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The Islamic Principles in Sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage of
the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)

Previously, we have proved that the Prophet’s sermon of Arafat, in the Farewell Pilgrimage, included his prediction of the coming of the twelve imams. It also included his recommendations in this regard.
Now, we are to discuss contents of the other five sermons; sermon of Mecca on day of Tarwiya, sermon of the second day, sermon of Al-Kheif Mosque on day of Nafr and sermon of Ghadir.
Although the references of narrations communicated, confusedly, a few reports about contents of these sermons, it is possible to infer that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), through these sermons, provided the entire affairs needed by his nation after him. These prophetic sermons included statements dealing with the following five bases:

1. Base of the humanitarian equity:
- Principal of the humanitarian unity among mankind, and the eradication of the racial discrimination.
- Principal of acting good toward women and the impermissibility of wronging them.

2. Base of unity of the Islamic nation:
- Principal of eradicating the traces, practices and regulations of the pre-Islamic era that are violating the Islamic laws.
- Principal of the Muslims’ fraternity and equity.
- Principal of noticing the private ownership, and illegality of violating the Muslims’ properties.
- Principal of regarding the Muslims’ souls, and illegality of shedding the Muslim’s blood.
- Principal of regarding the Muslims’ honor and dignity, and illegality of abusing each other.
- Principal of maintaining properties and souls of those who speak out the creed of Islam; ‘There is no god but Allah.’
- Principal of sealing prophesy with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and sealing the nations with his nation.
- Principal of the Prophet’s being the witness on his people in the Hereafter, and their joining him on the Divine Pool.
- Principal of necessity of accuracy in acting, and admonishing against committing the insignificant actions that lead to deviation.
- Principal of warning against forging lies against the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and insisting on investigating whatever is ascribed to him.

3. Base of the unity of the Islamic law -Sharia- and the Muslims’ culture.
- Principal of fulfilling the trusts.
- Regulations of the heritage.
- Regulations of the blood money and the retaliation.
- Laws of the rites of the pilgrimage. “From me you should learn the rites.”

4. Bases of the political affairs and the leadership after the Prophet:
- Principal of the prediction of the coming of the twelve imams of the Prophet’s progeny.
- Principal of the importunate adherence to the Quran and the Prophet’s progeny; the two weighty things.
- Principal of nominating Ali as the next leader of this nation, and the first of the twelve imams.
- Principal of keeping on performing the obligatory rites and compliance with the leaders.
- Principal of immortalizing the treaty of Quraish and Kenana on blockading the Hashemites.
- Principal of warning the Quraishis against playing the tyrant after the departure of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).
- Principal of warning the Prophet’s companions against breaking faith and struggling on power.

5. Base of punition of the dissenters against the prophetic course:
- Principal of cursing those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters.
Detailed discussion of these bases and principals is inapplicable. Therefore, we are to mention models of these blessed sermons before we refer to topics and examples related.
It is quite clear that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) referred to each of these bases and principals in many occasions before the Farewell Pilgrimage. As a matter of fact, these bases and principals, together with the six sermons, form a coalescing topic that is inseparable. The Prophet’s wording is a revelation completes and explains each other. In every topic, that wording formulates a perfect doctrinal and legislative unity that is contributing in constructing the divine comprehensive edifice of Islam.

FIRST BASE: THE HUMANITARIAN EQUITY
This base is too evident to need any further discussion. Previously, we have referred to a number of related texts of the Prophet’s sermons.

MODELS OF THE PROPHET’S SERMONS IN THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE
Ibn Shuba Al-Harrani -died in 350- records on page 30 of his Tuheful Uqoul:
The Prophet’s Sermon In The Farewell Pilgrimage:
Praised be Allah. We praise Him and seek His support and forgiveness. We repent to Him and seek His protection against evils of our souls, and sins of our acts.
He Whomsoever Allah guides, there is no misleading for him, and he whomsoever Allah causes to err, there is no guide for him. I do admit there is no god but Allah, lonelily without any associate, and admit that Mohammed is being His servant and apostle.
O servants of Allah! I do advise you to keep god-fearing. I urge you on acting in the field of His obedience. I seek the Lord’s opening the good before me.
O people! Listen to what I am elucidating to you. I cannot guarantee whether I shall meet you the next year in this situation.
O people! Till you shall meet your Lord, your blood and honor are prohibited to be abused among you, and sanctified as same as the degree of sanctification of this day in this country. Have I conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.
He whoever has a trust in hand, should defray it to the depositor.
Usury of Jahilism* is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdul-Muttelib’s.
Retaliation of Jahilism is revoked. The first retaliation I am to revoke is Amir Bin Rabia Bin Al-Harith Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s.
Except for custody of the Kaba and watering the pilgrimages, all the practices of the Jahilism are revoked.
Retaliation is the ruling of murders. What is killed by a stick or a stone is decided as a quasi-murder. Its blood money is one hundred camels. Any increase on that quantity is a Jahilite deed.
O people! The Satan despaired of being obeyed in this land. But he pleased to be obeyed in other acts. They are your insignificant sins.
O people! Postponing (of the sacred months) is only an addition in unbelief, wherewith those who disbelieve are led astray, violating it one year and keeping it sacred another, that they may agree in the number of months that Allah has made sacred.
Time has rotated as same as the first day on which the Lord created the heavens and the earth. Surely number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred. Three are consecutive and the fourth is independent. They are Dhu’l-Qada, Dhu’l-Hijja, Muharram and Rajab that comes between Jumada and Shaban. Have I conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.
O people! Your women enjoy rights imposed upon you. You also enjoy rights imposed upon them. Your rights imposed upon them are that they should not let any take your places in your beds, and not permit those whom you dislike to be in your houses unless your permissions are obtained, and not to commit any ill deed. If they do, the Lord allows you to prevent them and abandon them in the beds and discipline them by unharmed beating. If they desist and obey, you then are obliged to bind yourselves to save their alimony and clothing in an acceptable way. You have taken them by the trust of God, and you have consummated their privates by the God’s Book. Hence, beware of your deeds respecting your women, and advise each other for their good.
O people! The believers are brothers. It is illicit for any believer to take from his brother’s property unless the satisfactory permission is obtained. Have I conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.
Do not break your faith and return to unbelief by killing each other. I am leaving among you what protect you against deviation if only you accede to. It is the Book of Allah and my people; my household. Have I conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.
O people! Your Lord is one, and your father is one. You all are from Adam, and Adam was created of mud. Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the most caterful of his duty. Except by means of god-fearing, no Arab is preferable to any non-Arab. Have I conveyed?
“Yes. You did,” said they.
The witness should carry these to the absent.
O people! God has partitioned the portions of each heir. It is illicit for heirs to will more than the one-third. Babies are the bed’s, and the prostitutes’ share is the stone.
Curse of the Lord, the angels and the entire people be on that whoever ascribes himself to other than his father or master. God be not accept his excuse or compensation. Peace and God’s mercy be upon you.
Al-Kafi: 1/403:
… a man from Quraish: With Sufian Athawri I went to Jafar Bin Mohammed. We found him on his pack animal. Sufian addressed at him, “O Abu Abdillah! Would you please relate to us the Prophet’s sermon in Al-Kheif Mosque?” The imam apologized since he had already ridden, and promised he would answer Sufian’s question as soon as he would be back. “I adjure you by your kinship to the Apostle of God (peace be upon him and his family) to relate it to me,” insisted Sufian. The imam rode off. Sufian asked for a pen and a paper to record the imam’s wording. The imam spoke, “In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. This is the sermon of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed in Al-Kheif Mosque:
God may bloom the servants who will listen and understand my words, and convey them to the absent.
O people! The witness should carry this to the absent. A bearer of a knowledge may happen to be illiterate, and a bearer of a knowledge may happen to carry it to the more knowledgeable.
Hearts of Muslims should never act unfaithfully in three matters; sincere performance of God’s duties, providing the advice to the Muslims’ imams and committing to their congruity. Their congruity is binding.
The believers are brothers of equal blood. They are one hand against their enemies. The least among them can bear their situation.”
After he had recorded these statements, Sufian provided them before the imam. Hence, Abu Abdillah rode the pack animal and went.
Halfway, I told Sufian that Abu Abdillah had bound him with an everlasting duty. “What is that?” asked Sufian. “It is the three things in which a Muslim should never act unfaithfully,” I said, “Sincere performance of God’s duties is a clear matter. Regarding providing the advice to the Muslims’ imams, who are those imams? Are they Muawiya Bin Abi Sufian, Yazid Bin Muawiya, Marwan Bin Al-Hakam and the other rulers, the collective prayers led by whom are invalid? About committing to their congruity, who are those congruous people? Are they the deferrers who believe that persons who did not perform a single obligatory prayer, and did not fast a single day, and did not perform the obligatory bathing, and demolished the Kaba and marry their mothers, are bearing the same degree of faith born by Gabriel and Michael; the angels? Or are they the fatalists who believe that the Satan’s desire can be materialized while God’s cannot? Or are they the Harurites who deny Ali Bin Abi Talib and decide his atheism? Or are they the Jahmites who claim that faith is knowing God only?”
As he became perplexed, Sufian asked me an explanation of the Prophet’s saying reported by Abu Abdillah; the imam. “Ali Bin Abi Talib, by God, is the only imam before whom we are mandated to provide the advice. And the congruity stands for his household,” I answered.
Sufian tore the paper and asked me to keep it secret.
