjective or not; Ayatullah Sistani chooses the thought of al-Kifaya's author, who believes that the said difference is external. However, he himself builds his opinion on the a modern philosophical theory.
And when he discusses the name of Time, he deals with this subject according to a Western modern philosophical theory, which declares that Time must be taken from Place, having the consequence of light and darkness. As to the form of imperative, Ayatullah Sistani discusses this matter depending on some sociologists' theories, which say that the reason behind dividing the request into: Order, Begging, and Asking, is the intercession of the requester in his request, as whether it is of higher, equal or lower than the normal level.
C) Ayatullah Sistani always looks after the principles in relation with Fiqh. He thinks that the hawzah students became bored because most of scholars are dealing with subjects on Usul exaggeratedly, by repeating the others researches, instead of innovating new researches of their own. Thus, the students cannot be enticed with such unuseful and boring repetition. But fortunately, we do not find this situation in the lectures or lessons that are being held by Ayatullah Sistani. He rather, discusses the subject from all its sides until he reaches a final logical conclusion.
D) The Marriage to the Infidel: This is one of the disputatious rules about which the scholars have different opinions. They believe that it is a mere intellectual rule. But Ayatullah Sistani regards it as a part of the rule called "Idhtiraar" (obligation) which is a legal rule confirmed by many historical texts like "Anything which Allah has prohibited is lawful for whoever is driven to necessity".
Or sometimes, he amplifies a rule by emphasizing what is seems to be important. E) His Social View About the Text: There are many Faqihs who deal literally with historical texts and remain stable upon their mere words and meanings, and do not try to move even one step forward. For instance, such faqihs depend on the apparent meaning of the prophetic hadith in which the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) had prohibited the Muslims from eating the meat of domestic asses during the time of the battle of Khaybar, and believe that the asses' meat is prohibited, without objection.
But, from the Ayatullah Sistani's point of view, faqihs must penetrate into the real meaning behind the text's words. He says that the Holy Prophet, and for sure, wanted to utilize the few number of asses the Muslims have in the best and most useful ways. One of those ways is that these asses must be kept alive to convey the arms and other important provision to the Muslim army, since they were the only means available for transportation. Thus, Ayatullah Sistani believes that the prohibition must have been temporary and must not be understood as absolute permanent one.
F) Experience & Acquaintance: Ayatullah Uzma Sistani believes strongly that a faqih must be acquainted with Arabic literature, civilization, orations, poems, grammar,...etc., otherwise he wouldn't have enough ability to deal with any text, and so, he cannot distinguish this meaning from that. And, also a faqih must have enough knowledge about historical biographies and dignities, in order to be able to recognize any text in relation to that personality. Moreover, it is amazing to mention here, that Ayatullah Sistani, and in many occasions, disagrees with rules that are unanimously agreed by most of scholars.
As an example, the ulama do not accept ibn al-Fadha'iri's criticism book in regard to some personalities, either, as they believe, because of the huge number of criticism he had against those personalities, or because they doubt his being the author of the book. While Ayatullah Sistani believes that ibn al-Fadha'iri is the real author of that book, and that he must be regarded more reliable than even Najjaashi, al-Shaykh, and others, for his criticism. Ayatullah Sistani always encourages the scholars to study the different copies of hadith, and distinguish between them to fetch the differences, and also study the biography of the narrators. He does agree with those who regard al-Saduq more reliable (in narrating traditions) than al-Shaykh. He rather believes that al-Shaykh is trustworthy enough. However, Ayatullah Sistani and martyr Sadr both try to give a new formation to the subject.
Now, when Ayatullah Sistani discusses the rule of "ta`aadul and taraajeeh", he refers to the secret concealed inside this rule, which is the reason of the hadiths' difference. So, if the scholars attempt to point the reasons of the difference behind the legal texts, there will no problem at all. The same subject had been discussed by martyr Sadr, but he had dealt with it according to the absolute intellection, while Ayatullah Sistani gave many temporary and historical evidences, until he got important rules through which many disputes have been solved and removed. It is said that Ayatullah Sistani is using this method in the Fiqh lessons he is holding.
G) Comparing between different schools: Commonly, many scholars try to constrict their researches to this religious school or that, but Ayatullah Sistani differs. He always compares his research or discussion with the two main centers of knowledge, namely the hawzah of Mashhad and the hawzah of Qum on the one hand, and the hawzah of Najaf on the other hand. For instance, he conveys the opinions of Mirza Mahdi Isfahani (one of the scholars of Mashhad), Boroujerdi (an `alim from Qum), and the opinions of the three researchers, Ayatullah Khou'i, and Shaykh Hasan Hilli (as scholars from Najaf). The Sistani's method in Fiqh has a particular feature, some of which are related herebelow:
1) Comparing between the Fiqh of Shia and other Islamic sects' Fiqh.
