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The Iranian Pupils of Shaykh Tusī and Abu ‘Ali al-Tusī

By: Rasul Jafarian

The Pupils of Shaykh Tus?
The first point that draws our attention pertains to the Iranian pupils of Shaykh Tus?. It should be noted that some of the pupils of Shaykh Muf?d and Shar?f Murtada were Iranians who were also later on pupils of Shaykh Tus? or his contemporary scholars. Among these contemporaries of the Shaykh is ‘Abd al-Jabbar Raz?, to whom we shall refer later. Another was Sallar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Az?z Daylam? (d. 446/1056), who came from Tabaristan and was a close disciple of Shar?f Murtada and who at times taught in his teacher’s stead.[1] He was the teacher of many Arab and Iranian scholars and a contemporary of Abu al-Salah HalAbu—or his teacher, according to some scholars. It is said that when the people of Halab approached him for fatwa he would refer them to Abu al-Salah.[2] His grave is at Khusrow Shah near Tabr?z,[3] a point which is itself indicative of his visits to Iran.
Al-Hak?m gives biographical accounts of forty persons from among the pupils of Shaykh Tus?. Many of them had obvious Iranian names and nisbahs pertaining to their native towns. Among them one finds such names as Qumm?, Nayshabur?, Jurjan?, Amul?, as well as Nasaf?, Marwaz?, Qazw?n? and Ab?. His non-Iranian pupils were from Iraq and Syria. Possibly some of them might have settled down in Iraq but were of Iranian origin, although it is possible that some of them came from families of Arab descent settled in Iran, such as the Hamdan?s of Ray and Qazw?n,[4] as well as the Khuza‘?s who had settled in Iran for centuries. Some of them have left works in Arabic and Persian. It has been said about ‘Abd al-Jabbar ibn ‘Ali Raz? that he had writings on fiqh in Arabic and Persian.[5] It appears that their first generation wrote in Arabic but gradually they came to write books in Persian as well. Muhammad ibn Husayn Muhtasib, one of the teachers of Muntajab al-D?n, was the author of the book Ramishafza-ye Al-e Muhammad, a ten-volume work in Persian.[6]
As to the Iranian pupils of Shaykh Tus?, among them were:
1. Adam ibn Yunus Nasaf?.[7] According to Ibn Hajar, Muntajab al-D?n mentioned him in the book Rijal al-Sh?‘ah al-Imamiyyah and considered him a pupil of Shaykh Tus?.[8]
2. Ahmad ibn Husayn ibn Ahmad Khuza‘? Nayshabur?. He was the father of ‘Abd al-Rahman Muf?d, more of whom will be said later on. Ahmad was among the pupils of Sayyid Murtada, Sayyid Rad? and Shaykh Tus? who settled down in Ray. He is the author of several works, such as an Amal? in four volumes, ‘Uyun al-Ahad?th, al-Rawdah in fiqh, as well as other works[9] including al-Arba‘?n ‘an al-Arba‘?n f? fada’il Am?r al-Mu’min?n (‘a).[10]
3. Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Babawayh Qumm? and his brother.