Ali Bin Ibrahim’s Tafsir: 1/171:
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) performed the Farewell Pilgrimage which was the tenth since he immigrated to Al-Madina. In Mina, he orated:
“Praised and thanked be Allah.
O people! Listen and understand my coming wording. I cannot guarantee whether I shall meet you the next year.
Do you realize which day is the most sanctified?”
“It is this day,” answered people.
“Do you realize which month is the most sanctified?”
“It is this month,” answered they.
“Do you realize which land is the most sanctified?”
“It is this land,” answered they.
“Your souls, estate and honors are as sanctified among you as this day in this month in this land till you shall meet your Lord Who will examine your deeds. O people! Have I conveyed?”
“Yes, you have,” shouted they.
“O Allah! Be the witness,” commented the Prophet. After a while, he added, “Every regulation, heresy, revenge and debt that were founded in Jahilism, are under my feet. None is preferable to another but by criteria of god-fearing. Have I conveyed?”
“Yes, you have,” declared they.
“O Allah! Be the witness,” said the Prophet, and added, “Every usury that was concluded in the Jahilism is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s. Every revenge that was in the Jahilism is revoked. The first revenge I am to revoke is Rabia’s. Have I conveyed?”
“Yes, you have,” shouted they.
“O God! Be the witness,” said the Prophet, and added, “The Satan despaired of being obeyed on this land. But he pleased to be obeyed through your insignificant deeds. If the Satan is obeyed, he is then served.
O people! A Muslim is the brother of Muslims. It is illicit for a Muslim to shed the blood of the other Muslim, or to have from his estate unless satisfaction is obtained. I am given the orders of fighting people till they say: There is no god but Allah. As they speak this statement out, they will protect their souls and estate except in the rightful ways. The Lord shall be their judge. O people! Have I conveyed?”
“Yes, you have,” shouted they.
“O Allah! Be the witness,” said the Prophet and added, “O people! Keep my wording and you will harvest its benefits later on. Perceive my sayings and you will be prosperous. Break not your faith after me, and be not unbelievers by beheading each other for the sake of mundane affairs. If you do so, and you shall do it, you will find me in a phalanx between Gabriel and Michael; the angels, striking your faces with the sword…” For a while, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) kept peace while he was turning to his right. Then, he continued, “…or Ali Bin Abi Talib, God willing. I am leaving among you the two things that will enduringly protect you against deviation. They are the Book of Allah and my people; my household. The Knower of subtleties, the Aware has informed me that these two things shall never separate until they will join me on the Divine Pool. He shall be saved that whoever accedes to them. And he shall be perishing that whoever dissents them. Have I conveyed?”
“Yes, you have,” shouted they.
“O Allah! Be the witness,” said the Prophet and added, “Men among you shall be occluded from joining me on the Divine Pool. I will say they are being my companions. I will be answered, ‘You lack knowledge of what they committed after you.’ I will comment, ‘Far away! Far away!’”
On the last day of Tashriq, God revealed Sura of Nasr. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) understood that his death was about to fall. He declared people to gather in Al-Kheif Mosque for the prayer. When people came there, he orated:
“Praised and thanked be Allah.
God may bloom the servant who will listen and understand my words, and convey them to the absent.
A bearer of knowledge may happen to be illiterate, and a bearer of knowledge may happen to carry it to the more knowledgeable.
Muslim’s hearts should never act unfaithfully in three matters; sincere performance of God’s duties, providing the advice to the Muslims’ imams and committing to their congruity. Their congruity is binding.
The believers are brothers of equal blood. The least among them can bear their situation. They are one hand against their enemies. O people! I am leaving among you the two weighty things.” “What are the two weighty things, God’s messenger?” wondered people. The Prophet explained: “They are the Book of Allah and my people; my household. The Knower of subtleties, the Aware has informed me that these two things shall never separate until they will join me on the Divine Pool. Their joining shall be like the joining of the forefingers of my two hands, not the joining of the forefinger and the next one, since there is a little space may be left.”
Some of the Prophet’s companions spoke to each other that Mohammed intended to dedicate the leadership to his household. Four of them traveled to Mecca and entered the Kaba where they concluded an agreement on preventing the Prophet’s household from holding any position of leadership as soon as Mohammed would be dead or assassinated. Hence, God revealed to his Prophet: (Or have they settled an affair? Then, surely We are the settlers. Or do they think that We do not hear what they conceal and their secret discourses? Aye! And our messengers with them write down.)
Al-Bukhari’s: 5/126:
Abu Bakra: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated:
“Time has rotated as same as the first day on which the Lord created the heavens and the earth. A year contains twelve months, four of them are sanctified. Three are successive; Dhu’l-Qada, Dhu’l-Hijja and Muharram. And the fourth is Rajab which falls between Jumada and Shaban. Which month is this?”
“God and His Apostle are the most knowledgeable,” we answered.
The Prophet paused for a considerable while that we thought he would call another name to that month.
“Is it not Dhu’l-Hijja?” asked the Prophet.
“Yes, it is,’ we replied.
“Which land is this?’ asked he.
“God and His Apostle are the most knowledgeable,” we answered.
The Prophet paused for a considerable while that we thought he would call another name to it.
“Is it not Al-Balda?” asked the Prophet.
“Yes, it is,” we replied.
“Which day is today?” asked the Prophet.
“God and His Apostle are the most knowledgeable,” we answered.
The Prophet kept peace for a considerable while that we thought he would call another name to it.
“Is it not the Nahr Day?” asked the Prophet.
“Yes, it is,” we answered.
The Prophet spoke, “Your souls and estate (Mohammed: He might said, “and your honor…”) are sanctified among you as same as the sanctification of this day in this month on this land. You shall meet your Lord, and He shall examine your deeds. After me, return not to deviation by beheading each other. The witness should inform the absent. It may happen that an indirect receiver is being more committed than the direct.”
It is noticeable that the narrator uses ‘deviation’ instead of ‘unbelief’ which was mentioned in the other ways of narration.
Al-Bukhari’s: 1/24:
… The Prophet (peace be upon him) sat on the back of his camel while a man was catching to its bridle. “Which day is today?” asked the Prophet. We kept peace for a considerable while that we thought he would call another name to that day.
“Is it not the Nahr Day?” asked the Prophet.
“Yes, it is,” we replied.
“Which month are we in?” asked the Prophet.
We kept peace for a considerable while that we thought he would call another name to that month.
“Is it not Dhu’l-Hijja?” asked the Prophet.
“Yes, it is,” we replied.
The Prophet added, “Your souls, estate and honor are sanctified among you as same as the sanctification of this day in this month on this land. The witness should inform the absent. A witness may convey to a more committed.”
Muslim’s: 4/41:
… The Prophet (peace be upon him) descended the valley and orated:
“Your souls and estate are sanctified among you as same as the sanctification of this day in this month on this land. Every affair of the Jahilism is being under my feet. Revenge of the Jahilism is revoked. The first revenge I am to revoke is Rabia Bin Al-Harith’s; ours. He was suckling in the quarter of Bani Sa’d, and the Hutheil killed him.
Usury of Jahilism is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s; ours.
Watch your Lord during treating your women. You have taken them by the trust of God. And you have consummated their privates by the word of God. Your rights imposed upon them are that they should not permit any you dislike to sit on your furniture. If they do so, you are permitted to beat them not heavily. Their rights imposed upon you are to save their alimony and clothing in an acceptable way. I am leaving among you what will protect you against deviation as long as you commit yourselves to. It is the Book of Allah. You shall be asked about me. What will you answer?”
“We do confess you have conveyed, accomplished and advised,” shouted people.
As he raised his forefinger to the heavens and shook it towards people, the Prophet said thrice, “O Allah! Be the witness.”
Ibn Madga relates the same previous narrative with an addition.
Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 1/77:
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) orated:
“O People! I will precede you to the Divine Pool. It is a pool of a distance as same as it between Kufa and the Black Stone -of the Kaba-. His vessels are as much as stars. As some people from my nation will approach, a man will come out and occlude them from being close to me. Another group shall be occluded, too. None shall escape but a few groups like the scattered animals in a cattle.”
“Am I one of them, God’s prophet?” asked Abu Bakr.
“No, you are not,” answered the Prophet, “They are people of the coming generations who will move backward.”
(Al-Hakim) According to the criteria of the two Sheiks -Muslim and Al-Bukhari-, this is an authentic narrative. Yet, they did not record it. Al-Hejjaj Bin Mohammed relates it to Al-Leith.
Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/1016:
… Abdullah Bin Masud: While he was on the back of his she-camel in Arafat, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Do you realize which day, month and land are these?”
“These are sanctified day, month and land,” answered they.
“Your estate and souls are sanctified among you as same as the sanctification of this month, land and day,” said the Prophet, and went on, “I will precede you to the Divine Pool, and I will take pride in you before the other nations. Blacken not my face. I will save some people, and some will be taken away from me. I will say, ‘O Lord! Those are my companions.’ I will be answered, ‘You lack knowledge of what they did after you.’”
In Majma’uzzawaid, this is an authentic report.
Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/1300:
Title: After Me, Return Not To Atheism By Beheading Each Other:
Jarir Bin Abdillah: During the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked people to keep silent. He said, “After me, return not to atheism by beheading each other.”
Ibn Omar: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “Woe is you! After me, return not to atheism by beheading each other.”
As-Sennaj Al-Ahmesi: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “I will precede you to the Divine Pool. I will take pride in you among the other nations. After me, do not fight each other.”