2) Benefitting from the modern laws (like the Iraqi, Egyptian, and French laws) in some Fiqh subjects, especially when he discusses the subjects such as the Sale and the Choices.
3) Renewal in Discussing some Fiqh rules and according to this era's circumstances, contrary to some scholars who deal with the historical texts as they are without attempting to change any part of it as the conditions may request that.
5- Ayatullah Sistani's Personality:
Whoever associates with Ayatullah Sistani, he will notice how high spirituality he earns, the spirituality that Ahlul Bayt(A.S.) have always called to. This feature, indeed, has rendered him one of high rank's scholars and a true pious. However, the most remarkable characteristics of Ayatullah Sistani are the following:
A) Equity and Respecting Others' Opinions:
Because Ayatullah Sistani is fond of knowledge and always does his best to Reach the truth, and also because he respects everybody's opinion and every objective point, he keeps reading and researching all the time. He is very anxious to know others' thought and discover the target points of his mates. Many times and in many occasions we see him referring to one of the scholar's opinion even this scholar is not one of his masters, or he is not very known in the Hawzah, only because that opinion has an objective point (or points) of view.
B) Discussing Subjects Politely: It is known among the scholars that subjects and on many fields are being discussed roughly in the Hawzah of Najaf. It is no doubt that such a manner may cultivate the students'knowledge and purify it from every incorrect understanding. However, the students quarrel about something unimportant, and thus, the same manner may be mere squabble. In this case, more precious time would be wasted in vain, and no one would reach the holy aim, which is certainty, for which he pays all that endeavor and exertion. On the other hand, we see Ayatullah Sistani avoids disputes and void argumentation, or disregarding others' opinions and conclusions. He always tries to use polite phrases, and always does his best to keep the scholars' respect and veneration. Another feature, is that Ayatullah Sistani used to repeat his speech and phrases that consist important points; but if he noticed a continuous arrogance and obstinacy from a student, he then prefers silence.
C) Training Beside Education: Education is not only an official job through which a teacher may practise a routine work against his salary. Such a behaviour shall certainly deviate the teacher from the main target which is training his students. A teacher must regard his work as a heavenly mission which he must practise with love, care, and full responsibility. It is said that Ayatullah al-Hakim's high behaviours were Sistani's excellent model. He himself became a model of his master, the late Ayatullah Khou'i, and is treating his students exactly as the late Ayatullah Khou'i used to treat his students. Ayatullah Sistani, always encourages his students to ask and research, until they reach the truth. In the same time, he insists on respecting the scholars and `ulama.
D) Piety: Sometimes, the hawzah undergoes problems or critical attitudes which, if they are not to be faced bravely, many facts that affect the principles of the Islamic religion shall be concealed. There is no doubt that all `ulama must stand with courage in front of these incorrect currents. But the same situation may rise because of personal enmity or competitions to reach a higher rank or hollow reputation. In this case, many `alims, such as Ayatullah Sistani, prefer to stand aloof instead of participating in this dilemma, as happened after the demise of Ayatullah Boroujerdi and Ayatullah al-Hakim. Ayatullah Sistani is very well-known for his humble and simplicity in lifeway. He earns ordinary house and furniture, and wears unexpensive garments. He does not care about fashion or modern mode.
E)Ayatullah Sistani's Intellectual Works: Ayatullah Sistani is not a mere faqih; he is rather a well-educated personality. He is acquainted with most of contemporary knowledges and civilizations, and has modernized thoughts and opinions. Ayatullah Sistani is heedful of the international economic and political information. In one word, Ayatullah Sistani can be considered as a modern faqih with genuine principles.
6- The Religious Authority: Some masters in Najaf Ashraf relate that, after the demise of Ayatollah Sayyid Nasrullah Mustanbit, many scholars had suggested on Ayatollah Khou'i that he should prepare the appropriate base by choosing a personality from the hawzah (of Najaf) so that the religious authority may remain alive and effective. His choice became correct and the choiced was Sayyid Sistani for his knowledge, good manner, stable policy, and many other virtues. Ayatollah Sistani then began to perform the prayers at the niche of Ayatollah Khou'i, and started studying in his school.
Later on, he wrote a commentary on the Resaalah of Ayatollah Khou'i. After the death of Ayatullah Khou'i, Ayatollah Sistani was one of those six personalities who participated in the funeral and he himself performed the prayers on the late's body. After that,Ayatullah Sistani became the only marja` (religious authority). He began to send duties and salaries, and teaching in the same classroom of Ayatollah Khou'i (in Masjid Khadhra'); thus, his followers increased day after another, especially in Iraq, the Persian Gulf region, India,...etc. Ayatollah Sistani has the highest rank among the mujtahids and scholars throughout the Islamic World, and especially in the hawzahs of Najaf Ashraf and Qom.
Some useful links regarding Ayatullah al-Uzma Sistani