4. Isma‘?l ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Babawayh Qumm?. According to Muntajab al-D?n, these two were among narrators of the works of Shaykh Tus? and themselves authors of books in Arabic and Persian.[11]
5. Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Babawayh Qumm?, known as Hasaka (resident of Ray). He was the grandfather of Muntajab al-D?n, the author of al-Fihrist, and the Shaykh of many Sh?‘? scholars of Iran during the sixth/twelfth century. He had a school (madrasah) at Ray about which ‘Abd al-Jalil writes that ‘‘the school of Shams al-Islam Hasaka Babawayh, the Senior preceptor of this sect (p?r-e ?n Ta’ifeh) is near the Sarai Ayalat and is a place for the holding of congregational prayers, recitations of Qur’an, and Qur’anic instruction of children and sessions of preaching and wa‘z.’’[12] Among his pupils was Abu ‘Ali Tabris?.[13] Another pupil of his is his own son, ‘Ubayd Allah, father of Muntajab al-D?n. ‘Ubayd Allah narrated the works of Tus? through his father. An ijazah by Shaykh Hasan ibn Husayn Duryast? (settled at Kashan) indicates that he had the ijazah to narrate the Shaykh’s MabsuT through ‘Ubayd Allah, from his father, from Shaykh Tus?, and the same chain of transmission is given for an Arab scholar named Shaykh Murshid al-D?n Abu al-Husayn ‘Ali ibn Husayn Suraw?.[14] Another pupil of Hasaka was Sayyid Rida ibn Da‘? ‘Aq?q? Mashhad?.[15]
6. Husayn ibn Muzaffar ibn ‘Ali Hamdan? Qazw?n? (resident of Qazw?n) (d. 498/1104). According to Muntajab al-D?n, for thirty years he had studied all the works of Shaykh Tus? under him.[16] Rafi‘? writes that he travelled to Iraq where he was a pupil of some of the scholars.[17] Among his pupils were Sayyid Talib ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib Abhar? Faq?h,[18] Sayyid ‘Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ja‘far? Qazw?n? (Shaykh al-Talibiyyah f? waqtih)[19] and Sayyid Abu al-Barakat Muhammad ibn Isma‘?l Mashhad?,[20] and Am?rka ibn Abu al-Laj?m Qazw?n? ‘Ijl?[21] (belonging to the Sh?‘? ‘Ijl? family residing at Qazw?n).[22]
7. Sayyid Dhu al-Fiqar ibn Muhammad ibn Ma‘bad Hasan? Marwaz?. He was a pupil of Shaykh Tus?[23] and Sayyid Murtada. Muntajab al-D?n writes, ‘‘I saw him when he was one hundred and fifteen years old.’’[24] At some time he had travelled to Damascus where he was seen by Ibn ‘Asakir who mentions him as ‘‘one of the Rafid?s.’’[25] He was among the teachers of Sayyid Fadl Allah Rawand?[26] and Qutb al-D?n Rawand?.[27]
8. ‘Abd al-Jabbar ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Ali Muqri’ Raz?, known as Muf?d. Muntajab al-D?n refers to him as the faq?h of the Sh?‘ah of Ray (faq?h aShabina bi al-Ray) and says that he was a pupil of Sallar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Az?z and Ibn Barraj. After being at Baghdad he returned to Ray where he engaged in training students and, according to ‘Abd al-Jalil, had four hundred pupils.[28] ‘Abd al-Jalil writes that ‘‘in the madrasah of Khwajah ‘Abd al-Jabbar Muf?d four hundred scholars of fiqh and kalam receive lessons of the Shar?‘ah.’’[29] In that case he must have been one of the important links between the schools of Baghdad and Najaf and the Iranian Sh?‘? community. Muntajab al-D?n writes that he had works on fiqh in Arabic and Persian,[30] but we do not know their titles. Abu ‘Ali Tabris?, author of the Majma‘ al-Bayan, was his pupil as mentioned by himself.[31] Sayyid Tayyib ibn Had? Shajar?,[32] belonging to the Shajar? Sayyids of Iran, was also his pupil.
9. ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Husayn Muf?d Nayshabur? Khuza‘?. The Khuza‘? family was one of the outstanding learned families of the day in Ray. Apart from the fact that the father of ‘Abd al-Rahman was a pupil of Shar?f Murtada and Shaykh Tus?, his uncle, Muhsin ibn Husayn Khuza‘?, was author of several books.[33] Muntajab al-D?n writes that he travelled east and west and heard traditions from Sh?‘? and Sunn? scholars (al-mu’alif wa al-mukhalif). Among his works were an Amal?, ‘Uyun al-Akhbar, Safinat al-Najat, etc. He had studied under Shaykh Tus?, Shar?f Murtada, Shar?f Rad?, Karajak?, Ibn Barraj, Sallar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Az?z,[34] and Shaykh Abu al-Muzaffar Layth ibn Sa‘d Asad?, a resident of Zanjan,[35] and ‘Abd al-Baq? KhaTib BaSr?[36] and benefited as well from the teaching of some pupils of Shaykh Tus? such as Abu Sa‘d Mansur Ab?.[37] He was a narrator of Abu al-Salah HalAbu’s work, al-Kaf?, from its author.[38] ‘Abd al-Jalil writes about him, ‘‘The khwajah and faq?h, ‘Abd al-Rahman Nayshabur?, whose books, writings, pen and pronouncements are held in great esteem by Islamic sects.’’[39] ‘Abd al-Rahman was an uncle of the father of Abu al-Futuh Raz?, author of the famous exegesis, and he formed one of the original links of propagation of Sh?‘? learning of Iraq, especially that of Shaykh Tus?, among Iranian Sh?‘ah.[40] After studies he returned to Ray where he managed a mosque. Two of his pupils were Murtada and Mujtaba, sons of Da‘? ibn Qas?m Hasan?, through whom Muntajab al-D?n possessed the ijazah of narration from ‘Abd al-Rahman Muf?d Nayshabur?.[41] Muntajab al-D?n also possessed an ijazah through the same Murtada to narrate the traditions and works narrated by Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Hibat Allah ibn ‘Uthman MawSil?.[42] In the tradition in which his name is mentioned, the date of narration of the had?th through him is mentioned as 476/1083 and the place of narration as his mosque in Ray.[43] To him is attributed the TabSirat al-‘Awam, the old Persian work on here biography (firaq wa madhahib),[44] an attribution which has rightly been questioned.
10. ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-Samad Tam?m? Sabzawar? Nayshabur?. He was the ancestor of the famous family of scholars of the sixth/twelfth century, one of whom was the author of the book Dhakh?rat al-Akhirah, a work in Persian on supplications which has been edited and published by this author.[45] ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-Samad and his sons and grandsons are mentioned in many chains of authorities (isnad) which we shall mention later on.
11. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Fattal Nayshabur?, author of the book Rawdat al-wa‘iz?n and a Qur’anic commentary; the latter work is mentioned repeatedly by ‘Abd al-Jalil along with other outstanding Sh?‘? exegeses such as the Tibyan and the Majma‘ al-Bayan. Muntajab al-D?n refers to him in two places, once in relation to his tafs?r[46] and in another place where he mentions the Rawdat al-wa‘iz?n.[47] Muhaddith Urmaw?, on the basis of Ibn Shahr Ashub’s introduction to his Manaqib, where he mentions Fattal as one of his teachers, believes that these two entries relate to one person.[48] Aqa Buzurg Tehran? writes that he narrated from Shaykh Tus?.[49]
12. Muntaha ibn Abu Zayd Husayn? Jurjan? Kajj?. Muntajab al-D?n mentions several individuals of this family.[50] ‘Abd al-Jalil writes that Sayyid al-Muntaha al-Jurjan? ‘‘was killed openly by the renegades’’ (‘malahidah,’ i.e. the Isma‘?l?s)[51] and at another place he writes that the Isma‘?l?s killed him in public, as well as Abu Talib Kiya (at Qazwin) and Sayyid Kiya Jurjan?, whose corpse was disentombed and burnt by them because they were Sh?‘?s.[52] He was among the teachers of Ibn Shahr Ashub and he mentions him with the name, Muntaha ibn Abu Zayd ibn Kiyabak? (Kiyasak? or Kaysak?) Husayn? Jurjan?.[53] Probably he might have met Shaykh Tus? for, as mentioned by Afand?, his father, Sayyid Abu Zayd ‘Abd Allah Husayn? Jurjan?, was a pupil of Shar?f Murtada and Shar?f Rad?.[54]
13. ManSur ibn Husayn Ab?, the minister of the Buwayhids. Muntajab al-D?n mentions him among the pupils of Shaykh Tus?.[55] He is the author of the precious literary work Nathr al-durr, which has been published in seven volumes.

Iranian Pupils of Abu ‘Ali al-Tus?
