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Hillah and Dissemination of Shī段sm in Seventh-Century Iran

By: Rasul Jafarian
The third phase of the influence of Iraq? Sh?訴sm on Iran relates to the influence of the school of Hillah on Iranian Sh?? scholars during the eighth/fourteenth century. The city of Hillah was founded by Sayf al-Dawlah Hamdan? and with the support he extended to academic pursuits and scholars, it rapidly grew into an academic centre. The Sh?? concerns of this dynasty made this city a centre of attraction for Sh?? scholars and it gradually grew into a centre of the Sh?疎h. For this reason this city has been one of the main centres of the Sh?疎h from the sixth/twelfth to the ninth/fifteenth century and at times its position overshadowed even Najaf and other Sh?? centres. During the said period scholars belonging to this city were many and two of their most outstanding thinkers were Muhaqqiq Hill? (676/1277) and 羨llamah Hill? (d. 726/1325).[1] The illustrious Tawus family belonged to Hillah and it was here that Rad? al-D?n 羨li ibn Tawus was born in 589/1193. He later went to Baghdad, although he returned to Hillah in the years 643/1245 and 663/1264. Before them was Ibn Idr?s Hill? (d. 598/1201), whose book al-Sara段r acquired a prominent position despite the criticism which has been directed towards him. He had been critical of Shaykh Tus? in fiqh and tafs?r.[2] Other famous families such as those of Al Bitr?q and Al Sa?d (to this family belonged Muhaqqiq Hill?) resided in this city. The prevalent academic language of the city was Arabic and its population was mainly Arab. Nevertheless, the literary links between Arabic and Persian, which were the result of frequent visits of Iranians to the city, led to close links between this city and Persian speakers and Iranian towns. For instance, Saf? al-D?n Muhammad ibn TaqTaq?, the author of al-Fakhr?, whose family had been residing in Hillah for centuries, travelled to Iran and married an Iranian woman and he cites Persian verses in his book.[3] A perusal of Ibn Fuwat?痴 book Majma al-Adab shows that there were many bilingual poets in this period who wrote poetry in Arabic as well as Persian.[4]

羨llamah Hill? in Iran
The fall of the 羨bbasid caliphate occurred during this period and the Mongol Ilkhanids ruled over Muslims. Gradually they embraced Islam and among them Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah embraced Sh?訴sm. When he wanted to become more familiar with the Sh?? creed, the fame of 羨llamah Hill? was such that his name was proposed to the king who invited him to Sultaniyyah.
羨llamah Hill? was fated to establish a close relationship with Iran. We know that the concept of 選ran acquired currency in literary, historical, and political literature in the era of the Ilkhanids. The 羨llamah痴 relations were established with Iran due to the religious sentiments of Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah and his conversion to Sh?訴sm. The 羨llamah lived for some time in Iran and stayed for a period at the king痴 court and wrote books in his name and in the defense of Sh?訴sm. In a brief treatise entitled Bayan al-Haqayiq that Rash?d al-D?n Fadl Allah wrote in the year 709/1309 concerning ziyarah in a reply to a question posed by 羨llamah Hill?, he mentions 羨llamah Hill? with the words 荘mawlana al-mu疎zzam malik al-hukama wa al-Mashayikh, yaganeh wa dastur-e Iran.鋳[5] The term dastur here is in the sense of an important personality whose word is considered authoritative. The 羨llamah痴 presence in Iran was after the time when Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah developed a keen interest in a debate between Islamic creeds, and the 羨llamah was invited as a Sh?? scholar to participate in these debates. Following Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah痴 interest in Sh?訴sm, the station of the 羨llamah and his son rose and the 羨llamah remained for a period in the Sultan痴 court. Elsewhere we have given a description of 羨llamah Hill?痴 presence in these debates and the 羨llamah writings on the issues of kalam and their dedication to the Sultan.[6] That which is significant for the present study is the presence of the 羨llamah in Iran and his journeys to various Iranian towns. To be certain, the 羨llamah was in Iran in the year 709/1309. Moreover, that which can be gathered from the treatise of Rash?d al-D?n is that the 羨llamah gave an ijazah to Taj al-D?n Muhammad ibn Mawla Zayn al-D?n Muhammad ibn Qad? 羨bd al-Wahid Raz? in the RAbu al-Than? of this year.[7]
