Verse of Isma: Order of the Verse
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
And the Jews say: The hand of Allah is tied up! Their hands shall be shackled and they shall be cursed for what they say. Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases; and what has been revealed to you from your Lord will certainly make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; and We have put enmity and hatred among them till the day of resurrection; whenever they kindle a fire for war Allah puts it out, and they strive to make mischief in the land, and Allah does not love the mischief makers.
And if the followers of the Book believed and guarded against evil, We would certainly have covered their evil deeds and We would certainly have made them enter gardens of bliss.
And if they had kept up the Torah and the Bible and that which was revealed to them from their Lord, they would certainly have eaten from above them and from beneath their feet; there is a party of them keeping to the moderate course, and as for most of them, evil is that which they do.
O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.
Say: O followers of the Book! You follow no good till you keep up the Torah and the Bible and that which is revealed to you from your Lord; and surely that which has been revealed to you from your Lord shall make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; grieve not therefore for the unbelieving people.
Surely those who believe and those who are Jews and the Sebeans and the Christians whoever believes in Allah and the last day and does good- they shall have no fear not shall they grieve. Certainly We made a covenant with the children of Israel and We sent to them apostles; whenever there came to them an apostle with what that their souls did not desire, some of them did they call liars and some they slew.
LOCATION OF THE VERSE
Two matters should be taken in consideration if the Quranic setting is regarded.
First, the Verse falls in sura of Maida; the seal of the revealed suras.
Second, the Verse falls among Verses respecting manners of the Jews and the Christians.
Correspondingly, the Verse carries the following meaning to the Prophet: Convey, and fear not the Jews and the Christians. We are to protect you against them. They shall be too short to injure you.
Neither the Sunnis nor do the Shias admit this exegesis. For the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), it added nothing new concerning the Jews and the Christians during the two months he lived after the revelation of the Verse involved. Besides, danger caused by those two parties had been removed before its revelation, and they were submitted to the Prophet’s regulations.
From this cause, it is scrupulous to probe whether the current situation of the Verse is original, or one of the Prophet’s companions pursued a personal illation in opting for it.
We; the Shias, deny clearly any supposition claiming the occurrence of any form of distortion in the Holy Quran. Yet, reports assert that some companions pursued their personal inference in choosing for situations of some Verses in some suras. Accordingly, situation of the Verse intended had been subjectively, if not unintentionally, chosen.
THE SUNNI SCHOLARS’ OPINIONS
The following six opinions are the most remarkable among the various theses related to the Verse, and assumed by the Sunni exegesists and scholars. Hitherto, there is a seventh opinion accords the Shias’.
First opinion: The Verse was revealed in the preliminary stage of the Prophet’s divine mission. When the Exalted Lord ordered him of conveying the message, the Prophet hesitated. He abstained or showed drawback. Hence, the Lord loomed and relieved. Only then, the Prophet conveyed.
This proposes that the Verse were revealed twenty-three years before the revelation of sura of Maida.
As if he deterred it, Ashafii used ‘it is said’ before he had referred to the previous opinion.
Ashafii’s Kitabul Umm; 4/168:
…It is said that when Gabriel first carried the divine instructions of informing people of the angelic revelation, and soliciting them to the new religion, the Prophet became harassed as he anticipated people’s belying and maligning him. Hence, God revealed: O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed…
Many points can be adopted in repudiating this claim. First, the claim is contrary to situation of the Verse. We have already provided that sura of Maida was the seal of suras. Ashafii, himself, suspects that claim. He narrates it indirectly. He neither adopted nor did he refer it to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). In conclusion, it is inadmissible to concede such an accusal of abstinence or hesitation during carrying the Lord’s messages, for avoiding being belied, injured or killed, till a divine menace and tranquillity were revealed.
This picture does not fit an ordinary faithful believer. How is it then for the sinless Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), who was the most faithful and courageous?! A good deal of Quranic texts attested that he (peace be upon him and his family) was bettering in conveying the Lord’s instructions, and was exceedingly interesting in guiding people to the right path.
ASHAFII’S INDIRECT REPORTS
As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/298:
Al-Hassan Al-Basri: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: I showed detestation for my Lord’s giving me the orders of conveying His message to people, since I realized that people would belie me. The Lord threatened if I decline, He would subdue. That is His saying: O Apostle! Deliver…”*
Ibn Jureij: The Prophet (peace be upon him) feared people of Quraish till the revelation of the Verse: O Apostle!…and Allah will protect you from the people.
Only then, he was relieved. He said frequently, “Let them disappoint.”
Mujahid: When God revealed: Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord…, the Prophet supplicated: “O my Lord! I am alone. How should I behave when people unite against me?” Then, God revealed: And if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message…**
An-Nisapuri’s Al-Waseet; 2/208:
Al-Anbari: During his dwelling in Mecca, the Prophet was used to declaring only a part of the Quranic texts revealed to him, due to anticipating the polytheists’ injuring his companions and him…
The previous reports lack documentation. They are mere sayings of Al-Hassan Al-Basri, Mujahid and their likes. Next, we are to prove that Al-Hassan Al-Basri aims at achieving something private through publicizing such wording, and that he cited his saying from the Prophet’s sermon of Ghadir, but he was too coward to report the truth.
THE INDIRECT REPORTS ARE ESTIMABLE OPINIONS
Exegesists realize that the Verse was revealed during the Prophet’s last days, and realize that allocating an incident occurred in the prefatory stage of his advocacyto the exegesis of the Verse was no more than wordings of the false scholars of the Umayid reign or reports of doubtful documentation. Notwithstanding, they flagrantly take the Verse twenty-three years back. It is quite odd to see considerate names, such as Az-Zamakhshari and Al-Fakhr Ar-Razi, lay among such exegesists.
All that is taken for nothing other than evading allocating the exegesis of the Quranic text to the Ghadir declaration of fealty. In truth, they had two choices only; either allocating the former incident to the exegesis, or adopting the false reports respecting cancellation of the watch on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). This fable is violated by sequence of the historical events, as well as context of the Verse intended.
Az-Zamakhshari’s Al-Keshaf; 1/659:
The meaning of God’s saying, (And Allah will protect you from the people), is that the Lord provides a promise of protecting the Prophet.. against being killed only! It is also narrated that the Prophet said:
I showed detestation for the Lord’s ordering me of conveying His message to people. He then threatened a punition if I abstain. He also guaranteed protecting me. Only then I regained vigor.