In Majma’uzzawaid, this is an authentic report with trustful narrators.
At-Tirmithi’s As-Sunan; 2/62:
… Abu Umama: During the Farewell Pilgrimage, I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, “Beware of your duty to Allah, and perform the five prayers, and fast on that month, and defray the poor rate, and comply with your leaders and you shall be taken to the Paradise of your Lord.”
Abu Umama confesses that he heard this prophetic saying when he was thirty years old.
Abu Isa: This narrative is qualified with a rather doubtful narrator. It is, however, decided as authentic.
Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 5/412:
… A man from the Prophet’s companions: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was on the back of his red she-camel when he asked, “Do you realize which day is today?”
“It is the Nahr Day,” answered we.
“You are true,” replied the Prophet, “It is the Grand Pilgrimage Day. Which month is it?”
“It is Dhu’l-Hijja,” expressed we.
“You are true,” commented the Prophet, “It is the palatial month of God. Do you know which land is this?”
“It is the Holy Precinct,” answered we.
“You are true,” stated the Prophet, and added, “Your souls and estate are sanctified among you as same as the sanctification of this day in this month on this land. (Or: as same as the sanctification of this day, month and land.”)
I will precede you to the Divine Pool. I will look at you as I will take pride in you among the other nations. Blacken not my face. You have seen and listened to me. You shall be asked about me. He whoever deliberately forges lies against me, should seek himself a place in the hell-fire. I will save some people, and others will be taken away from me. I will say, ‘O Lord! They are my companions.’ I will be answered, ‘You lack knowledge of what they did after you.’”
Majma’uzzawaid; 3/265:
Title: Sermons Of The Pilgrimage:
Abu Harra Ar-Reqqashi: His uncle: In the middle of the Tashriq days, I was catching the riddle of the Prophet’s she-camel. The Prophet spoke, “O people! Do you realize which day, month and land are these?”
“They are sanctified day, month and land,” answered peole.
“Your souls, estate and honor are as sanctified among you as this day in this month on this land, till the day on which you shall meet your Lord. Listen to me and you will live. Wrong not each other. Wrong not each other. Wrong not each other. It is illicit for any to have from a Muslim’s property unless satisfaction is obtained.
Every blood and estate of Jahilism should be under my feet till the Resurrection Day. The first revenge I am to revoke is Rabia Bin Al-Harith Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s. He was a baby at the Leith when the Hutheil killed him. Every usury that was in Jahilism is revoked. The Exalted Lord mandates that the first usury to be revoked is Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s. You possess your capital, neither wronging nor wronged.
Time has rotated as same as the first day on which the Lord created the heavens and the earth. Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred. That is the right reckoning; therefore, wrong not each other during them.
After me, return not to atheism by beheading each other.
The Satan despaired of being obeyed by the performers of prayers; but he is working on creating antagonism among you.
Fear God during treating your women. They are restrained at you. They have rights imposed upon you and you have rights imposed upon them. The rights imposed upon them are that they should not permit any to take your places in your beds, and they are not allowed to permit any you dislike to enter your houses. If you expect desertion of a women, you should admonish, and desert in the bed, and beat ineffectively. Their rights are that you should save their alimony and clothing. You have taken them by the trust of God, and you have consummated their privates by the word of God.
He whoever had a trust, should deliver it to the depositor.”
The Prophet then opened his hand and said, “Have I conveyed? Have I conveyed? The witness should inform the absent. An indirect receiver may happen to be more receptive than a direct hearer.”
(Abu Dawud dedicates this narration to the statements of beating women.)
(Ahmed and Abu Harra Ar-Reqqashi relates the narration. Abu Dawud rules its authenticity, while Ibn Muin decides its doubtfulness. One of the narrators is Ali Bin Zaid about whom there are some points noted by experts.)
Abu Nadra: A man heard the Prophet’s sermon addressed in the middle of the Tashriq days:
The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “O people! Your Lord is one. Your father is one. An Arab should not be preferred to a non-Arab, and a black should not preferred to a white except by criteria of god-fearing. Have I conveyed?”
“Yes, the messenger of God has conveyed,” people shouted.
“Which day is today?” asked the Prophet.
“It is a sanctified day,” people answered.
“Which land is this?” asked the Prophet.
“It is a sanctified land,” people shouted.
“God; the Exalted, has made your souls and estate (The Prophet might have added ‘and honor’ to his statement.) as sanctified as this day in this month on this land. Have I conveyed?” said the Prophet.
“Yes, the messenger of God has conveyed,” people admitted.
“The witness should inform the absent,” ordered the Prophet (peace be upon him).
(To a series of authentic narrators, Ahmed relates the previous report on page 72 of part 5.)
Ibn Omar: When this sura was revealed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Mina in the middle of the Tashriq days, he recognized the imminence of his death. He rode his pack animal; Al-Qaswa, and stood among people in Al-Aqaba. A great number of Muslims encompassed him. He orated:
“Praised and thanked be Allah.
O people! Every revenge that was in Jahilism is annulled. The first revenge I am to annul is Rabia Bin Al-Harith’s. The Hutheil killed him when he was a baby at the Leith.
Likewise, every usury that was concluded in the Jahilism is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s.
O people! Time has rotated as same as it was when the Lord created the heavens and the earth. Number of months with Allah is twelve, four of which are sanctified. They are Rajab which falls between Jumada and Shaban, and Dhu’l-Qada and Dhu’l-Hijja and Muharram. That is the right reckoning; therefore, wrong not each other during them.
Postponing of the sacred months is only an addition in unbelief, wherewith those who disbelieve are led astray, violating it one year and keeping it sacred another, that they may agree the number of months that Allah has made sacred. They were violating Safar a year and keeping Muharram sacred the other. That is the postponing of the sacred months.
O people! He whoever had a trust, should deliver it to the depositor.
O people! The Satan despaired of being obeyed on this land in the last of time, but he pleased to be obeyed in your insignificant deeds. Take care of your religion against your insignificant deeds.
O people! Women are in your hands. You have taken them by the trust of God, and consummated their privates by the word of God. You have right imposed upon them and they have rights imposed upon you. Within your rights is that they should not let any take your places in your beds, and they should not disobey you in acceptable matters. If they do so, then you have no authority on them. They should enjoy their alimony and clothing in an acceptable way. If you beat them, you should not injure.
It is illicit for any to have from his brother’s property unless satisfaction is obtained.
O people! Among you, I am leaving what will protect you against deviation if you adhere to. It is the Book of Allah. You should follow it.
O people! Which day is today?”
“It is a sacred day,” answered they.
“Which land is this?” asked the Prophet.
“It is a sacred land,” answered they.
“Which month is this?” asked the Prophet.
“It is a sacred month,” answered they.
“Allah; the Blessed the Elevated, has made your souls, estate and honor as sacred as this day in this month on this land. The witness should inform the absent. There shall be no prophet after me, and there shall be no nation after you.”
The Prophet then raised his hands to the heavens and said, “O Allah! Be the witness.”
(In the Sahih books -the most acceptable books of hadith-, a part of this report is recorded. Al-Bezzar relates it, too. Musa Bin Ubeida; the doubtful, is within the series of the narrators.)
Majmauzzawaid; 3/272:
… Al-Adda Bin Khalid Bin Amr Bin Amir: In the Farewell Pilgrimage, I was sitting under the pulpit from which the Prophet (peace be upon him) sermonized. He said:
“Praised and thanked be Allah. God says, (O you men! We have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other; surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful of his duty.) An Arab should not be preferred to a non-Arab, and a non-Arab should not be preferred to an Arab, and a black should not be preferred to a white, and a white should not be preferred to a black except on criteria of god-fearing.
O the Quraishis! Do not shoulder the mundane affairs, while people shoulder the Hereafter. I will not avail you in the least before God.”
(In his Al-Mujamul Kabir, At-Tabarani relates this narration to doubtful narrators. Previously, we have referred to an authentic documentation of this report.)
Abu Qabila: In the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet sermonized:
“There shall be no prophet after me, and there shall be no nation after you. Revere your Lord, and perform the five prayers, and fast the month, and comply with the leaders and you shall be entering the Paradise of your Lord.”
(In his Al-Mujamul Kabir, At-Tabarani relates…)
Ad-Darimi’s As-Sunan; 2/47:
…The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “Your blood and estate are as sanctified as this day in this month on this land. Every matter that was regulated in Jahilism is under my feet. Revenge of Jahilism is revoked. The first revenge I am to revoke is the Rabia Bin Al-Harith’s. The Hutheil killed him when he was a baby at the Sa’d.
Usury of Jahilism is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s.
Watch the Lord during treating your women. You have taken them by the trust of God, and consummated their privates by His word. Your rights imposed upon them are that they should not let any take your places in your beds. If they do, you are to beat them ineffectively. Their rights imposed upon you are that you should save their alimony and clothing in an acceptable way.
You shall be asked about me, what shall you answer?”
“We acknowledge you have conveyed, accomplished and advised,” shouted people.
The Prophet raised his forefinger to the heavens and shook it at people while he said thrice, “O Allah! Be the witness.” …
Ad-Darimi’s As-Sunan; 2/67:
Abdurrahman Bin Abi Bakra: His father: … “Which day is today?” asked the Prophet (peace be upon him).
We kept silent for a considerable while that we thought he would call another name for that day.
“Is it not the Nahr Day?” asserted the Prophet.
“Yes, it is,” answered we.