The 羨llamah was also in Iran in the year 712/1312, for his book al-Alfayn was finished in the city of Jurjan in the Ramadan of 712/1312.[8] The 羨llamah also issued an ijazah in Waram?n for Qutb al-D?n Raz?, an outstanding Sh?疎h philosopher and scholar, in the Sha礎an of 713/1313.[9] From certain isnad it appears that the 羨llamah was for a time in Qum, where he heard had?th. The said isnad is mentioned in the book 羨wal? al-La誕l? of Ibn Abu Jumhur. There the isnad given, from the 羨llamah upwards, is as follows: 荘Qala haddathan? al-Shaykh al-羨llamah al-fahhamah, ustadh al-爽lama, Jamal al-D?n Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn al-MuTahhar, qala, ruw?tu 疎n Mawlana Sharaf al-D?n Ishaq ibn Mahmud al-Yaman? bi-Qum, 疎n khalih? Mawlana 選mad al-D?n Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Fathan al-Qumm?, 疎n al-Shaykh Sadr al-D?n al-Saw?.鋳[10] Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah established a mobile madrasah, named Madrasah Sayyarah, consisting of the 羨llamah and many scholars of that era, and they would move about from place to place in the company of the Sultan.[11]
During the lifetime of 羨llamah Hill? and his son, Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n,[12] (682-771/1283-1369), a number of Iranians came to him for learning, and besides studies under him they would engage in making copies of his books which were transferred to Iran. Here we will mention some of the pupils of 羨llamah Hill? and Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n.
1. Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn Balku ibn 羨li Aw?. He possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah and his son, dated 705/1305. He has written a manuscript of the Nahj al-Balaghah in 732/1331 at Isfahan.[13]
2. Jamal al-D?n Iskandar Istarabad?, pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n.[14]
3. Taj al-D?n Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Hasan Sarabeshnaw? Kashan?, one of the pupils of 羨llamah Hill?. In an ijazah that he wrote for his son in the year 763/1361 on the back of a manuscript of the 羨llamah痴 book al-Qawa訴d, he mentions himself as being a pupil of the 羨llamah.[15]
4. Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Baha al-D?n Sarabeshnaw?, a pupil of 羨llamah Hill?, who possessed an ijazah from him dated Jamad? al-Awwal 715/1315.[16]
5. Husayn ibn Ibrah?m ibn Yahya Istarabad?. He possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah dated Safar 708/1308.[17]
6. Sharaf Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li Tus?, one of the pupils of 羨llamah Hill?, who possessed an ijazah from him dated Dhu al-Hijjah 704/1305 and written on a manuscript of the Irshad al-Adhhan.[18]
7. Hamzah ibn Hamzah ibn Muhammad 羨law? Husayn?. Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n wrote his book Tahs?l al-Najat on doctrine (uSul al-d?n) in the year 736/1335 for him. The following remark is mentioned in the book about the place of his residence: 荘Hamzah ibn Hamzah al-羨law? al-mutawattin bi qaryati Shar?fabad min nahiyati Jast min a僧ali Qum,鋳 showing that he was a resident of Shar?fabad, in the vicinity of Qum.[19]
8. Sayyid Haydar Amul?, the famous Sh?? mystic and philosopher. According to what he has mentioned in his own exegesis, al-Muh?t al-a想am, having studied at Amul he proceeded to Khurasan, and then to Istarabad and Isfahan, and thereafter, after spending twenty years in Amul he set out for hajj and ultimately settled down in Najaf. He possessed two ijazahs from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n dated 759/1357 and 761/1359.[20] At Najaf he also had Iranian disciples including NaS?r al-D?n 羨li ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li, who had been born at Kashan and settled down at Hillah and was buried at Najaf.[21]
9. Fakhr al-D?n Haydar ibn 羨li ibn Muhammad Bayhaq?. Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n wrote his al-Risalah al-Fakhriyyah in his name.[22]
10. Taj al-D?n Abu Sa?d ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad Kash?. A pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n, he had studied the 羨llamah痴 Tabsirat al-Muta疎llim?n under him and was given by him an ijazah dated Rabu al-Than? 759/1358.[23]
11. 羨li ibn Muhammad ibn Rash?d Aw?, a pupil of the 羨llamah, he possessed an ijazah from him dated Rajab 705/Dec. 1305-Jan. 1306.