The same is recorded in Al-Waseet; 2/208.
Ar-Razi’s Tafsir; 6:12/48-50:
Exegesis of God’s saying: O Apostle! Deliver what has been…
Al-Hassan: The Prophet said: I showed detestation for my Lord’s giving me the orders of conveying His message to people, since I realized that people, including the Jews and the Christians, would belie me, and the Quraishis would threaten me. When the Lord revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…,) my entire apprehensions were removed.
Regarding God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) it be may be asked how it is possible to regard this statement when it is well known that the Prophet’s face was scratched during the battle of Uhud.
There are two answers for this wonderment. First, the Verse intends protection against being killed. Second, the Verse was revealed after the battle of Uhud.
Ar-Razi is not accurate in relating Al-Hassan’s wording. He adds the statement: ‘including the Jews and the Christians,’ since he intends to specify the protection against aggressions of the Jews and the Christians, so that he would be able to take away the Quraishis’.
At any rate, we should not blame him for cherishing the Quraishis generally, and his forefather; Abu Bakr Bin Abi Qehafa specifically. We only demand with the objective honesty. No single indication to the Jews and the Christians is shown in the whole reference books that record Al-Hassan’s previous wording. Later on, the reader will learn that Al-Hassan excerpted his wording from the Prophet’s sermon of Ghadir.
Excelling Ar-Razi and the others, Ibn Kutheir outdoes exceedingly when he records the following in his Al-Bidaya Wen-Nihaya; 3/53:
… Ali: “When God revealed: (And warn your nearest relations,) the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked me to cook a … The Prophet spoke: “Which one of you is to settle my debts and he will be my successor among my people?” As he anticipated loss, Al-Abbas kept silence. I had to keep silence as I revered Al-Abbas’s being elder. In the second time I spoke after I had seen Al-Abbas keep silent. The Prophet attested…”
The Prophet (peace be upon him) anticipated being killed as soon as he would convey the Lord’s message to the Arab polytheists. Therefore, he aimed at nominating his successor that would guard his people after his decease. He could trust a man who would be committing himself to this responsibility.
Anyhow, the Lord secured His Apostle when He revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…
Approximately, the same is recorded in As-Sira; 1/460.
Ibn Kutheir does slip and serve his fanaticism very much. He cuts off the prophetic text regarding God’s saying: (And warn your nearest relations,) and erases the Prophet’s carrying out God’s mandate of nominating a successor. Instead, the man records a contorted text and explains that the Prophet’s asking the Hashemites for a successor who would be the guardian of his people and the settler of his debts, came due to his anticipating being killed by the Quraishis. Ali (peace be upon him) volunteered. When the Verse was revealed, such a succession became invalid.
Ibn Kutheir, purposefully, disregards the fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was mandated to solicit his near relatives exclusively to his advocacy. Neither the Quraishis nor were the others included in this solicitation. Thereupon, the Prophet’s anticipation of being killed or injured is but a fabrication.
Furthermore, as much as I could conceive, none precedes or supports Ibn Kutheir in establishing a relation between the Verse of Isma and that of warning the near relatives. Anyway, he does not refer to the source from which he embraced that opinion.
As a matter of fact, for Ibn Kutheir, nothing is more important that misrepresenting and fading the Prophet’s words at his near relatives, and his nominating Ali as his brother, vizier and successor. Meanwhile, he spares no efforts for taking Verse of Isma away from sura of Maida and day of Ghadir.
The following is the Prophet’s wording cut off by Ibn Kutheir:
Al-Amini’s Al-Ghadir; 1/207:
The following is a quotation of At-Tabari’s words, mentioned for discriminating the accurate and the deviation:
At-Tabari’s Tarikh; 1/207:
… (The Prophet said:) “I have brought forth the good of this world as well as the Hereafter. The Exalted Lord has given me the order of soliciting you all to this matter. Which one of you is to support me, and shall be my brother, heir and successor?”
(Ali went on narrating:) I was the youngest among the attendants who utterly spurned. I spoke: “I will, God’s messenger. I will be your supporter in this affair.” The Prophet took me from the neck and declared: “This is my brother, heir and successor. Listen and comply with him.” The attendants went out laughing and addressing at my father: “Well, he has ordered you of listening and complying with your son!”
(Al-Amini:) As he decides it as authentic, Abu Jafar Al-Iskafi; the Theologist Mutazilite, records the same words in his Naqdul Othmaniya.
It is also recorded in the following reference books:
Burhanuddin’s Anbau Nujeba Il-Abna; 46-8.
Ibnul Athir’s Al-Kamil; 2/24.
Ad-Dimeshqi’s Tarikh; 1/116.
Al-Khafaji’s Sharhu Shifa; 3/37. (In this book, the last statement of the narrative is cut off. The compiler commentates: “In Al-Beihaqi’s Delailun Nubuwa, as well as many other books, this narrative is authentically documented.)
Al-Baghdadi’s Tafsir; 390.
As-Suyouti’s Jamuj Jawami; 6/392. (He refers it to At-Tabari.)
As-Suyouti’s Jamuj Jawami; 6/397. (He refers it to the six most notable hadithists; Ibn Isaaq, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatem, Ibn Merdawayih, Abu Naeem and Al-Beihaqi.)
Ibn Abil-Hadid’s Sharhu Nahjil Belagha; 3/254.
The compiler of Al-Ghadir criticizes those who misrepresented the narrative, seeking the Quraishis’ favor. At-Tabari, for instance, intends to make the Prophet’s words respecting Ali obscure. He records: “The Prophet then said: ‘This is my brother… and so on.” Ibn Kutheir, in his Al-Bidaya Wen Nihaya; 3/40, and Tafsir: 3/351, follows At-Tabari.
Second opinion: The Verse was revealed some time before the immigration to Al-Madina. Since then, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) dispensed with the surveillance of Abu Talib or Al-Abbas; the uncles.
In the Sunni reference books of hadith, this opinion is the most widespread. It is of two sorts of narratives. The earlier shows, whether openly or suggestively, time and place of the Verse revelation, which was Mecca. The latter relates it to the Prophet’s canceling the surveillance, without referring, directly, to the watch practiced by Abu Talib or Al-Abbas.
Regardless, we ought to opt for the earlier, since its origin is At-Tirmithi’s relation to Aisha. Like many others, At-Tirmithi could perceive that Aisha had meant Mecca.