Abu ‘Ali Hasan ibn Muhammad (alive in 511/1117), son of Shaykh Tus?, studied his father’s works under him and after his father assumed the leadership of the Sh?‘? community. He studied under his father along with several other outstanding scholars, Arab and Iranian. They were ‘Abd al-Jabbar ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Ali Raz?, Hasan ibn Husayn Babawayh Qumm?, and Muhammad ibn Hibat Allah Warraq Tarabulus?. It has also been said that he stands at the head of the tradition of scholarly ijazahs amongst the Sh?‘ah.[56] The Sh?‘ah would come from various regions to Najaf for acquisition of religious learning and studied under him.[57] Most of the pupils of Abu ‘Ali mentioned by Muntajab al-D?n have Iranian names. Among them were:
1. Ardash?r ibn Abu al-Majidayn Abu al-Mafakhir Kabul?.
2. Husayn ibn Fath Wa‘iz Bakrabad? Jurjan?. After his studies he returned to Iran and, according to Abu al-Hasan Bayhaq?, went from Jurjan to Bayhaq. When there arose differences with the grammarians he returned to Jurjan where he died in 536/1141. He was a teacher in fiqh of Sad?d al-D?n Hims? Raz? as well as that of Hasan, son of Abu ‘Ali Tabris?.[58]
3. Jafar ibn al-Da‘? ibn Jafar Hamdan? Qazw?n?.
4. Rukn al-D?n ‘Ali ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-Samad Nayshabur? Sabzawar?.
5. ‘Ali ibn Husayn ibn ‘Ali Jasb?,[59] pupil of Abu ‘Ali and Hasaka ibn Babawayh.
6. Lutf Allah ibn ‘Ata’ Allah ibn Ahmad Hasan? Nayshabur?.
7. ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazw?n? Raz?, author of the book Naqd.
8. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Hamzah al-Tus? al-Mashhad?. Muntajab al-D?n mentions him and his works.[60] Suggestion have been put forward concerning his being a pupil of Shaykh Tus?, which are not acceptable in view of the period of his lifetime in the middle of the sixth/twelfth century.[61]
9. ‘Imad al-D?n Muhammad ibn Abu al-Qasim Tabar? Amul? Kajj?. Among his extant books is Basharat al-Mustafa, which reveals certain details from the viewpoint of his studies in Iraq and Iran. In his narrations he mentions the place of his teacher’s narration together with the date. His extant work is in Arabic and his other works mentioned by Muntajab al-D?n have also Arabic titles. He narrates traditions from some Arab and Iranian teachers in the generation of the pupils of Abu ‘Ali Tus?.[62] Afand? also gives some information about him and considers the Fawa’id annexed to the book MukhtaSar al-MiSbah of Shaykh Tus? in a version that he had seen as belonging to him.[63] From the years mentioned in the text of the book Basharat al-Mustafa it becomes clear that the author had been in these cities where he had studied and heard traditions: 508-509 in Amul; from Rabu‘ al-Awwal to Safar 510 in Ray; from Ramadan 510 to Ramadan 511 in Najaf; during Dhu al-Qa‘dah and Shawwal of 512 in Najaf; 512 in Kufah; 514 in Nayshabur; 516 in Kufah; Muharram 516 in Najaf; Dhu al-Qa‘dah of 518 in Ray; RAbu al-Awwal 520 in Amul; 524 in Nayshabur.[64]
He narrates from Abu ‘Ali Tus? more than from anyone else and his narrations from him are more than fifty-five. Later scholars, even Arab, narrate from him, including Yahya ibn Bitr?q, author of al-‘Umdah.[65]
10. Abu ‘Ali Fadl ibn Hasan Tabris?, author of the book Majma‘ al-Bayan. Several sources mention him to have been a pupil of Abu ‘Ali Tus?.[66]
Other Arab scholars also had a role in the training of Iranian scholars. One of them was Abu al-Fath Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Karajak?, pupil of Shar?f Murtada and Shaykh Tus?, who had several Iranian disciples, including Jafar ibn Da‘? ibn Mahd? ‘Alaw? Istarabad?,[67] ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad Nayshabur?, known as Muf?d,[68] and Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Babawayh known as Hasaka, the grandfather of Muntajab al-D?n,[69] as well as his father, ‘Ubayd Allah ibn Hasan.[70]
Among Arab scholars of this period is ‘Abd al-‘Az?z ibn Nihr?r, known as Ibn Barraj, the judge of Tripoli, who had Iranian pupils, among whom were the father[71] and grandfather of Muntajab al-D?n.[72] It is clear that these scholars carried out the transfer of the learning of the Sh?‘? centres of Baghdad and Najaf to other Sh?‘? centres, including Halab.