12. Sadr al-D?n Abu Ibrah?m Muhammad ibn Ishaq Dashtak?. He possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah dated 15 Jamad? al-Awwal 724/1324 written on a manuscript of the Qawa訴d.[24]
13. Rukn al-D?n Muhammad ibn 羨li ibn Muhammad Jurjan? Istarabad?, a resident of Hillah and translator of Khwajah Nas?r al-D?n Tus?痴 book al-Fusul al-Nas?riyyah from Persian into Arabic. He was a pupil of 羨llamah Hill? and commentator of one his works.[25]
14. Muhammad ibn Muhammad Isfandyar? Amul?, one of the pupils of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n who possessed an ijazah from him dated 745/1344.[26]
15. Qutb al-D?n Muhammad ibn Muhammad Raz?. He possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah written in the year 713/1313 at Waram?n, near Ray.[27]
16. Shams al-D?n Muhammad ibn Hilal Aw?. He possessed an ijazah from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n dated 705/1305.[28]
17. Taj al-D?n Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn 羨bd al-Wahid Raz?. A pupil of the 羨llamah, he possessed an ijazah from him dated 709/1309.[29]
18. Badr al-D?n Mahmud ibn Muhammad Tabar?, a pupil of 羨llamah Hill?.[30]
19. Nizam al-D?n Mahmud Amul?, a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n.[31]
20. Diya al-D?n Harun ibn Hasan ibn 羨li Tabar?, he possessed an ijazah from the 羨llamah dated 17 Rajab 701/1302.[32]
21. Zayn al-D?n ibn 羨li ibn Husayn Istarabad?, a pupil of Rad? al-D?n 羨li ibn Yusuf, brother of 羨llamah Hill?, who also possessed an ijazah from him and copied some of 羨llamah Hill?痴 works.[33]
22. Husayn ibn Ardash?r ibn Muhammad Tabar?, a pupil of Naj?b al-D?n Yahya ibn Ahmad ibn Sa?d Hill?. He also possessed an ijazah from him dated 677/1278.[34]
At present there exist a large number of manuscripts of the works of the 羨llamah on fiqh and kalam pertaining to the eighth/fourteenth and ninth/fifteenth centuries which were either written in Iran or by Iranians residing in Iraq. Many of these persons were either pupils of 羨llamah Hill? or had become familiar with his thought through Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n. Hasan ibn Hamzah Najaf? wrote a manuscript of 羨llamah痴 Irshad al-Adhhan in the year 837/1433. He has written an ijazah on the back of the same manuscript indicating that his teacher was Zayn al-D?n 羨li ibn Hasan Istarabad?, a pupil of Hasan ibn Diya al-D?n A喪aj, who was a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n, who in turn was a pupil of his father, 羨llamah Hill?.[35]
Here we will mention some of these manuscripts.
1. Irshad al-Adhhan: There is a manuscript of it in the hand of Hasan ibn Husayn Sabzawar? dated 718/1318.[36] Another manuscript, in the hand of Burhan al-D?n Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Mahmud al-Faq?ru Qumm?, is dated 730/1329, parts of which are in Persian.[37] Other manuscripts of this work are as follows:
1. by Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn 羨li Tabar?, dated 736.[38]
2. by Majd al-D?n ibn Sharaf al-D?n ibn Mugh?th al-D?n Isfahan?, dated 772.[39]
3. by Husayn ibn Hasan ibn Husayn Haj? Asadabad?, dated 799, written at Istarabad.[40]
4. by Sa?d ibn Ja素ar ibn Rustam Jurjan?, dated Jamad? al-Than? 772; it exists at the Khawansar? Library at Najaf.[41]
2. Tahr?r Al-Ahkam al-Shar訴yyah: Its manuscripts are as follows:
5. by Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn Yahya Farahan?, dated 23 RAbu al-Awwal 759.
6. by Husayn (or Hasan) ibn 羨li ibn Muhammad Istarabad?, dated 28 Sha礎an 726.
7. by Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Hasan Sarabeshnaw?, written at Bab al-Wardah, Kashan, and dated 22 Jamad? al-Awwal 735.
8. by Muhammad ibn 羨li, dated 24 Safar 737, and acquired in Rajab 762 by Muhammad ibn Ni僧at Allah 羨qda?.