“Which month is this?” asked the Prophet…etc.

SECOND BASE: UNITY OF THE ISLAMIC NATION
For a preliminary sight on the texts relating the Prophet’s last sermons, a reader believes that the first five principals of this base: unity of the Islamic nation, are the only and the most important topic. Muslims repeated paragraphs of the Prophet’s sermons dealing with this topic so over again. This is by the reason that the society in which the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) lived, was of an extreme racial discrimination. It was prevailed by laws of predominance and power. The dominant, whether a ruler, a tribe, a knight or a vagrant, is always the right since he could overcome even if he used means of invasion, assassination, robbery, usurpation or trickery.
The Islamic legislation repealed all these and declared equity of people before the law. The entire sorts of abusing the private rights were prohibited. A concentration on respecting souls, estate and dignity of people was legislated. This is why they memorized these words in a way distinguished from the other prophetic topics and words. They were highly admired by these ethics and principals. For the believing Muslims, these principals formed the radical solution of the issue of invasion and murder suffered in the pre-Islamic era.
These instructions, formed in a highly eloquent divine and prophetic style, had a great influence on regulations of respecting personal character, estate and opinion after the Prophet’s decease. Without these instructions, the Muslims’ society would have been engaged in a situation extremely worse than what had actually occurred. In the same manner, the Jahilite regulations, regarding association with humanity, would have floated to the surface anew.
It is noticeable that the Prophet’s immaculate household were preceding people in the field of regarding humans and their legal freedom. Ali (peace be upon him) was the only ruler after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), who did not use the emergency or the martial laws or any exceptional law, even with his rivals and those who abstained from declaring fealty to his leadership. Moreover, although Ali was engaged in three wars that covered the entire period of his ruling, he did not resort to violence or any exceptional policy.
On the other hand, Abu Bakr and Omar reverted to means of power and surmounting against Ansar in Saqifa of Bani Saida. They were about to kill Sa’d Bin Abada. Later on, they attacked the group who refrained from swearing allegiance to their leadership. Those people were gathering in the Prophet’s house for providing their consolation to the Prophet’s family. Furthermore, the Prophet’s funeral had not been put in the grave yet, when the band threatened them setting the house on fire if they insist on confining themselves there, and evade swearing fealty to the new leadership. When the group were late in going out and leaving the house, that band encompassed the house with firewood and set the door on fire…
The sixth principal of this base, which is the principal of maintaining properties and souls of those who speak out the creed of Islam; ‘There is no god but Allah’, was related in this form: “I am given the orders of fighting people to say ‘There is no god but Allah.’ If they speak it out, they will protect their souls and estate against me except in lawful states. God then will be the Judge.” Ali Bin Ibrahim Al-Qummi relates this form.
As a matter of fact, this principal is of three dimensions:
First all, he whoever speaks out the creeds of Islam, apart from his religion or national belongness, is reckoned with Muslims whose souls, estate and honor is kept in sacredness. In case regulations of being the despotic party, an evil in the land, a murderer, an apostate, a fornicator or the like are applicable to that person, his soul will be lawfully violated.
Second, Jews and Christians are exempted from this rule. They enjoy private regulations in case of peace or war.
Third, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) informed his people that he had restricted himself to the divine orders of jihad -struggling for the Lord’s sake-. His mission from this jihad was completing the revelation of the Quran and materializing the declaration of the two creeds of Islam. In other words, his mission was forming the general appearance of this nation. He was not given the orders of fighting the deviate or those who mislead the Muslims, since this sort of fighting is reckoned with jihad for interpreting the Quran. This sort of jihad came after the Prophet’s decease.
The seventh principal is sealing prophesy with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and sealing the nations with his nation. The following wording of the Prophet has been previously forecited during providing the narration of Majmauzzawaid. It is his saying, “There shall be no prophet after me, and there shall be no nation after you. Beware of your duty to Allah, and perform the five prayers, and fast on that month, and defray the poor rate, and comply with your leaders and you shall be taken to the Paradise of your Lord.”
It is the principal of the prevalence of Mohammed’s doctrine over doctrines of the previous prophets. It also refutes the misclaims of prophesy a part of which emerged during his reign while others came forth thereafter.
Furthermore, this principal grants the Islamic nation the honor of sealing the prophets’ nations. It confines it with the responsibility of guiding the other nations. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) outlined the general strings of worshipping the Lord, performing the prayers, fasting and complying with the leaders. It is not unlikely that the reporter related only the paragraphs he could memorize, and that he missed the Prophet’s reference to others, such as the poor rate and the ritual pilgrimage.
The most distinguishable point in this principal is that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) refers to complying with the rulers. When God mandates compliance with a person without citing conditions, this shall mean that this person is sinless that he does not wrong any, and does not say but the truth. Since this prophetic instruction is empty of any conditions and qualifications, it is most surely that he refers to the twelve imams whom are divinely nominated, and prophetically predicted.
The eighth principal; principal of the Prophet’s being the witness on his people in the Hereafter and their joining him on the Divine Pool, is mentioned in various narrations. Some mention the form of, “I will precede you to the Divine Pool, and I will take pride in you before the other nations. Blacken not my face.” In other narrations, the following form is recorded: “I will take pride in you among the other nations. After me, do not fight each other.”
This is a unique prophetic style persisting that people shall join their Prophet before their Lord, and each shall be in need of a drink from the Kawthar Pool. That drink will save him against any further thirst and make his body fit to enter the Paradise.
This instruction is similar to a father’s saying to his sons, “O sons! Fulfill my will. I am leaving you. You shall join me when I will be having a great fortune. You will be living in a poverty. I will surely realize the persons among you who will keep my will, and, similarly, I will realize the dissidents.”
The ninth principal; principal of necessity of accuracy in acting, and admonishing against committing the insignificant actions that lead to deviation, attracts attentions to a remarkable rule in individual and social behaviors. It is the rule that deviation begins with an insignificant deed or a group of simple deeds seen as meaningless and unimportant. These deeds shall lead to others, till they lead to the abyss of the mundane or the supernal devastation.
This matter is practicable in individual and collective situations.
A Muslim may permit himself to gaze at a foreign lady he liked, and gives himself the license to exchange conversation with her, and to participate her in some acts, and, finally, this will lead him to perpetrate the obscenity.
A man may permit himself to befriend a bad man. He neglects the sounds of his religious consciousness and the advise of his associates. This will lead him to sink in the ocean of wronging people and deviation and corruption.
A nation may overlook assails of their enemies in states of political, economic or cultural power. This concern will lead the enemies to predominate and prevail this nation.
A society may overlook an aspect of corruption that first occurs in a certain point or among a certain group.
A society may overlook a law dictatorially issued by the ruler or his men. This will lead to a comprehensive injustice that drives the society towards putrescence.
The insignificant sins are those tiny situations and behaviors forming the invisible seeds of the giant trees of evil on individual and social levels. Consequently, reference books Muslims insist on referring to this affair.
Al-Kafi; 2/288:
Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (peace be upon him):
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) resided in waste land. He asked his companions to fetch firewood. They apologized that the land had been barren. “Try to find as much as possible,” ordered the Prophet. They fetched a good quantity and provided the sum before him. As he saw the view, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) commented, “This is the way how sins gather. Beware of the insignificant sins. Everything has an observer. The observer of these sins records whatever they acted and their deeds, and everything is registered in a clear recording.”
Al-Baiheqi’s As-Sunan; 10/188:
Abdullah Bin Masud: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “Beware of the insignificant sins. They accumulate against a man till they cause him to perish. Their like is a people who resided in a barren land. Each could fetch a small single wood till they gathered a considerable quantity sufficient for making fire and cooking their food.”
The previous prophetic sayings deal with the quantitative accumulation of the insignificant ill deeds and sins. They show how these deeds change into a great danger against the lives of individuals and societies.
The following prophetic sayings deal with the qualitative accumulation of the insignificant sins in the core and personality of the individuals and societies:
Al-Kafi; 2/287:
Imam Jafar As-Sadiq stated: “Beware of the insignificant sins. They are unforgivable.” “What are the insignificant sins?” I asked. Imam explained, “A man commits a sin and wishes if he had not committed others.”
Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/1417:
Aisha: The Prophet (peace be upon him) addressed at me, “O Aisha! Beware of the insignificant sins. They have an interrogator from the Lord’s side.”
It is also recorded in Ad-Darimi’s; 2/303, and Ahmed’s; 6/70 and 151.
One of the remarkable bases, inferred form this prophetic instruction, is that the Satan, when despairs of controlling a nation through misguiding them in the grand issues, takes the road of ruining and deviating through the insignificant deeds. This is the Prophet’s saying, “The Satan despaired of being obeyed on this land. But he will be obeyed in some sins you deem insignificant. He will be pleased by them.” This saying is recorded in Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/1015.
The Satan despaired of demolishing the fortified castle and the handsome structure of Islam erected by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family); therefore, he went towards prevailing on the individuals to drag a single brick of that building incessantly. This process resulted in dragging the entire constituents of that great structure.
Another outstanding matter, deduced from Ali Bin Ibrahim’s narration, is that obeying the Satan in the insignificant sins is reckoned as an adoration to him. This means that those who commence aberration in a society are serving the Satan, not the Lord. As a result, they carry the advocacy to changing from serving the Lord into serving the Satan. This is the Prophet’s saying, “But he is pleased to be obeyed through your insignificant deeds. If the Satan is obeyed, he is then served.”