As a model of the first sort of narration, the following is cited:
As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/298-9:
… The Prophet (peace be upon him) narrated: During the pilgrimage season, I was in Mina when Gabriel revealed to me God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver…)
Presently, I stood erect at Al-Aqaba and shouted: “O people! He shall be granted the Paradise that whoever supports me in conveying my Lord’s message. O People! Declare that there is no god but Allah and that I am His messenger to you, and you will be saved and granted the Paradise.”
The entire people, including women and children, began to throw me with dust and stones, and spew in my face, shouting: you are liar and apostate.
In the midst of these moments, an inspiration came forth before me and said: “It is now the proper time for you, if you are the Lord’s messenger, to curse your people, like Noah when he cursed his people.”
I supplicated: “O Allah! Guide me people, they do not know, and support me by making them respond to your obedience.”
Al-Abbas; my uncle, came and saved me from them.
Jabir Bin Abdillah: Abu Talib used to appoint a guard for accompanying the Prophet (peace be upon him) whenever he went out. When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) the Prophet said to his uncle: “God has protected me. I do not need a guard.”
Ibn Abbas: The Prophet was guarded. Abu Talib used to send men from the Hashemites for guarding him. “O uncle! I do no longer need those whom you are appointing for guarding me,” the Prophet said.*
Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri: Al-Abbas; the Prophet’s uncle, was one of those who guarded the Prophet (peace be upon him). When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) the guardians stopped.**
Ibn Abbas: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was guarded. Abu Talib; his uncle, used to appoint men from the Hashemites for guarding him. When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) the Prophet said to his uncle: “The Lord has protected me against jinn and people.*
The second sort is originated by the following report recorded in At-Tirmithi’s A-Sunan; 4/317:
Aisha: A surveillance was practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon him) till the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people.) “O people! You may leave. The Lord has protected me,” the Prophet said as he took his head out of his tent.
This is decided as a one-way hadith.
Others relate the same to Abdillah Bin Shaqiq, without referring to Aisha.
Al-Hakim, in his Al-Mustedrak; 2/313, relates the same report to Aisha, and comments: “This report is authentically documented; yet, they -Muslim and Al-Bukhari- avoid recording it.”
Seemingly, Aisha’s report proposes that the Verse was revealed in Mecca. This is advocated by Al-Beihaqi’s narration, recorded in his As-Sunan; 9/8. He also records the forecited saying of Ashafii, in which he claims the Prophet’s being protected against being killed only…
In his Tafsir; 2/4/160, Al-Muraghi records As-Suyouti’s earlier narration, related to Ibn Abbas, and At-Tabarani’s. He then comments: “At-Tirmithi relates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was guarded in Mecca before the revelation of the Verse.”
Notwithstanding, Aisha’s report does not imply that the occurrence was in Mecca. It seems that the phrase ‘in Mecca’ was unintentionally erased from the origin copy of At-Tirmithi’s.
In his Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/291, As-Suyouti records:
Abd Bin Humeid, At-Tirmithi, Ibn Jarir, Ibnul-Munthir, Ibn Abi Hatem, Abu Sheikh, Abu Nueim, Al-Beihaqi, Ibn Merdawayih; all record Aisha’s reporting that…
Bearing the same indication of Aisha’s report, As-Suyouti records a number of narratives some of which hint at the fact that the occurrence was in Al-Madina. Accordingly, we lay such narratives in an independent topic.
In Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/298-9, As-Suyouti records:
… Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri: Al-Abbas; the Prophet’s uncle, was one of those who guarded the Prophet (peace be upon him). When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) the guardians stopped.
… Abu Therr: We were encompassing the Prophet (peace be upon him) whenever he went to sleep, since he anticipated misfortune. When the Verse was revealed, we stopped.
A good deal of exegesists and historians adopt this opinion. As if they admit it, Az-Zamakhshari, in Al-Keshaf; 1/659, and Ar-Razi, in Tafsir; 6/12/50, record the opinion while they, as it has been already cited, attest that the Verse was revealed in Mecca. On that account, they adjudge that reports of Aisha, Al-Hassan Al-Basri and the others talk about an occurrence happened in the early stage of the Prophet’s solicitation.
Besides many others, the following scholars adopt the opinion involved:
As-Suheili, in Ar Rawdul Enif;2/290.
Al-Qastalani, in Irshadus Sari; 5/86.
Ibnul Arabi, in Sharhut Tirmithi; 6/11/174.
Al-Eini, in Umdetul Qari; 7/14/95.
Ibn Jezi, in At-Tesihil; 1/244.
An-Nuweiri, in Nihayetul Ireb; 8/16/196, and 19/18/342.
An-Nisapuri, in Al-Waseet; 2/209.
Ad-Demiri, in Hayatul Hayawan; 1/79… etc.
The compiler of As-Siratul Halabiya, attempts to impose the relation between the Verse and the Prophet’s surveillance, for framing a virtue for Abu Bakr Bin Abi Qehafa. On page 327 of part 3, he records:
Before the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) the Prophet was watched by a number of people. The night just before the battle of Badr, he was watched by Sa’d Bin Me’adh. On the day of the battle, he was guarded by Abu Bakr alone. This man kept on unsheathing his sword while the Prophet was sleeping under the canopy.
This proves the self-contradiction of the compiler who, by these words, provides an evident contrary to his intendment. If cancellation of the surveillance occurred before the immigration, then surveillance of Abu Bakr and others during the battle of Badr would be ineffective. In addition, it is questionable to believe that the Muslims used canopies during that battle.
Finally, Al-Hakim records an authentically documented narration implying that third of the Muslims guarded the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) during the battle of Badr. This is rational, since they resided the uncovered low area of the battlefield.
Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 2/326:
As he was asked about sura of Anfal, Ebada Bin As-Samit spoke:
The sura regarded us. We; the Muslims, were three groups. The first was fighting the foes. The second was gathering the spoils and capturing the prisoners. The third was guarding the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) near the tent…
The following points show invalidity of the opinion of creating a relationship between Verse of Isma and the surveillance practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family):
First, the forecited discussion of the first opinion.
Second, the same narratives of the third opinion that claimed that cancellation of the surveillance had occurred in Al-Madina, not Mecca.
Third, the major reports that support the opinion involved are Aisha’s and report of Al-Abbas’s watching the Prophet. The others are not documented.
In fact, the purpose beyond most of such reports was disregarding Abu Talib’s role in upholding the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and aiming at proving that the Prophet dispensed with Abu Talib’s surveillance in Mecca.