9. Another manuscript of this book bears a note by Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li Amul? and is dated 752. Another manuscript in the hand of Sultan Hasan Husayn? is dated 833 and it was read in the presence of Zayn al-D?n 羨li ibn Hasan Istarabad?. Another in the hand of 選mad ibn 羨li Jurjan? is dated 12 Safar 860.[42]
3. IstiqSa al-Bahth wa al-Nazar f? Masa段l al-Qada wa al-Qadar: A manuscript of it is in the hand of the Sh?? philosopher and mystic, Sayyid Haydar Amul?, a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n.[43]
4. Al-Alfayn: A manuscript of it exists in the hand of Muhammad ibn Ahmad Makhluf Madan? written in 853 in the city of Sar? in the province of Mazandaran.[44].
5. Idah al-Maqasid min Hikmat 羨yn al-Qawa訴d: A manuscript of it in the hand of Ja素ar Istarabad? is dated 707.[45]
6. Tabsirat al-Muta疎llim?n: A manuscript of it bears a note, dated RAbu al-Than? 759, by Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n, stating that the book had been read to him by Abu Sa?d Kash? (mawlana al-a想am afzal al-muhaqqiq?n Sultan al-hukama wa al-mutakallim?n Abu Sa訴d ibn al-imam al-sa?d 選mad al-D?n Yahya ibn al-imam al-sa?d Fakhr al-D?n Ahmad Kash?). There he remarks that he had benefited more from Abu Sa?d than the latter had benefited from him (wa kanat al-istifadatu minhu akthara min al-ifadat? lahu).[46]
7. Al-KhulaSah f? 選lm al-Kalam: A manuscript of it is in the hand of 羨li ibn Hasan ibn Rad? 羨law? Husayn? Sarabeshnaw? and is dated Dhu al-Hijjah 716 (at the end of the manuscript there is a note by 羨bd al-Malik ibn Ishaq ibn 羨bd al-Malik ibn Fathan Wa訴z Qumm? Kashan?, dated Jamad? al-Than? 804.)[47]
8. Risalah al-Sa租iyyah: A manuscript of it, dated Rabu al-Than? 764, was written at ArdAbul.[48] Another manuscript in the hand of Jamal al-D?n 羨li ibn Majd al-D?n Sad?d ManSur? Istarabad? is dated 865. Another was completed on 22 Ramadan 881 in Isfahan.[49]
9. Ghayat al-Wusul wa Idah al-Subul: A manuscript of it, in the hand of Muhammad ibn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Malik Tabar? and dated RAbu al-Awwal 704 (this date coincides with the lifetime of 羨llamah Hill?), was written at Sultaniyyah.[50]
10. Qawa訴d al-Ahkam f? Ma喪ifat al-Halal wa al-Haram: A manuscript of it by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Husayn? Dashtak?, a pupil of 羨llamah Hill?, was written in the year 703 at the Madrasah Sayyarah and at the end he writes that the copy, made from the original, was completed on Tuesday, 22 RAbu 疎l-Awwal in the year 713 at Sultaniyyah in the Ilkhanid Madrasah, known as Sayyarah. At the end it bears the note: 荘faragha al-mustansikh min al-asl yawm al-thulatha al-than? wa al-訴shr?n min RAbu al-Awwal sinah 713, bi al-Sultaniyyah, shayyada Allahu arkana dawlati ban?ha f? al-madrasat al-shar?fah al-Ilkhaniyyah al-musammat bi al-Sayyarah).[51] Another manuscript, written by Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahd? ibn Mukhlis Qumm?, is dated 7 Ramadan 718.[52] Another manuscript, dated 7 Safar 728, is in the hand of Husayn ibn Abu al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Kashan?. Another manuscript bearing the date 732 is in the hand of 羨li ibn al-Husayn ibn 羨li ibn Abu al-Majd Khawarazm?. Another in the hand of 羨li ibn Fakhr al-D?n Abu Talib Tabar? is dated 746 (at the end of the manuscript there is an ijazah in the hand of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n for the scribe, dated 760 and written at Hillah. This is indicative of the presence of Iranian students in the lectures of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n).[53] Another manuscript in the hand of Fadl Allah ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li al-Qumm? and dated 814 was written at Najaf. Another, in the hand of Muhammad ibn 羨li ibn Haydar ibn Hasan ibn 羨li ibn Tahir ibn Mansur Muqri Kashan?, is dated Shawwal 849 (an ijazah is written at its end in the hand of Ahmad ibn Mu?n ibn Humayun ibn 羨li al-Kash? written at Kashan.[54]) Other manuscripts of this book written by scholars residing in Iran in the ninth/fifteenth century consist of: the manuscript written in 854 by Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Sulayman Tabar?; the manuscript written in 859 by 羨li ibn 羨bd al-羨z?z Istarabad?; the manuscript written in 880 by Muhammad ibn Hasan Isfahan?; the manuscript written by Mu?n ibn Muhammad ibn 羨li... ibn Daniyal al-Ruhq? in 898 at Kashan.[55] (There exist more than seventy manuscripts of the Qawa訴d al-Ahkam written until the ninth/fifteenth century, something which is indicative of the large number of Sh??s who used it in different towns.)