The Prophet’s declaring that the Satan is pleased to be obeyed through the insignificant sins is an information telling the Satan’s satisfaction for the success progressed in his project of deviating people and destructing their castles. This accords the exegesis of God’s saying, (And certainly the Satan found true his conjecture concerning them, so they follow him, except a party of the believers.)
The Prophet’s household regarded people’s struggle on power after the Prophet’s decease as the most menacing insignificant sin.
Biharul Anwar; 28/217:
Imam Al-Baqir (peace be upon him), through explaining God’s saying, (Corruption has appeared in the land and the sea on account of what the hands of men have wrought,) said, “By God, that commenced when Ansar suggested to elect a leader from them, and the Quraishis elect another from them.”
The tenth principal; principal of warning against forging lies against the Prophet, and insisting on investigating whatever is imputed to him, is referred to through the two forecited narrations of Ahmed. In the Sunni and Shiite reference books of hadith, this question is mentioned importunately, that means the existence of a serious trouble during the Prophet’s lifetime. The Prophet insists that this problem shall find a larger scope after his final departure. The number of fabricators shall increase after him.
A deep look in this problem leads to an abhorrent feeling towards such fabricators since their satanic action defames and deforms Islam, and precludes the next generations from receiving its genuineness. A more serious matter is the fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was not given the orders of unmasking and punishing such fabricators for their past or coming forgery. As an acceptable treatment of this problem, the procedure of warning them against forging lies, and warning people against receiving such falsification, was taken.
It is evident that such a procedure affects only in a quantitative reduction of the problem. Hence, the Prophet’s recognition of the problem existence, and prediction of its continuity and increase are evidences on the fact that he constitutes a sufficient treatment for the problem, by means of divine instructions.
This treatment was the obligation of presenting every text ascribed to him, before the two weighty things he left in his nation and ordered of adhering to; the Book of Allah and his household. Any text that contradicts the Book of Allah must be decided as worthless, since the Prophet does never belie the Quran. Correspondingly, every text that contradicts whatever is asserted by his progeny, who are being incessantly with Quran, is worthless, too. The Prophet’s household are being perpetually with the Quran, since they are the heirs of the Prophet and the explicators of his knowledge.

THE THIRD BASE
Through various paragraphs of the Prophet’s sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage, principals of this base are mentioned. Previously, we have referred to fulfillment of trusts and laws of heritage, blood money and pilgrimage. At any rate, there are other laws in the prophetic sermons involved.
In spite of the countering factors, the main element in the materialization of the cultural unity of the Islamic nation, disregarding racial and national difference, was the unity of their creed and legislation. It is an undeniable fact that Islam could achieve a unity of conceptions and behavior among people in a form unattainable for the entire states and civilizations.

THE FOURTH BASE: PRINCIPALS OF THE POLITICAL AFFAIRS, AND THE NEXT LEADERSHIP
- Principal of the prediction of the coming of twelve imams of the Prophet’s progeny.
- Principal of the importunate adherence to the Quran and the Prophet’s progeny; the two weighty things.
- Principal of nominating Ali as the next leader of this nation, and the first of the twelve imams.
- Principal of keeping on performing the obligatory rites and compliance with the leaders.
- Principal of immortalizing the treaty of Quraish and Kenana on blockading the Hashemites.
- Principal of warning the Quraishis against playing the tyrant after the Prophet’s departure.
- Principal of warning the Prophet’s companions against breaking faith and struggling on power.
Formerly, we have referred to this discussion through rendition of the prophetic texts regarding the twelve imams. It is provable that this point has been remarked by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) during the Farewell Pilgrimage sermons.
It is inadmissible for the sane to accept that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had concealed the identity of those divinely nominated imams, or that the Prophet provided this matter for predicting of their coming. These claims are originated by the Quraishis and their hired narrators.
Shiite reference books of hadith attest that the second principal of the Prophet’s persisting on the adherence to the two weighty things; the Quran and his progeny, relate that he referred to this matter through sermon of Ghadir, the Al-Kheif Mosque sermon and, presumably, the others. This fact is forecited through Ali Bin Ibrahim’s narration.
Comprehensively, the Sunni reference books of hadith record the Prophet’s assertion on adherence to the two weighty things; the Quran and the Prophet’s progeny, during sermon of Ghadir only. They decide the authenticity of the reports relate this affair. At-Tabari compiled a two-volumed book in this regard. He refers to the various series of narrators and ways of documentation of the sermon involved.
Regarding the other sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage, At-Tirmithi, in his As-Sunan; 5/328, records:
Jabir Bin Abdillah: I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the pack of his she-camel; Al-Qaswa, on day of Arafa, orate:
“O people! I am leaving among you what will constantly protect you against deviation if only you adhere to; the Book of Allah and my people; my household.
(The same is related by Abu Tharr, Abu Sa’eed, Zaid Bin Arqam and Hutheifa Bin Useid. The narration is decided as strange and qualified, but with a rather doubtful narrator. Sa’eed Bin Suleiman and many other scholars, however, relate Zaid Bin Al-Hassan’s narrations.)
It is also noticeable that a number of Sunni reference books record the Prophet’s will of the Quran only, disregarding his household.
Muslim’s; 4/41:
… I am leaving among you what will protect you against deviation as long as you commit yourselves to. It is the Book of Allah.
The same is recorded in Abu Dawud’s; 1/427, and Al-Beihaqi’s; 5/8. Ibn Madga records a similar thing on page 1025 of part 2. The following form is recorded in Majma’uzzawaid; 3/265:
…“O people! I am leaving among you what will perpetually protect you against deviation if you only adhere to. It is the Book of Allah. Apply its instructions.”
Through a scrutinizing look at the narratives involved, it is easily understood that mentioning the Prophet’s household is deleted in such reports due to the narrators’ oblivion or the firm supervision the Quraishis imposed upon the prophetic texts. This is evidenced by the fact that the same reference books relate the same text completely in other positions. As a rule, the imperfect should be compared to the perfect.
Muslim, Al-Beihaqi, Ibn Madga and Al-Heithami record various narratives regarding the Prophet’s repetitive importunate recommendation of adhering to the Quran and his progeny together.
Muslim’s Sahih; 7/122:
Zaid Bin Arqam: In a place called ‘Khum’ and situated between Mecca and Al-Madina, the Prophet (peace be upon him) addressed at us:
“Praised and thanked be Allah…
O people! I am not more than a human. The apostle of my Lord is about to come to me, and I will respond. I am leaving among you two weighty things. First is the Book of Allah that contains the guidance and the illumination. Hold fast on the Book of Allah and adhere to it. Second is my household. I bind you with the Lord in the question of my household. I bind you with the Lord in the question of my household. I bind you with the Lord in the question of my household.”
Hussain asked Zaid: “O Zaid! Who are his household? Are his women included?”
“Yes, his women are reckoned with his household,” answered Zaid, “But his household are exclusively those whom are prohibited from receiving alms.”
“Who are they?” wondered Hussain.
“They are sons of Ali, Aqeel, Jafar and Abbas,” identified Zaid.
“All those are prohibited from receiving alms?” asked Hussain.
“Yes, they all,” replied Zaid.
Al-Beihaqi relates the same narration in his As-Sunan; 7/30 and 10/114.
Majma’uzzawaid; 1/170:
Zaid Bin Thabit: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated:
“I am leaving among you two successors; the Book of Allah and my household. They shall never leave each other till they join me on the Divine Pool.”
(In his Al-Mujamul Kabir, At-Tabarani records this narrative the narrators of which are trustful.)
He also records it on page 162 of part 9, and commentates that Ahmed records it in an acceptable documentation.
Abu Dawud does not refer to a clear narrative respecting the two weighty things. Yet, he writes an independent title given the name of ‘Al-Mahdi’, in his As-Sunan; 2/309, in which he records hadith of the twelve imams and the Prophet’s prediction of the coming of Imam Al-Mahdi and his being from the offspring of Ali and Fatima (peace be upon them). He also relates the Prophet’s saying, “Even if there will be only a single day from the age of this earth, God shall send a man from my household, who shall fill in it with justice, as it is filled in with wrong.”
We provide the following point as an evidence on our claiming the Prophet’s ordering people, during the Farewell Pilgrimage sermons, of adhering to his household besides the Quran.
The prophetic statements are the most eloquent and articulate since they enjoy unique specifications. One of these specifications is that there are definite structures dedicated to definite occasions. This point is common between the Quran and the prophetic texts. The prophetic structure, “…protect you against deviation if only you adhere to…” is dedicated to his instructing his nation to adhere to the Quran and his household. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had never used this structure in any occasion except the recently concerned.
In the same manner, the structure, ‘I am leaving among you the two weighty things,’ had never been used in a situation other than the concerned.
When the Prophet gave his orders of fetching a pen and a paper so that he would record a document ‘protecting them perpetually against deviation,’ during his final disease, the Quraishis perceived that he had intended to commit the Muslims to complying with the imams of his progeny in a written form. So, they rejected this order very frankly and insolently.
In six positions of his Sahih, Al-Bukhari refers to this incident. The other reference books of hadith report Omar’s taking pride in playing the greatest role in the process of depriving the Prophet of recording his will.
At any rate, we aim only for attracting attentions to the fact that isolating the Prophet’s household from the Book of Allah, during reporting some narratives respecting sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage, violates the prophetic style and his unequaled expression during referring to his instruction of adhering to the two; the Book of Allah and his household, together. At-Tirmithi, moreover, relates the two together.