The earliest report aims for giving Al-Abbas Abu Talib’s role of guarding the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in Mecca, and being the one by whom the Lord protected His Apostle against people.
Truly, Al-Abbas, before the immigration, played an ordinary role. Like the other Hashemites, he sympathized with the Prophet and suffered the blockade in that col. In addition, it is unproved that he embraced Islam or immigrated to Al-Madina, like Ali and Hamza. The most common thing is that Al-Abbas was captured during the battle of Badr, and he embraced Islam only when he, as well as the other prisoners, was released. Al-Heithami and others decide inauthenticity of the report involved. Frivolity and fickleness of the report support so. Later on, we are to cite Al-Albania’s proving the inaccuracy of Aisha’s being the reporter of that narrative.
Third, the evidences on the continuity of watching the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and invalidity of reports narrating the opposite, including the one involved, are clear.
The third opinion is that the Verse was revealed in Al-Madina without an identified date. As-Suyouti records a number of narratives showing no specific time for its revelation, though he connects them to the matter of canceling surveillance practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Thereabouts, from some of such narratives, it can be understood that the Verse was revealed in Al-Madina.
Ad-Durrul Manthour; 298-9:
… Isma Bin Malik Al-Khatmi: We were used to watching the Prophet (peace be upon him) at nights till the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people.)
… Sa’eed Bin Jubeir: When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) the Prophet said: “Do not watch me any longer. My Lord has protected me.”
… Abdullah Bin Shaqiq: Some of the Prophet’s companions were guarding him whenever he went out. When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) the Prophet said: “O people! Go to your normal duties. Allah has protected me against people.”
… Mohammed Bin Ka’b Al-Quradi: The Prophet’s companions were guarding him till the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people.) The surveillance was canceled as the Lord informed His Apostle of protecting against people.
… Ar-Rabi Bin Anas: The Prophet was guarded by his companions till the revelation of God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver…)
In Tarikhul Madinetil Munawara; 1/301, Ibn Sheba relates the same report to Abdullah Bin Shaqiq and Mohammed Bin Kab Al-Quradi. At-Tabari, in Tafsir; 6/199, relates it to Abdullah Bin Shaqiq. For Ibn Sa’d, he also records the report in At-Tabaqat; 1/1/113. Similarly, Al-Beihaqi records it in Delailun Nubuwa; 2/180.
Through the entire reports respecting the Prophet’s history, it is proved that he (peace be upon him and his family) was seeking the Arab tribes’ protection, so that he would convey his Lord’s message. Ansar swore allegiance to him on the conditions of protecting his household and him as same as they protect they families and themselves. This invalidates the claim of the Verse’s revelation in Mecca. Had the Verse been revealed in Mecca, the Prophet would not have been in need for such protection and covenant.
Reference books of hadith, Tafsir and history are filled in with the numberless narratives concerning the surveillance practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in Mecca and Al-Madina, especially in conditions of wars. It is proved that such a surveillance lasted till the final hours of the Prophet’s lifetime. Chapters were written as regards the surveillance practiced on the Prophet, stories occurred during such situations of surveillance and names of the guards. All these evidence invalidity of the opinion concerned.
The strangest matter is that the same persons who record such reports and stories, assert that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had canceled the surveillance in Mecca or after the immigration when the Verse of Isma was revealed, as if they vowed they should take the Verse away from the incident of Ghadir!!
From the previous, we have to reject any report respecting the total cancellation of the surveillance before the incident of Ghadir. We have cited Al-Hakim’s report relating that the Prophet was guarded by a third of the Muslims during the battle of Bard.
Ahmed’s Al-Musnad; 2/222:
A number of the Prophet’s companions guarded him, while he was offering prayers after the midnight just before the battle of Tabuk.
The same is recorded in Kenzul Ummal; 12/430, and related to Abdullah Bin Amr Bin Al-As. The compiler of Majmauzzawaid rules authenticity of the same report when he writes it down on page 367 of part 10.
By the way, battle of Tabuk occurred in the last year of the Prophet’s life.
Uyounul Athar; 2/402:
During the battle of Badr, Sa’d Bin Me’adh guarded the Prophet who slept in his canopy. Mohammed Bin Muslima was his guard during the battle of Uhud. During that of Khandaq, Az-Zubeir Bin Al-Awam was his guard. In Kheibar, the Prophet was guarded by Abu Ayoub Ansari. It is said that the Prophet supplicated: “O Allah! Protect Abu Ayoub for his protecting me.” Bilal, Sa’d Bin Abi Waqas and Dekwan Bin Abd Qeis were the Prophet’s guards in Wadil-Qira. Ebad Bin Bishr was the commander of the Prophet’s guards. When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) the surveillance was canceled.
As he had to find an answer for the reports pertaining to guarding the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) during the battle of Tabuk, the compiler interprets ‘guarding’ into ‘waiting’.
Uyounul Athar; 1/119:
Regarding Amr Bin Shueib’s report concerning guarding the Prophet, who was offering prayers, the night before the battle of Tabuk, it seems that they were waiting for him. Surveillance was vacated since the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people.)
That was before the battle of Tabuk. God, however, is the most knowledgeable.
This interpretation is contrary to the text of the reports regarding that surveillance.
Anyhow, such reports refute the claim that the Verse was revealed in Mecca.
It is now concluded that the claim of cancellation of the surveillance practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) lacks evidence through history of the Prophet’s lifetime. On the contrary, there in an evidence on continuation of such a surveillance. It is proved that the Hashemites guarded the Prophet in Mecca and, altogether with the rest of his companions, in Al-Madina, till the last days of his lifetime.
As much as a personal viewpoint is concerned, it seems that the trial of dedicating the Verse to the claim of cancellation of the surveillance denotes the accuracy of the Prophet’s progeny’s explanation that the Verse stands for protection against apostasy. From this cause, the dissidents aimed importunately at citing the material protection and cancellation of the surveillance as the interpretation of the Verse. That led them to be engaged in contrast. Nevertheless, they had to disregard stories relating the Prophet’s being guarded, and had to overlook the column of the guards which is still facing them in the Prophet’s Mosque.
Al-Albani, after he adopts and admits that the Verse was revealed in Mecca, refutes Al-Hakim’s authenticating Aisha’s report he himself has already authenticated. He then mentions the report of assassinating the Prophet as an evidence on authenticity of the previous report.
The fourth opinion is that the Verse was revealed in Al-Madina in the second year of the Prophet’s immigration after the battle of Uhud.