The Qawa訴d al-Ahkam of 羨llamah Hill? was translated once in 732/1331 in a period of ten months. The translator, Muhammad ibn Muhammad Abu 羨bd Allah, known as Haj?, was apparently a pupil of 羨llamah Hill? himself. A sole manuscript of it, written in 780, exists at Madrasah Khayrat Khan, Mashhad.[56]
11. Kashf al-Murad f? Sharh Tajr?d al-I奏iqad: A manuscript of it by one of the pupils of the 羨llamah was written in the Madrasah Sayyarah. Another manuscript by Shams al-D?n Muhammad ibn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Amul? (d. 753/1352), a pupil of 羨llamah Hill?, was written for his teacher at the Madrasah Sayyarah and finished on Friday, 20 Muharram 713, in the city of Kirmanshah.[57] There are two other manuscripts of this book, one by Muhammad ibn Muhammad Isfandyar? Amul? was written in 745 and was read to Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n, and the other, by Abu Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Turab Waram?n?, was written in 716.[58]
12. Mabadi al-Wusul ila 選lm al-Usul: A manuscript of it in the hand of Harun ibn Hasan ibn 羨li Tabar? is dated Sha礎an 700 (with a note in the 羨llamah痴 hand on it). Another manuscript in the hand of Jamal al-D?n Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn 羨bd Allah Balku ibn Abu Talib, one of the pupils of the 羨llamah, is dated Ramadan 703 and is accompanied with an ijazah of the author for the scribe, dated 705.[59]
13. Mukhtalaf al-Sh?疎h: A manuscript of it in the hand of Ibrah?m ibn Yusuf Istarabad? is dated 702. Another manuscript in the hand of Muhammad ibn Abu Talib Aw? is dated 704. One manuscript in the hand of Ja素ar ibn Husayn Istarabad? is dated Ramadan 705.[60] Another one in the hand of Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn Yahya Farahan? is dated 733. Another manuscript in the hand of Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn Badr Raz? is dated Shawwal 737.[61]
14. Marasid al-Tadq?q wa Maqasid al-Tahq?q: A manuscript of it in the hand of Shams al-D?n Muhammad ibn Abu Talib ibn al-Hajj Aw?, dated Jamad? al-Awwal 710, was written at Sultaniyyah. It is accompanied by an ijazah from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiq?n (this manuscript was in the possession of Fath Allah ibn Khawajag? Sh?raz? Ansar? and was gifted by him to his son Humam al-D?n Muhammad in 767/1365)[62]
15. Manahij al-Yaq?n: A manuscript of it in the hand of 羨li ibn Hasan Tabar? is dated Sha礎an 724.[63]
16. Minhaj al-Salah f? IkhtiSar al-Misbah: A manuscript of it in the hand of Muhammad ibn 羨li Tabar? is dated Shawwal 733.[64]
17. Minhaj al-Karamah f? Ithbat al-Imamah: A manuscript of it in the hand of Kamal al-D?n ibn 羨bd Allah ibn Sa?d Jurjan? is dated Rajab 878 and bears a gloss written in Arabic and Persian between the lines.[65] (There is a translation of this book related to 8th/14th or 9th/15th century existing at the Farhad Mu奏amad Library and is mentioned in the periodical Nuskhehha-ye khatt?, published by Tehran University.[66])
18. fNihayat al-Ihkam f? Ma喪ifat al-Ahkam: A manuscript of it was written at the Madrasah Sultaniyyah.[67]
19. Nahj al-Mustarshid?n: A manuscript of it in the hand of Shams al-D?n Muhammad ibn Abu Talib ibn al-Hajj Muhammad ibn Hasan Aw? is dated 705. Another, in the hand of Jamal al-D?n Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn Abu 羨bd Allah Balku Aw?, is dated 705. Another, in the hand of Ahmad ibn Buzbash Dezful?, is dated 824.[68]
Notes:
[1] Al-Tehran?, Al-Haqayiq al-Rahinah f? al-Mi誕t al-Thaminah (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-羨rabiyyah, 1975 ), pp. 52-53.