In abstract, none can deny the authentic truth that the Prophet predicted the coming of the twelve imams, and instructed people to adhere to the two weighty things and considered his immaculate household; Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein, as equal to the Quran in the field of the obligation of complying with them. All these matters were asserted through the prophetic sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage. These fact may be denied only by those who intend to be fanatic to the Quraishis in the face of the Exalted Lord and His Apostle (peace be upon him and his family).
The third principal of this base, which is the declaration of Ali’s being the next religious and political leader, is evident through hadith of Ghadir. We lack enough scope to refer to the numerous documentations and texts concerning this topic. A great deal of reference books of theology and hadith, beginning with At-Tabari’s Al-Wilaya and ending with Allama Al-Amini’s Al-Ghadir, discuss this topic thoroughly.
The fourth principal of this base; principal of keeping on performing the obligatory rites and compliance with the leaders, has been discussed during mentioning paragraphs of the second base. Al-Fakhr Ar-Razi, as well as many others, admits that God shall never instruct us to comply with other than sinless people without specifying conditions, otherwise, this shall be an instruction of a disobedience. This admission comes through discussing God’s saying, (O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you.) Hence, men in authority intended in the Holy Verse, must be sinless. Similarly, the intended in the Prophet’s sermon of the Farewell Pilgrimage, as well as other occasions, must be sinless.
The fifth principal is immortalizing the treaty of Quraish and Kenana on blockading the Hashemites. This is recorded in Al-Bukhari’s; 5/92:
Abu Huraira: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “God willing, we shall reside in Al-Kheif, the place where they concluded the treaty of atheism and swore it.”
On pages 246 and 194 of parts 4 and 8, Al-Bukhari records narratives concerning the same matter. On page 158 of part 2, he records a narrative with a more evident point:
Abu Huraira: On the Nahr day, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was in Mina when he stated, “Tomorrow, we shall reside in Al-Kheif of Bani Kenana, where they concluded the treaty of atheism and swore it.” He meant Al-Muhassab. The Quraishis and Kenana concluded a treaty against the Hashemites, sons of Abdul-Muttelib and sons of Al-Muttelib. They agreed upon abstaining from giving in marriage or marrying any individual belonging to these houses, and abstaining from selling them anything unless they give up the Prophet (peace be upon him).
The same is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih; 4/86, Ahmed’s; 2/322, 237, 263, 353 and 540. It is also recorded in Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan; 5/160, in another form, in which he commentates, “This report is recorded in Al-Bukhari’s and Muslim’s who relate it to Al-Awzai.”
Muslim does relate it to Al-Awzai, while Al-Bukhari relates it to Abu Huraira. It seems that Al-Beihaqi errs in this point, or the report is not found in the copy of Al-Bukhari’s Sahih we depend upon.
In any event, the following addition exists in Muslim’s report related to Al-Awzai:
…“They should not give marriage or marry any individual of these houses, and no deal should be concluded between the two parties till they give up the Prophet (peace be upon him).”
Furthermore, in the two forms of the report, there is a difference in the place of the Prophet’s residence. Al-Bukhari mentions that the Prophet (peace be upon him) declared so while he was in Mina, after performing the rites of Arafat. At-Tabarani mentions that it occurred in Mecca, before the commencement of the pilgrimage rites. This is more acceptable, since it accounts for the Prophet’s concern in the subject and his caring for concentrating it in the Muslim’s mentalities. Moreover, the Prophet had resided in that place and passed the night before performing rites of Arafat there when he was in his way to that mountain.
This matter has been previously mentioned during discussing Ad-Darimi’s narration. All the Tashriq days, the Prophet (peace be upon him) resided in that place.
Majma’uzzawaid; 3/250:
Ibn Abbas: A day before Tarwiya day, the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, “God willing, we shall reside in Al-Kheif, the place where the atheists concluded their treaty and swore it.”
(In his Al-Mujamul Kabir and Al-Mujamul Awsat, At-Tabarani relates this narrative to trustful narrators.)
The most remarkable point in this discussion is the Prophet’s purpose beyond reminding the Quraishis and Muslims generally, of a great incident took place in that place fourteen years ago. The Quraishis aimed at burying that incident, and make people forget it. Allah; the Exalted, and His Apostle intend to eternalize it in the Muslims’ mentalities and history. The entire incident brings humiliation to the Quraishis, and elevates proudly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and the Hashemites. It is a sketch showing the ceaseless efforts of the pharaonic Quraishi masters who could achieve unanimity of the clans, and convince tribes of Kenana, who were lodging near the Holy Precinct, to put the Hashemite under a complete blockade. This blockade lasted for long years. They practiced a comprehensive economic and social blockade against the Hashemites for coercing them on giving Mohammed up, so that they would be able to kill him, or making him retreat from his divine mission.
Those pharaonic masters felt in sublime cheer for their achieving the great success of congregating clans of Quraish and Kenana for that satanic purpose. Their conference was held in Al-Muhassab in Al-Kheif of Bani Kenana where they swore, by Lat and Uzza, keeping on achieving their purpose. The document they wrote was signed by eighty chiefs and celebrities. The next day, they went on applying its paragraphs. Hence, that blockade lasted for four years, and ended few days before the Prophet’s immigration.
The Hashemites, including the unbelieving, combined with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and tolerated years of blockade, poverty, hurt and insult. That occurred in col of Abu Talib. Till God relieved their suffering by a miracle, none of the Muslims participated with them.
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) aimed at opening the new Muslims’ minds on the history of their religion and prices of the divine revelation, in order that they may appreciate the value. Besides, he wanted them to pay attention to the core of Islam and the core of atheism, so that they may recognize each. Another purpose is that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) aimed at sending a practical message to the rest of the pharaonic masters of Quraish, who were still alive, to inform them that they shouldered the offense of that atheism and shame. Nevertheless, they committed greater sins afterwards. They did not change their situation till the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) gathered them under swords of the Hashemites and Ansar on day of conquest of Mecca. Only then, they evaded being killed by declaring their embracing Islam. Thereafter, they planned for prevailing the heritage of the Islamic state that had been constructed by Allah and His Apostle, against their desires.
Death and sword of Ali Bin Abi Talib were the Lord’s means of killing a few number of the masters of that satanic treaty of Al-Kheif conference. A considerable number of them; such as Suheil Bin Amr, Abu Sufian, Ikrima Bin Abi Jahl, Safwan Bin Umaya Bin Khalaf, Hakeem Bin Hizam, Suheib Bin Sinan, Abul-Awar As-Selemi and others were still alive. They accompanied the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in the Farewell Pilgrimage. They were listening to his statements and could remember their near past. They were admired by his pardoning them and stopping at submitting them to his full evidences.
Their extrinsic and hidden behavior, induction, the Prophet’s household’s testimony, course of history; all these things proved their delight for the Prophet’s declaring his imminent final departure. They were preparing for a new method of blockading the Hashemites in the next stage.
Hence, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) purposed for reminding them of their old plan, and how the Lord foiled it, and He would foil the coming ones.
The seventh principal of this base, which is warning the Quraishis against playing the tyrant after departure of the Prophet, is recorded in our reference books of hadith. The forecited narration recorded in Al-Heithami’s Majma’uzzawaid and related to Fahd Bin Albahiri who listened to the sermon of Arafa Day and related the Prophet’s saying, “O the Quraishis! Do not shoulder the mundane affairs, while people shoulder the Hereafter. I will not avail you in the least before God,” asserts this principal.
Thanks God, Fahd was a Bedouin. Had he been from Quraish or Kenana, he would have substituted the Hashemites for the Quraishis!
The Quraishi narrators were wont to remove every statement that might injure or censure the Quraishis. Therefore, the Sunnis’ reference books of hadith, are full of such ‘authentic’ reports regarding the Prophet’s blaming and censuring the Hashemites and sons of Abdul-Muttelib. In like manner, we could see tens of narratives dealing with the Prophet’s praising the Quraishis and ordering of selecting the leadership from them. No single prophetic saying concerning blaming or criticizing the Quraishis was saved from distortion into a prophetic blame addressed at the Hashemites, or repealing it by inventing another saying, or changing it into a prophetic praise for the Quraishis.
Son of Albahiri’s narrative respecting the Prophet’s forewarning the Quraishis during sermon of the Farewell Pilgrimage, comes in its proper time and place. The Quraishis occupied a distinctive location among the Arabs. They were the leading of people the Arab Peninsula during and after the Prophet’s lifetime. Consequently, any danger that might face the Prophet’s household would certainly be originated by the Quraishis. As well, any movement of averting Islam, and any wrongdoing Muslims may suffer would certainly be originated by the Quraishis. Other people would always be following them.
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) is not more than a bearer of the Lord’s message, and a materializer of His claim on people. His mission is warning and admonishing so that he who would perish might perish by clear proof, and he who would live might live by clear proof.
The eighth principal of this base; warning the Prophet’s companions against breaking faith and struggling on the power, is recorded in the reference books of hadiths of the two sects directly and indirectly.
The indirect way of relating this principal is the Prophet’s saying, “After me, return not to deviation by beheading each other.”
In his As-Sunan; 2/1300, Ibn Madga dedicates an independent chapter to the prophetic sayings regarding this topic. He titles it, ‘After Me, Return Not To Deviation By Beheading Each Other.’ He records the Prophet’s sayings, “Woe is you! After me, return not to atheism by beheading each other,” and “Kill not each other after me,” and the like.