As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/291:
Atiya Bin Sa’d: Ebada Bin As-Samit came to the Prophet and declared his acquitting the covenant of loyalty between the Jews and him, and declared his loyalty to God and His Apostle. Abdullah Bin Ubey, who was present, spoke: “Considering me, I fear unexpected misfortunes. I cannot break mine.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) addressed at him: “See Abu Hebbab! You have appreciated the covenant broken by Ebada. Hence; you can keep it for yourself alone.” Abdullah accepted so. On that account God revealed: “O you who believe! Do not take the Jews and the Christians for friend… and Allah will protect you from the people.”
For proving the falsehood of this report, we are sufficed by mentioning that the previous narratives respecting the watch practiced on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and that these were Atiya Bin Sa’d’s words, not the Prophet, and the fact that the Verses remarked in the report were 51 to 67 of sura of Maida which none ever could claim their revelation for the story of Abdullah Bin Ubey’s loyalty to the Jews. At length, this Abdullah was deceased before the revelation of sura of Maida.
The fifth opinion is that the Verse was revealed owing to an attempt of assassination, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had to encounter. Contradiction is the distinctive feature of reports of that assassination. Some tell that it was during the battle of Thaturriqa, when a person approached the Prophet and asked for his sword so that he would see carefully. When the Prophet handed his sword so negligently… Others, anyhow, mention that the sword was hanged, or the Prophet was inadvertent, or was dipping his legs in a well… etc.
As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/298-9:
Jabir Bin Abdillah: After the battle of Thaturriqa, the Prophet was reposing on a well, in which he was dipping his legs. Gawreth Bin Al-Harth informed of his determination of killing Mohammed. “How will you kill him?” asked his companions. “I will ask him to hand me his sword, and I will kill him then,” said Ghawreth.
“O Mohammed! Give me your sword,” the man asked, and the Prophet did. As soon as the man held the sword, his hands began to shiver. “God prevents you from implementing your intention,” said the Prophet. Hence, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what…)
Mohammed Bin Kab Al-Quradi: the Prophet was reposing under a tree when a Bedouin unsheathed his sword and shouted: “Who will protect you against me?” “Allah will,” answered the Prophet. Suddenly, the man’s hands shivered, and he could no longer have the sword. (Others added) He rammed his head to a tree, and his cerebrum was scattered. Hence, God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people.)
Abu Huraira: The Prophet was reposing under the largest tree we used to select on journeys. He was hanging his sword to that tree. A man came and drew the sword, shouting: “O Mohammed! Who will protect you against me.” “Allah will protect me against you,” said the Prophet (peace be upon him), “Put that sword away.” Hence, God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people.)
Others mention that a person was arrested while he was trying to assassinate the Prophet. This report is recorded in Ad-Durrul Manthour; 2/299.
The following points are evidences on invalidity of that opinion and invalidity of the revelation of the Verse for the occasion:
first, As Ibn Husham records in As-Sira; 3/225, the battle of Thaturriqa occurred in the year 4 A.H. Many years after this date, sura of Maida was revealed. Some reports, besides, refer to no definite date. Others are logically unacceptable.
Second, the main reference books that record the story of Ghawrath and the battle of Thaturriqa do not refer to the revelation of the Verse involved then. Most of these reports refer to amendment of the ritual prayer of anticipating dangers -Salat Al-Khawf- and the application of more watchful surveillance on the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) during prayers.
These points are sufficiently acceptable for refuting the claim of the revelation of the Verse on such occasions.
Ibn Husham allocated God’s saying: (O you who believe! Remember Allah’s favor on you when a people had determined to stretch forth their hands towards you, but He withheld their hands from you…), as the Verse revealed on that occasion.* This is also inaccurate, since the Verse allocated is also in sura of Maida.
Al-Bukhari, as well as many others, allocated the amendment of the ritual Salat Al-Khawf, and the application of more watchful surveillance on the Prophet, due to that incident.
Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 5/53:
Jabir Bin Abdillah: … The Prophet reposed under a tree to which he hanged his sword. We slumbered. We were awaken by the Prophet’s loud voice. When we approached, we could see a Bedouin sit before him. The Prophet then related: “While I was sleeping, this man unsheathed my sword. I woke up and saw him raise it towards me, and said: ‘Who will protect you against me?’ ‘God will,’ I answered. This is the result, you can see.” The Prophet, however, abstained from punishing him.
(Another form of the report:) Jabir Bin Abdillah: In Thaturriqa, the Prophet reposed under a large tree we left. A polytheist came and unsheathed the Prophet’s sword which was hanged to the tree, and said: “Well, now you should fear me.” “No, I should not,” answered the Prophet. “Who will protect you against me?” said the man. “God will.” …
That man was Ghawrath Bin Al-Harth.
The same is recorded in Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustedrak; 3/29, in which he refers to the amendment of the ritual Salat Al-Khawf, and the application of more watchful surveillance on the Prophet. He also decides authenticity of the report according to the criteria of Muslim and Al-Bukhari who did not record it. For Ahmed, he refers to Ghawrath’s story on pages 364 and 390 of part 3, when he refers to the amendment of the ritual Salat Al-Khawf and disregards the revelation of the Verse. The reader may refer to part 4 page 59 of the same reference book.
Except referring to the revelation of the Verse, varied details of the story are written down in Al-Heithami’s Majmauzzawaid; 9/8.
The most acceptable form of Ghawrath’s story is recorded in Al-Kuleini’s Al-Kafi; 8/127:
Abu Abdillah (peace be upon him): While the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was reposing under a tree lying on the edge of a valley, a torrent came between his companions and him. A polytheist determined to kill him. He attacked the Prophet with his sword, shouting: “Who will protect you against me, Mohammed?” “Your and my Lord will,” answered the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Immediately, Gabriel knocked that man down his pack animal. The Prophet took the sword and sat on his chest, saying: “Now, who will protect you against me, Ghawrath?” “Your benevolence and charity will,” said the man. Forthwith, the Prophet left him. The man stood up shouting: “By God I swear, you are better and more benevolent than me.”
Hence, the most remarkable reference books of hadith are empty of any mentioning for the revelation of the Verse during the battle of Thaturriqa or on the occasion of Ghawrath’s attempt of assassination. Secondly, it is noticeable that the Prophet ordered of more watchful surveillance, even during offering prayers, after that incident.
Adopters of this opinion may have understood that meaning of canceling the surveillance have become that the Prophet suspected the divine protection; therefore, he ordered of more watchful surveillance!!