[1] Al-‘Amil?, al-Sayyid Muhsin, A‘yan al-Sh?‘ah (Beirut: Dar al-Ta‘aruf, nd.), 11 vols., vol. 7, p. 171.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Al-Tehran?, Aqa Buzurg, Al-Dhar?‘ah ila tasan?f al-Sh?‘ah (Mu’assasah-ye Matbu‘at?-ye Isma‘?liyan, nd.), 25 vols., vol. 1, p. 74
[4] Such as Imam Abu al-Faraj Hamdan?, his son Shaykh Husayn Hamdan?, Imam Abu Sa‘?d Hamdan?, known as Nasir al-D?n (see ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazw?n? Raz?, Naqd (Tehran: Anjuman-e Athar-e Mill?, 1358 H. Sh.) ed., Muhaddith Urmaw?, p. 210) and Burhan al-D?n Muhammad ibn Muhammad Hamdan? Qazw?n? (see Majlis?, Bihar al-Anwar (Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Wafa’, 1403) 110 vols., vol. 104, p. 128, the ijazah of the ‘Allamah to Banu Zuhrah).
[5] Muntajab al-D?n ‘Ali ibn Babawayh Raz?, al-Fihrist (Qum: Maktabah Ayatullah Mar‘ash?, 1366), ed. Muhaddith Urmaw? and Samam? Ha’ir?, p. 75, no. 220.
[6] Ibid., p. 108, no. 394
[7] Ibid., p. 34, no. 6.
[8] Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalan?, Lisan al-M?zan (Beirut: Dar al-Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabu, 1416) ed. Mar‘ashl?, vol. 1, p. 512.
[9] Muntajab al-D?n, op. cit., p. 32, no. 1.
[10] Ibid., p. 30
[11] Ibid., p. 33, no. 4
[12] ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazw?n?, op. cit., p. 34.
[13] Kar?man, Tabris? wa Majma‘ al-Bayan (Tehran: Tehran University, 1360 H. Sh.), vol. 1, pp. 290-291.
[14] Afand?, M?rza ‘Abd Allah, Riyad al-‘ulama’ wa hiyad al-fudala’ (Qum: Maktabah Ayatullah Mar‘ash?, 1401), ed. Sayyid Ahmad Ashkewar?, vol. 1, p. 179.
[15] Muntajab al-D?n, op. cit., p. 64, no. 164.
[16] Ibid., p. 47, no. 73.
[17] Al-Rafi‘?, al-Tadw?n f? Akhbar Qazw?n (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1408), ed. ‘Az?z Allah ‘Utarud?, vol. 2, p. 462.
[18] Muntajab al-D?n, op, cit., p. 73, no. 207.
[19] Ibid., p. 80, no. 337.
[20] Ibid., p. 106, no. 387.
[21] Al-Rafi‘?, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 316.
[22] See Urmaw?, the endnotes to Muntajab al-D?n’s al-Fihrist, pp. 176-183.
[23] Concerning Dhu al-Fiqar’s narration from Shaykh Tus?, see Rawand?, Qisas al-Anbiya’ (Mashhad: Bunyad-e Pazhuhishha-ye Islam? 1409), ed. Ghulam Rida ‘Irfaniyan, p. 142.
[24] Muntajab al-D?n, op. cit., p. 62, no. 157; see also p. 42, no. 54.
[25] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tar?kh Dimashq (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1415), vol. 17, p. 329. He writes that Dhu al-Fiqar considered himself to have been born in the year 455/1063 at Marw. Should this date be correct, he should not be considered a pupil of Shar?f Murtada (d. 436/1044) or even that of Shaykh Tus? (d. 460/1067).