This foreordains that this process would be falling after him. As a matter, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) frankly foretold them of their struggle after him. He used the maximum degree of his eloquence, as well as sympathy, and applied the entire styles of forewarning and admonition for materializing the Lord’s evidence on them; so that they will not provide their unfamiliarity of the topic when they shall be submitted before the Lord.
Those forewarned and admonished people were none other than his companions. They were not the Jews, or the other Arab tribes, or chiefs of Quraish exclusively.
The Islamic state prevailed and affected its centering all over the Arab Peninsula. Hence, the Prophet’s anticipation of struggle for power was not addressed at the tribes that were, coercively or voluntarily, submitted to Islam, such as the Hawazin and the Ghatafan, since these tribes had nothing to do with the leadership of the Islamic state. Supposing they did, they would not obtain any unless the Prophet’s companions permitted.
Regarding the Jews, they were defeated, and a part of them was banished out of the Arab Peninsula. They had no considerable military power at that period. Despite the firmness and effectiveness of their trickeries, they would not thrive unless they passed by the Prophet’s companions.
Chiefs of Quraish lacked the dare to demand with a position of leadership in the Islamic states although they had the predominance upon majority of Quraishi tribes, as well as two thousand warriors. That was because of their being the Prophet’s ‘released’ individuals whose souls had already been in the hand of the Prophet. This meant that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had had the right to kill or enslave them. Hence, he opted for the second when he released them afterward. They would have no hope to hold a position of leadership unless that small number of the Quraishi Muhajirs permitted so.
This proves that the Prophet’s forewarning against struggling for the power after him, is restricted to his companions, Muhajirs, and Ansar exclusively.
Here comes the role of the direct forewarning which lacks the personal names only. It came in the form of a portrait from the unseen world. It provided the end result of those deviating and deviate companions.
This portrait was the Lord’s, Who committed Gabriel the angel, to carry it to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). It showed the coming day on which the Lord shall choose Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) for chiefship of the grand assemblage. Gabriel shall hand him the pennon of Hamd. The Prophet shall deliver that pennon to Ali Bin Abi Talib, since this man is the bearer of the Prophet’s pennon in this world and the Hereafter. The entire assemblage will be under the leadership of Mohammed in whom Adam will take pride. He will be called ‘Abu -father of- Mohammed.’
The Lord shall give Mohammed exclusively the right of intercession and the Divine Pool of Kawthar. Then, delegations of the entire nations will approach him for seeking intercession. He will intercede and grant the card of drinking from that Divine Pool. That water will change their physiological structure so that they will be fit to abide in the Paradise forever.
When it will be his companions’ role, a surprise will occur. The Lord’s order of disallowing the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to intercede for those individuals and grant them the card of drinking from that Pool will come. Then, the angels of anguish will be ordered of taking them to the hell-fire.
This is the morrow of those companions, communicated by the ever most true-tongued individual on this earth.
It is indeed a terrible scene. Gabriel; the Chaste, carried it to the Prophet, so that he would inform his people,during the Farewell Pilgrimage, of its destined occurrence.
It is the gravest catastrophe to the companions of the greatest prophet. The reason beyond this is certainly their causing the Prophet’s nation falling in the greatest catastrophe in the morrow.
Excepting the like of scattered animals of a cattle, none of those companions will escape. This picture is recorded in the most authentic narratives of the most adoring to those companions. It is an extraordinary expression. Those scattered animals are those escaping the cattle.
This means that the entire group of the Prophet’s companions shall be in the hell-fire, and only few shall escape.
Moreover, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) explained that the companions, who should be in the hell-fire, are of two groups. This indicates that there are two lines taken by two parties of the companions.
This is proved through the forecited report recorded by Al-Hakim, who decides it as authentic on the criterion depended by the two Sheiks -Muslim and Al-Bukhari-. In this report, he records, “Another group shall be occluded, too. None shall escape but a few groups like the scattered animals in a cattle.”
It is a distressing question, indeed. It is hardly acceptable and credible, especially for the Muslims who are brought up on cherishing the entire companions of the Prophet; the best century, the unique generation, the statement of “My companions’ like are the stars, you will be guided if you follow any,” and the splendid representations and examples of those companions. It will be a great shock for such a Muslim if he is faced by that horrible satanic picture of those companions.
Had it been any person other than the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) who uttered these words, they would have reckoned him with the enemies of Islam, who aim at ruining this religion by means of maligning the Prophet’s companions.
It is most surely the Prophet himself who uttered these words. His words, as an undeniable reality, are not produced due to his personal caprice and not spoken out of desire. Nevertheless, the Quraishis claim the Prophet’s speaking in states of satisfaction and rage. And his words in states of rage are not decided as evidences.
As a matter of fact, the Prophet’s words involved, are a revelation of the Lord of the worlds!!
This truth is grievous. However, it is not necessary for truths to be always delightful. Similarly, the right is not always designed as we like or inherit.
How can we behave before the fact that the prophetic texts regarding the companions whom shall be deposed, rejected and precluded from having from that Divine Pool, occupy numerous situations in the most authentic Sunni reference books of hadith?! Furthermore, they occupy more numerous situations in the other reference books of hadith. All these say that none of those companions shall escape except a few like the scattered animals of a cattle.
According to the Arabic-Arabic dictionary compiled by Al-Jawhari, the Prophet’s wording refers to the animals of a cattle that lost their supervisor.
At any rate, the most remarkable point in this discussion is recognizing the reason beyond the Prophet’s submitting that topic during the Farewell Pilgrimage.
Primarily, the reason is that the Exalted Lord had given him the orders of submitting this topic in that very time. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) does never speak out of desire, and lacks awareness of his companions’ next deeds and their coming judgment on the Resurrection Day unless he is informed by the Lord.
The following questions can be provided here. What did those companions commit after the Prophet’s decease? Did they return to atheism? Or did they apostatize, as the prophetic text describes? Did they misrepresent this religion? Did they kill each other for power?
A simple answer for all these questions can be said here. You should admit what your Prophet said, and keep peace, and evade being Rafidite -rejecter and protester-.
Another question is cited. What for did the Lord opt for this style in forewarning? What for did He not extinguish those individuals, who will deviate thereafter, or give His Prophet the order of killing them, or scandal them before the entire Muslims so that they would be avoided?
The answer is that this is being the Lord’s policy in materializing the claim thoroughly on His slaves, and leaving them to their free deeds, so that he who would perish might perish be clear proof, and he who would live might live by clear proof. God, at length, is not to be asked for an explanation for His deeds, while people shall be asked for theirs. The Exalted Lord is the Owner of His servants, and He enjoys the full freedom to interrogate them. The Elevated Lord does not make errors; therefore, He is not submitted to inquiry. He; the Praised, is the most Knowledgeable. The non-most knowledgeable is not applied to inquire or impeach the most knowledgeable.
Another question is cited here. What were the consequences of that prophetic forewarning? Did Muslims, as well as the companions, hurry up towards the Prophet asking for showing the straight path? Did they ask him to nominate a man they would follow thereafter, so that those dangerous companions would not lead them astray?
The answer is that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) did nominate the two weighty things for people to follow. He named the Book of Allah and his household. He also foretold of the coming of twelve godly imams.
Before and after the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) defined his household several times. He named them; Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them).
Reports of the most authentic reference books of hadith declare that the Prophet did identify them materially when he covered them with a Yemeni cloak, and declared, “Those are my people; my household.”
Sufficed not by these procedures and declaration, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) caused the Muslims to halt under the harsh heat of sun in Al-Juhafa in Ghadir Khum, and took Ali from the arm to announce his being the next religious and political leader. He then installed a tent for him, so that the entire Muslims would greet him confessing his being the prince of the believers, and congratulate him on his being nominated, by the Lord, as the next leader. They all congratulated and acclaim him. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) then ordered his women to congratulate Ali for gaining that position. They approached the tent and offered congratulations. They admitted their loyalty to Ali’s chiefship of the nation.
In his final disease, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) aimed at attesting that evidence on his nation in a written form. He asked the retinue to fetch him a pen and a paper so that he would record a document protects them against deviation perpetually. Unfortunately, they rejected unrelentingly. They said to him, “Well! Thanks, Apostle. We decided to deviate after you. This decision is taken while we are enjoying full awareness, intention and option. We do not want you to record a document that we should comply with Ali, Hassan, Hussein and nine individuals from Hussein’s offspring; their progeny. Hence, shamelessly, they said, “Fetch not any pen or paper!!”
How can the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) provide a more consistent evidence?

THE FIFTH BASE: PUNITION OF THE DISSIDENTS OF THE PROPHET’S INSTRUCTION OF ADHERING TO HIS HOUSEHOLD
This punition shall befall in the Hereafter. It fits the Prophet’s responsibility of conveying and witnessing his nation’s acts. The expression of this punition is firm and unbending. It came in the form of a divine decision of cursing and condemning the dissidents of the Prophet regarding his instruction of revering his household. It indicated that the repentance of such individuals shall never be admitted, and they shall be deserving the eternal torment in the hell-fire.
Its being the last paragraph in the Prophet’s sermon might give it another dimension referring to its firmness and decisiveness.
In the report recorded in Tuhaful Uqoul; the Shiite reference book, this paragraph is cited. A good deal of Sunni reference books of hadith refer to this topic. They assert that it was mentioned during the Prophet’s sermon in the Farewell Pilgrimage.