The following exchange of opinions between Ibn Hajar and Al-Qurtubi is only a part of their confusedness in inventing a relationship between the revelation of Verse of Isma and Ghawrath’s story. Al-Qurtubi pronounces that the Prophet’s being alone during events of the story involved is an evidence on his being not put under surveillance. This leads to the notion that Verse of Isma has been already revealed. Ibn Hajar answers: “No. The Verse was revealed on that day specifically. Hence, the guards’ job was canceled. Before so, the Prophet’s conviction was increasing or decreasing. He took guards whenever his confidence became decreasing, and he canceled so when it became increasing. During events of Ghawrath’s story, the Prophet’s confidence was considerable; therefore, he was not guarded.”
Fetihul Bari; 8/2752:
Al-Qurtubi says: “Such reports assert that the Prophet, on that time, was not guarded. Until the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people), the Prophet had been guarded.”
As an answer to this claim, I am to cite that according to Abu Huraira’s report, it is believed that the Verse was revealed immediately after Ghawrath’s attempting to assassinate the Prophet. Hence, it is most probably to say that the Prophet had the option of appointing guards or shunning so. For his great conviction, the Prophet was left without guards during that incident. Soon after that incident and the revelation of the Verse, he canceled surveillance.
Ibn Hajar misses the fact that sura of Maida was revealed in the year 10 A.H., and the battle of Thaturriqa occurred in the year 4 A.H., and that Abu Huraira put his feet, for the first time, in Al-Madina in the year 7 A.H.
He also misses that Salat Al-Khawf and the watchful surveillance were legislated in Thaturriqa. Nevertheless, the man sets an explanation for Al-Bukhari’s report respecting Salat Al-Khawf.
All that was aimed at taking Verse of Isma away from the incidents on Ghadir Khum. Ibn Hajar’s mind, however, is filled in with the instructions of inventing a relationship between Verse of Isma and the Prophet’s being guarded.
Reports of the Prophet’s being guarded during the battle of Tabuk, which occurred six years after that of Thaturriqa, have been forecited. Through authentic reports, it is proved that the Prophet was guarded even during conquest of Mecca which occurred four years after the forecited incident. Al-Bukhari records that Muslims were guarding the Prophet during conquest of Mecca.
Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; 5/91:
Husham: …People of Quraish were informed of the Prophet’s progressing towards Mecca. Abu Sufian Bin Harb, Hakim Bin Huzam and Badil Bin Warqa went out for… The Prophet’s guards could capture them…
Ibn Husham, in As-Sira; 4/21, mentions that the column of guards that is still standing in the Holy Prophet’s Mosque, could gain this name in the year 9 A.H.
supposing adopters of this opinion can deny the matter of the Prophet’s being guarded, how can they deny that column, then?!
The sixth opinion is that time of the revelation of the Verse is not identified, and the matter of the Prophet’s being guarded has nothing to do with the Verse, and that the Verse is a general wording refers to the Prophet’s being mandated on conveying the Lord’s message, lest, he should not be regarded as a conveyor.
Qetada: In this Verse, the Lord acquaints His Apostle that he shall protect him against people. The Lord, also, orders him of conveying the message…
To great extent, this opinion is similar to the first. The previous topics may be enough for refutal. Besides, reports of this opinion are not documented and not applying the meaning of the Verse generally, and the clause of its issue.
The last opinion is that concordant to the Prophet’s progeny’s.
Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri: the Verse, (O Apostle! Deliver…,) was revealed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the day of Ghadir, regarding Ali Bin Abi Talib’s concern.
Ibn Masud: Before the Prophet (peace be upon him), we used to recite the Verse in this form: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord -regarding the matter that Ali is being the leader of the believers- and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message.)
Al-Miyaru Wel Muwazana; 213:
Jabir Bin Abdillah and Abdullah Bin Al-Abbas: The Prophet took apprehensions from the Lord’s giving him the orders of nominating Ali as the next leader, and declaring people’s being obligatorily loyal to him. He anticipated people’s accusing him of favoring his cousin exclusively. Hence, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…)
On that day in Ghadir Khum, the Prophet delivered that message to people.
As a footnote of the previous report, the following is cited:
As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour:
Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri: After the Prophet (peace be upon him) had nominated Ali as the next leader and asked people to declare their loyalty to him, Gabriel descended with God’s saying: (This day have I completed your religion for you and perfected My favor on you…)
The same report is recorded by Al-Hassakani, in Shawahidut Tanzil; 1/157 hadith: 211 and on. Ibn Asakir records it in Tarikhu Dimeshq; 2/85, Chapter: Ali Bin Abi Talib’s Lifetime; hadith: 585-6.
Al-Khatib, Al-Hassakani, Ibn Asakir, Ibn Kutheir, Al-Khawarzmi and Ibnul-Meghazili relate the following wording of Abu Huraira:
He shall be granted the reward of a sixty month fasting, that whoever fasts on the eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja. That is the day of Ghadir when the Prophet (peace be upon him) took Ali Bin Abi Talib from the hand and said: “I am the master of the believers, aren’t I?” “Yes, you are. God’s messenger!” affirmed people. “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master,” the Prophet declared. “Congratulations, son of Abu Talib!” Omar Bin Al-Khattab addressed at Ali, “You have become my master, and the master of every Muslim.”
Then, God revealed: (This day have I completed your religion for you and perfected My favor on you…)
For seekers of more information, the ceaseless consecutive written works apropos this topic should be referred. The following names are cited as examples:
Ibn Uqda’s Ar-Risala.
At-Tabari’s Hadithul Ghadir.
Ad-Darqutni’s Hadithul Ghadir.
Al-Amini’s Kitabul Ghadir.
Abaqatul Anwar; Chapter: Hadithul Ghadir …etc.
Tafsirul Mizan; 6/54:
The following is quoted from At-Thalabi’s Tafsir.
Jafar Bin Mohammed: God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord;), refers to Ali. Immediately after this revelation, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) took Ali from the hand and declared: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.”
Ibn Abbas: The Verse was revealed in Ali Bin Abi Talib’s concern. The Lord gave the Prophet the orders of conveying Ali’s obligatory loyalty to people. The Prophet took Ali from the hand and declared: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and antagonize whomever antagonizes him.”
The holy Verse was revealed on the eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja, 10 A.H., the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage. When the Prophet resided in Ghadir Khum, Gabriel descended: “O Mohammed! Allah greets you and say; ‘O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you -regarding Ali’s affair- from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people.’”