[26] See Rawand?, D?wan al-Sayyid al-Imam Diya’ al-D?n Abu al-Rida al-Hasan? al-Rawand? (Tehran: Maktabat al-Majlis, 1334 H. Sh.), ed. Muhaddith Urmaw?, the editor’s introduction, p. 25.
[27] Rawand?, Qisas al-Anbiya’, p. 73.
[28] ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazw?n?, op. cit., p. 210.
[29] Ibid., p. 35.
[30] Muntajab al-D?n, op. cit., p. 75, no. 220.
[31] Al-Tabris?, Majma‘ al-Bayan (Sidon), vol. 3, p. 413.
[32] Muntajab al-D?n, op. cit., p. 73, no. 208.
[33] Ibid., p. 101, no. 360.
[34] Ibid., p. 75, no. 219.
[35] Ibid., p. 99, no., 348.
[36] Ibid., p. 76, no., 225.
[37] Ibid., p. 105, no., 376.
[38] Ibid., p. 44, no. 60.
[39] ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazw?n?, op. cit., p. 144.
[40] See for instance, Muntajab al-D?n , op. cit., p. 106, nos. 385, 386.
[41] Muntajab al-D?n, op. cit., p. 106.
[42] Ibid., p. 76, no. 224.
[43] ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazw?n?, op. cit., p. 495.
[44] Tabsirat al-‘Awam (Tehran: AsaT?r 1364 H. Sh.), ed. ‘Abbas Iqbal, ‘‘Introduction.’’
[45] Dhakh?rat al-Akhirah (Qum: Intisharat-e AnSariyan, 1375 H. Sh.), ed. Rasul Ja‘fariyan.
[46] Muntajab al-D?n, op. cit., no. 108, by the name Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Fattal Nayshabur?.
[47] Ibid., p. 126, by the name Shaykh Shah?d Muhammad ibn Ahmad, al-Faris?. It is probable that there were two books with the title Rawdat al-Wa‘iz?n, one by Fattal Nayshabur? and another by Muhammad Faris?.
[48] Ibid., endnotes, pp. 436-437.
[49] Al-Tehran?, al-Thiqat al-‘Uyun f? Sadis al-Qurun (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Arabiyyah, 1975), p.. 275
[50] Ibid., pp. 103-104.
[51] ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazw?n?, Naqd, p. 210.
[52] Ibid., p. 131.
[53] See Al-Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 12.
[54] Afand?, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 229.
[55] Muntajab al-D?n , op. cit., p. 105, no. 376.
[56] Al-Mamaqan?, Tanq?h al-Maqal (lithographed edition, 3 vols.), vol. 1, p. 306, no. 2627.
[57] Al-Tehran?, in the introduction to Shaykh Tus?’s Kitab al-ghaybah (Tehran: Maktabat al-Naynawa al-Had?thah 1398), p. 11.
[58] Kar?man, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 294.
[59] It should be noted that a generation of scholars belonging to the city of Jasb lived during the sixth/twelfth century. In the published version of Muntajab al-D?n’s al-Fihrist, they are mentioned as ‘‘Hasit?.’’
[60] Muntajab al-D?n, op. cit., p. 107.
[61] See Ibn Hamzah, Al-Thaqib f? al-Manaqib (Qum: 1411) ed. NAbul ‘Alwan, Introduction, pp. 11-13.
[62] Muntajab al-D?n , op. cit., p. 107, no. 388.
[63] Afand?, op. cit., vol. 5, pp. 17-18.
[64] ‘Imad al-D?n Muhammad ibn Abu al-Qasim Tabar?, Basharat al-Mustafa (Najaf: Maktabat al-Haydariyyah, 1383).
[65] Yusuf Karkush, Tar?kh al-Hillah (Qum: Manshurat al-Rad?, 1413), vol. 2, p. 13.
[66] Kar?man, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 290-29.
[67] Muntajab al- D?n, op. cit., p. 74, no. 214.
[68] Ibid., p. 75, no. 219.
[69] Ibid., p. 46, no. 46.
[70] Ibid., p. 77, no. 228.
[71] Ibid.
[72] Ibid., p. 46, no. 46.

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