Ibn Madga’s As-Sunan; 2/905:
Amr Bin Kharija: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was on the back of his pack animal, while it was breathing heavily due to the hot weather, when he sermonized:
“… Curse of the Lord, the angels and the entire people be on those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters. God be not accept their excuse or compensation.”
At-Tirmithi’s As-Sunan; 3/293:
Abu Umama Al-Bahili: I hear the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, in his sermon addressed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, “Ceaseless curse of the Lord be on those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters.”
Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 4/239:
Amr Bin Kharija: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was in Mina, riding his pack animal which was breathing heavily due to the hot weather, when he sermonized:
“Curse of the Lord, the angels and the entire people be on who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters, as a desire to neglect them.”
Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 4/187:
“… Curse of the Lord, the angels and the entire people be on those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters. God be not accept his excuse or compensation.”
Ahmed relates the same meaning in different reports and records them in the same previous page book and the preceding ones. He also records it on pages 238 and 186. For Ad-Darimi, he records it in his As-Sunan; 2/244 and 344. In Majma’uzzawaid; 5/14, the narration is related to Abu Masud. Al-Bukhari records the reports in his Sahih; 2/221 and 4/67.
The reader may wonder the relationship between such a prophetic statement and the Prophet’s instruction of adhering to his household. The forecited paragraphs emphasize that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) cursed those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers, and the slaves who deny their loyalty to those who manumit them and ascribe it to another master.
As an answer of this wonderment, we have to cite that as a jurisprudential ruling, it is that if a son disavows his father and claims another man’s filiation, then he regrets and returns to his real father, his repentance is admissible. In like manner, if a slave leaves his master and claims of his slavery to another man, but he repents and returns to his master after a while, his repentance is jurisprudentially acceptable.
These jurisprudential rulings contradict the Prophet’s asserting that the divine curse, in its harshest form, is ceaselessly poured on those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters.
Such a divine punition is admitted in cases of serious excess, such as apostasy and the like. It is unfit to issue such a judgment against an ignorant son or slave who disavow their father or master.
Moreover, some reports refer that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ruled the atheism and apostasy of such individuals. This reports are recorded in Al-Beihaqi’s As-Sunan; 8/26, Majma’uzzawaid; 1/97, Kenzul Ummal; 5/872 and many others. As an example we cite that the following report is recorded in Kenzul Ummal; 10/324, 326, 327 and 16/255 respectively:
“He whoever disavows his masters is ripping the bind of Islam out of his neck.”
“He should find himself a place in the hell-fire that whoever disavows his masters.”
“He is an atheist that whoever disavows his masters.”
“He is decided as a disbeliever of what the Lord has revealed to his Apostle, that whoever disavows his masters.”
The recent authentic prophetic sayings support the fact that such decisive rulings do in no means relate those who disavow their fathers or masters, unless fathers and masters intended in such sayings are not the proper ones.
This meaning is also supported by the forecited reports and many others, in which the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) does not refer to fathers and sons at all, but he stops at mentioning masters and their servants. Naturally, a son’s disavowal of his father is more serious than a slave’s disavowal of his master. Nevertheless, such reports informed of a more serious punition.
In addition, this meaning is supported by the fact that this ruling, in a good number of reports communicating the Prophet’s sermons during the Farewell Pilgrimage, is mentioned directly after referring to the dedicate competency given exclusively to the Prophet’s household and progeny. This is the one-fifth rate. The Prophet’s progeny are prohibited from receiving the alms and the poor rate.
Ahmed’s Al-Musned; 4/186:
The Prophet (peace be upon him) was on his pack animal when he sermonized: “Alms is not allowed for my household and me. Any sum of alms even if it was as much as this.” Meanwhile, the Prophet (peace be upon him) took a single hair from the back of his pack animal, and went on: “God curse that whoever ascribes himself to other than his father or master.”
The same is recorded on page 293 of part 5 of Kenzul Ummal. On page 235 of part 10 of the same book, the following form is recorded:
“… He should find him a place in the hell-fire that whoever ascribes himself to other than his master.”
In the Shiite reference books of hadith; the Prophet’s progeny’s reports, this prophetic wording is frequently and authentically recorded during mentioning the Prophet’s sermons of the Farewell Pilgrimage. Besides, it is a part of the Ghadir sermon
Biharul Anwar; 37/123:
Al-Mufid’s Al-Amali: … Zaid Bin Arqam: I hear the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) say in Ghadir Khum: “Alms is not licit for my household and me. God curse those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters. The baby is the bed owner’s. The prostitute’s share is the stones. An heir is not to will.
You have heard and seen me. He must find him a place in the hell-fire that whoever forges lies against me.
I will be preceding you to the Divine Pool. I will take pride in you before the other nations on the Resurrection Day. Blacken not my face. I will save men from the hell-fire, and others shall be taken from my hands and sent to the hell-fire.
Allah is my Master, and I am the master of each male and female believer.
He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.”
An alike report is recorded on page 186 of the same book, and quoted from Bisharetul Islam.
In his Al-Umda/344, Ibnul Bitriq, the Shiite, comments:
Reports recorded in the most authentic books of hadith, that regarded the Prophet’s saying, “God curse those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters,” do intend the great urge on adhering to Amirul Muminin Ali after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). The clear evidence on this fact is the most authenticated saying of the Prophet: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.”
As he asserts so, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) adds, “O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and antagonize whomever antagonizes him, and support whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him.”
These assure the most acceptable matter that Ali is being the master of those whose master was the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Likewise, Ali is being the master of the believers entirely, this is proved by Omar Bin Al-Khattab’s saying to Ali after that prophetic declaration, “Congratulations, Ali! You have become the master of every male and female believer.” Other narratives report Omar’s saying to Ali in the same occasion, “You have become my master, and the master of every male and female believer.”
This position is the Lord’s exclusively. He; the Exalted, gave it to his Apostle; Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) and ordered him of dedicating it to Ali Amirul Muminin after him. This meaning is supported by God’s saying, (Only Allah is your Master and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow.)*
On that account, the Prophet’s saying, “…those whoever ascribe themselves to other than their fathers,” stands for those who disavow loyalty to Amirul Muminin Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him). We can refer this to the Prophet’s saying, “O Ali! You and I are fathers of this nation.” Curse of the Lord be on the disobeyer of his father.
Reference books of hadith of both sects relate that the forecited saying was a part of the script hanged to the Prophet’s sword given to Ali in heritage. In his Sahih; 4/67, Al-Bukhari records this narrative. Similarly, Muslim, in his Sahih; 4/115 and 216, records this narrative in various ways of narration. Like many others, At-Tirmithi also records it in his As-Sunan; 3/297. As a matter of fact, they insist on these narratives since they contained, as they claim, Ali’s confession that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had not inherited his household any knowledge except a copy of the Holy Quran and that paper hanged to his sword. The narratives, however, assure the Prophet’s cursing those who disavow their masters.
In the Shiite reference books of hadith, we could find a fourth occasion inciting the Prophet’s uttering this wording of curse. The Quraishi ‘released’ individuals moved to Al-Madina and partook the hypocrites in their efforts against the Prophet’s household. Once, they uttered, “Regarding his existence among the Hashemites, Mohammed’s like is a date-palm tree planted in a junkyard.” When he was informed of this saying, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ordered Ali to ascend the pulpit and answer them.
Biharul Anwar; 38/204:
… Al-Isbigh Bin Nebata: Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him):
Once, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) summoned me and ordered of ascending his pulpit and declaring the following statements: Curse of Allah, and curse of His favored angels and messaged prophets, and my curse be on that whoever disavows his father or master, and that whoever wrongs his hireling.
As I did the mission, none commented except Omar Bin Al-Khattab. “O Abul-Hassan! You have conveyed. But they were unclassifiable words,” said he.
I was back to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to inform of this commentation. The Prophet asked me to convey the following words:
O people! We should never communicate words to you unless we have their interpretation. It I who is your father. It is I who is your master. It is I who is your hireling.
A fifth occasion of this wording we found through a narrative recorded in Furat Bin Ibrahim Al-Kufi’s Tafsir/392:
… Fatima Bint Al-Hussein: Al-Hussein Bin Ali: When the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was in Al-Madina, some Muhajirs offered him a part of their estate to help in managing any unexpected matters he might counter.
For a while, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) nodded his head down and, finally, refused their offer saying, “I am not ordered of taking any of your properties.”
Soon after that, Gabriel; the angel, descended carrying God’s saying, (Say: I do not ask for you any reward for it but love my near relatives.)
As the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) conveyed this Verse to them, Muhajirs went out grumbling at this mandate, and saying to each other that the Prophet had intended only to submit them to sons of Abdul-Muttelib forever.
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) summoned Ali Bin Abi Talib and ordered of ascending his pulpit and addressing at people the following statements:
O people! He should seek himself a place in the hell-fire, that whoever wrongs a hireling in his wage. He should seek himself a place in the hell-fire, that whoever disavows his master. He should seek himself a place in the hell-fire, that whoever denies his parents.
A man stood up and asked for an interpretation for these words.
Ali was back to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) for conveying that man’s commentation. “Woe is the Quraishis from the interpretation of these words,” the Prophet repeated thrice. “O Ali!” ordered the Prophet, “Go and tell them that I am the hireling whose commitment is mandated in the heavens. You and I are masters of the believers. You and I are fathers of the believers.”

Source:
AYATUL GHADIR( Verses of Ghadir)
Authored By:
Al-Mostafa Center for Islamic Researches


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