The foregoing people, who were more than one hundred thousand individuals, were about to reach Al-Juhafa. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) gave his orders of returning those foregoing ones, and confining the late in that place. He decided to nominate Ali as the leader of people and inform them the divine mandate of delivering His message of selecting Ali as the leader of the nation and protecting him against people.
For the Imamites, this affair is too authentic to be discussed. Yet, we should provide reports of the Sunnis as evidences.
Al-Amini, thereafter, refers to thirty Sunni reference books that relate reports respecting the revelation of the Verse for Ali’s leadership. We are to refer to some in brief:
1. At-Tabari, Abu Jafar Mohammed Bin Jarir (…-310.) In his Al-Wilaya, he records the following report:
Zaid Bin Arqam: When he was back from the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him) resided in Ghadir Khum. It was the first hours of that extremely hot day when he gave his orders of sweeping the elevated land, and gathered people. As soon as we were before him, the Prophet sermonized so eloquently. He said: “The Lord has revealed to me, (O Apostle! Deliver…
2. Al-Handali, Ibn Abi Hatem Abu Mohammed Ar-Razi (…-327.)
3. Al-Mehamili, Abu Abdillah (…-330.) In his Al-Amali, he relates the report to Ibn Abbas.
4. Al-Farisi, Abu Bakr Ashirazi (…-407.) He relates the report to Ibn Abbas.
5. Ibn Merdawayih (323-416). To Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri, he relates the report that the Verse was revealed on that day in Ghadir Khum, for showing the leadership of Ali Bin Abi Talib. He also records the following saying of Ibn Masud:
Before the Prophet (peace be upon him), we used to recite the Verse in this form: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord -regarding the matter that Ali is the leader of the believers- and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message.)
6. Athalabi, Abu Isaaq An-Nisapuri (…-427.) He relates the report in his Al-Keshfu Wel-Bayan.
7. Alisbahani, Abu Naeem (…-430.) In his Ma Nazala Minel Qur’ani Fi Haqqi Ali, he relates…
8. Al-Wahidi, Abul-Hassan An-Nisapuri, (…-468.) In his Asbabun Nuzoul, he relates…
9. As-Sejistani, Abu Sa’eed, (…-477.) In his Al-Wilaya…
10. Al-Hasakani, Al-Hakim Abul-Qasim. In Shawahidut Tanzil Li Qawaidit Tafdhili Wet Tawil…
11. Ibn Asakir, Abul-Qasim Ashafii (…-471.) He relates the report to Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri…
12. An-Natnazi, Abul-Fatih. In His Al-Khasaisul Alawiya…
13. Ar-Razi, Fakhruddin Ashafii (…-606.) In his At-Tafsirul Kabir; 3/636:
The Verse was revealed for Ali. The Prophet took him from the hand and declared: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.”
14. An-Naseebi, Abu Salim Ashafii (…-652.) He relates it on page 16 of Metalibus Sa’oul…
15. Ar-Rasani, Izzuddin Al-Mosuli Al-Hanbali (589-…)
16. Al-Hamawini, Abu Isaaq (…-722.) In Feraidus Semtain, he relates to Abu Huraira…
17. Al-Hamadani, Ali (…-786.) In Mawaddetul Qurba, he records:
Al-Bera Bin Azib: I accompanied the Prophet in the journey back from the Farewell Pilgrimage. As we reached Ghadir Khum, he gathered people. He sat to a tree and took Ali from the hand, and shouted: “I am preferred to your souls, aren’t I?” “Yes, you are, God’s messenger!” asserted people. “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him,” declared the Prophet.
Omar (God be pleased to him) met Ali and addressed at him: “Congratulations, Ali Bin Abi Talib! You have become my master, and the master of every male and female believer.” That was the result of God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver…
18. Al-Eini, Badruddin (762-855.) In his Umdetul Qari Fi Sharhi Sahihil Bukhari; 8/584…
WAHABISTS AND HADITH OF GHADIR
The opinion concordant to the Prophet’s progeny’s, in regard to the aim beyond the revelation of the Verse, has been kept in the Sunni reference books of hadith. This matter seems unfamiliar since it collapses the bases which the Quraishis spared no efforts for convincing the Muslims of. These bases regarded the question of the imamate and succession of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).
From this cause, it is arresting that Nassibites are incensed for the presence of reports of Ghadir and their likes on various pages of the Sunni reference books of hadith. They wished nothing of such reports and narratives had been written down in such reference books. For the above, they went on launching showers of insults and accusations to the Shias and their scholars for their viewing and referring to these reports in such books. Instead, they should have studied such reports on the light of the Quran and the unanimous prophetic texts.
Al-Albani’s Salsalatul Ahadithis Sahiha; 5/644:
… The Prophet was guarded. When God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) he took his head out of the tent and ordered the guards of leaving him since he was protected by the Lord…
Al-Hakim’s deciding authenticity of the previous report, related to Aisha, is inaccurate. Yet, At-Thehbi also decides so.
At any rate, the report is authentic, since it is testified by the following report of Abu Huraira: The Prophet was reposing under the largest tree we used to select on journeys. He was hanging his sword to that tree. A man came and drew the sword, shouting: “O Mohammed! Who will protect you against me this night?” “Allah will,” said the Prophet (peace be upon him)… Hence, God revealed: (And Allah will protect you from the people.) …
It is worthy mentioning that the Shias claim of the revelation of the Verse on that day in Ghadir Khum, for Ali (God be pleased to him). This is contrary to the forecited reports. Shias, in due course, refer to numerous narratives, most of which are incompletely transmitted or problematic, supporting their claim. They cite Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri’s report. As I have proved during discussing the report numbered 4922, this report is forged against the man. Without any study for the documentation, Abdul-Hussein; the Shiite, refers to a number of such narratives in his Al-Murajaat; 38. Since his only purpose was enlisting any word that may serve his sect, Abdul-Hussein had been wont to cite any narrative as an evidence without paying any attention to the documentation or the discriminatory study. However, Shias adopt the rule that the ends justifies the means. Beware of this man and his narratives!
Moreover, he used to defraud, if not lie to, the readers. During referring to the report falsely ascribed to Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri, for instance, the man alleges that a many compilers of the most remarkable Sunni reference books of hadith, such as Al-Wahidi, record the narrative involved.