[2] Al-Bahran?, Lu値u誕t al-Bahrayn (Qum: Mu誕ssasat Al al-Bayt lil-Nashr wa al-Turath, nd ), p. 237.
[3] Yusuf Karkush, op. cit., vol. 2, pp. 78-79.
[4] See for instance, vol. 1, pp. 224, 368, 370, 395.
[5] See 羨bd al-Hujjat Balagh?, Tar?kh Na?n (Tehran: Chapkhaneh Mazahir?, 1368 H.), p. 21, see the facsimile of the first page of the treatise.
[6] Ja素ariya, Rasul, Tar?kh-e Tashayyu dar Iran (Qum: Intisharat-e Ansarian 1375 ), vol. 2, p. 662.
[7] Majlis?, Bihar, vol. 104, p. 142.
[8] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-但z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill? (Qum: Mu疎ssasat Al al-Bayt 1417 ),p.53.
[9] Majlis?, Bihar, vol. 104, p. 138.
[10] Ibid., vol. 104, p. 9.
[11] Majma al-Tawar?kh, ms. in the Kitabkhaneh Mell?-ye Malik, vol. 3, folio 237, cited in Manuchehr Murtadaw?, Masa段l-e 羨sr-e ?lkhanan (Tehran: Intisharat-e Agah, 1370 H. Sh. ), p. 250.
[12] Al-Tehran?, Al-Haqayiq, p. 185.
[13] Ibid., p.185.
[14] Ibid., p. 16.
[15] Ibid., p. 38.
[16] Ibid., p. 49.
[17] Ibid., pp. 54-55.
[18] Ibid., p. 58.
[19] Ibid., p. 65.
[20] Ibid., pp. 66-68.
[21] Ibid., p. 149.
[22] Ibid., p. 70.
[23] Ibid., pp. 86-87.
[24] Ibid., p. 178.
[25] Ibid., p. 194.
[26] Ibid., p. 199.
[27] Ibid., p. 200.
[28] Ibid., p. 208.
[29] Ibid., p. 210.
[30] Ibid., p. 211.
[31] Ibid., p. 214.
[32] Ibid., p. 235.
[33] Ibid., p. 139.
[34] Ibid., p. 55.
[35] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, pp. 37-38.
[36] Ibid., p. 35.
[37] Fihrist-e Nuskhehha-ye Khatt?-ye Kitabkhaneh Majlis, vol. 10, pp. 218-220.
[38] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al- Hill?, p. 35.
[39] Ibid., p. 36.
[40] Ibid., p. 36; Ashkewar?, Fihrist-e Nuskhehha-ye Khatti-ye Kitabkhaneh 繕mum? Ayatullah Mar疎sh?.(Qum: Kitabkhaneh 繕mum?-ye Ayatullah Mar疎sh? 1368 H. SH. ), vol. 17, p. 276
[41] Al-Tehran?, Al-Haqayiq, p. 86.
[42] Ibid., pp. 78-87.
[43] Fihrist-e Nuskhehha-ye Khatt?-ye Kitabkhaneh Majlis, vol. 14, pp. 224-225.
[44] Ibid., vol. 5, pp. 4-8; Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 154.
[45] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 63.
[46] Ibid., pp. 72-73.
[46] Ibid., p. 116.
[47] Fihrist-e Nuskhehha-ye Khatt?-ye Kitabkhaneh Majlis, vol 14, p. 225, no. 6342.
[48] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 130.
[49] Ibid., p. 134.
[50] Ibid., p. 137.
[51] Ashkewar?, op. cit, vol. 11, p. 275, no. 4273; Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 139.
[52] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 141.
[53] Ibid., p. 147.
[54] Ibid., pp. 149-150.
[55] Ibid. p. 158.
[56] Al-Tehran?, Al-Haqayiq, p. 204; Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 163.
[57] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 164.
[58] Ibid., p. 169.
[59] Ibid., pp. 174-175.
[60] Ibid., p. 177.
[61] Ibid., p. 185.
[62] Ibid., p. 192.
[63] Ibid., p. 198.
[64] Ibid., p. 200.
[65] The periodical Nuskhehha-ye khatt? published by Tehran University, vol. 3, p. 160; Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 203.
[66] Tabataba?, 羨bd al-羨z?z, Maktabat al-羨llamah al-Hill?, p. 207.
[68] Ibid., pp. 204, 206.

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