Even the initiates know that Al-Wahidi is not one of the compilers of the four most remarkable Sunni reference books of hadith. He is an exegesist that refers to authentic and doubtful reports indistinctly. Abu Sa’eed’s report is doubted since it is related by an extremely doubtful and neglected narrator.
After they had declared the adoption of ‘circumspection’, Shias legislated forging lies against the Sunnis through their books and sermons. This matter is unveiled in Al-Khomeini’s Keshful Asrar. It is quite evident that circumspection is the spouse of fabrication. Accordingly, Sheikhul-Islam Ibn Teimiya; the most knowledgeable of those Shias, said: “Shias are the greatest fabricators among the entire sects.” I myself obviously noticed the fabrication of some of their scholars, especially Abdul-Hussein. The witness has just been cited. Besides, he deludes the readers of the prevarication that the report involved is undiscussible for the Sunni scholar since, as he claims, its numerous ways of narration are proved.
Al-Khomeini is a greater liar. On page 149 of his forecited book, he claims the revelation of Verse of Isma on the day of Ghadir in which the Prophet was ordered of declaring the imamate of Ali Bin Abi Talib. He ascribes so to the Sunni scholars. He also decides the unanimity of Shias on that matter. God may reward that man exactly what he deserves. Later on, I am to discuss this matter more detailedly.
As an answer to Al-Albani’s wording, we are to allude to the following:
First, style of insults and reviling at people, as well as issuing inaccurate judgments, should be eluded. It is unrightful for Al-Albani to classify the Islamic sects according to degrees of forging lies and fabricating. Sunnis, as well as Shias, have various sorts of people among them. Yet, Nassibites are excluded by peculiar rulings. We also should remind Al-Albani of his defending Ali (peace be upon him) and refuting Ibn Teimiya’s wronging him and denying the report of Ghadir: (He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him and oppose whomever opposes him.) In the same place, Al-Albani, in Al-Ahadithus Sahiha; 5/330/1750, decides authenticity of the forecited prophetic text and recognizes the right. It is most seeming that Ibn Teimiya would never be expected to give Shias their due since he wronged their imam and leader. On page 344 of the same book, Al-Albani adds:
As I could perceive that Ibn Teimiya ruled the dubiety of the first half of the Prophet’s text, and decides the fabrication of the other, I had to write down these pages and prove authenticity of the text. As much as I could descry, such an exaggeration, issued by Ibn Teimiya, was raised due to his having been hasty in deciding inauthenticity of some prophetic texts before he studied and scrutinized.
Shias are completely inaccurate in their claiming the Prophet’s nominating Ali as his successor through this text and the like. This was one of the legion inventions the falsity of which has been proved by historical factualities. Supposing the Prophet had said such a thing, it should have been falling, since his words are ‘revelation that is revealed,’ and, finally, the Lord shall never break the promise.
While he criticizes Ibn Teimiya’s being hasty, we could notice that Al-Albani himself was hasty when he confused the legislative instruction with the divine prediction. Far away is the previous from the latter. Provided Al-Albani’s words had been right, the text he had already decided its accurate authenticity would have been invalid. In other words, the Prophet’s saying: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master,” that Al-Albani decides its authenticity, is also seen as ‘a revelation that is revealed.’ Hence, such a divine prediction, as Al-Albani decides through his forecited wording, should be befalling, and that Ali should be the master and leader of the Muslims who should behave like his slaves. However, this matter did not fall. On the contrary, they attacked the house of Ali and Fatima two, or three, days after the Prophet’s decease. They also threatened flaming the house if the lodgers would not come out and swear allegiance to the new leader. Finally, they coerced Ali on swearing his allegiance. All these events are as clear as the sun.
The Prophet’s saying: “Ali shall be my successor,” is as same as his saying: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master.” If the previous is adjudged as a divine prediction, as Al-Albani claims, the second should be, too. How is it then that the meaning, historically, was modified into forcing the master on swearing allegiance to the follower?
Both texts refer to a legislative instruction and a guide showing the Muslims their duties so that any other circumstance would not befall.
Second, while Al-Albani decides inauthenticity of the report dedicating Verse of Isma to the event of the congregational declaration of fealty in Ghadir, has he studies and scrutinized the reports, so that he would have the right to utter that most of these narratives are incompletely transmitted or problematic? Did he viewe ways of narrating the reports adopted by Athalebi, Abu Na’eem, Al-Wahidi, Abu Sa’eed As-Sejistani, Al-Hasakian at al? Did he scrutinize these ways of narration so that he could prove that most of them were either incompletely transmitted or problematic? Did he find that any of the narrators had been neglected by him? Finally, he might have repeated the same error of Ibn Teimiya whom he had criticized!
In any event, Al-Albani still has enough time to correct his errors. We hope he would write down his notes respecting the discussion of the exegesis of the Verse involved, and scrutinize, on his own criteria, ways of narration and documentation we have cited, provided that he would not contradict his previous wording, and evade deciding doubtfulness of a narrator for his referring to Ali’s merits, while he admits and relies on his other reports that relate merits of Ali’s rivals!!
The following are ways of documentation quoted from a single reference book, which is Shawahidut Tanzil, compiled by Al-Hakim Al-Hasakani, Abdullah Bin Abdillah Bin Ahmed Al-Amiri Al-Qirashi; the student of Al-Hakim An-Nisapuri.
On pages 250-7, he writes down:
244. Abu Abdillah Ad-Deinuri: Ahmed Bin Mohammed Bin Isaq Bin Ibrahim As-Sunni: Abdurrahaman Bin Ahamdan: Mohammed Bin Tohman Al-Absi: Ibrahim Bin Mohammed Bin Maymun: Ali Bin Abis: Al-Amash: Abul-Jihaf (Dawud Bin Abi Awf): Atiya: Abu Sa’eed Al-Khidri:
The Verse: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed…) was revealed for the affair of Ali Bin Abi Talib.
245. Al-Hakim Abu Abdillah Al-Hafiz: Ali Bin Abdirrahaman Bin Easa Ad-Dehqan (in Kufa): Al-Hussein Bin Al-Hakam Al-Hibri: Al-Kelbi: Abu Salih: Ibn Abbas:
The Verse: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed…) was revealed for the affair of Ali. Immediately after the revelation, the Prophet carried out. He took Ali from the hand and declared: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him.”
246. A group of people relate the narrative to Al-Hibri. In his Tafsir, As-Subeii records it. Another group of people relate it to Al-Kelbi. In my ten-volumed Duawul Hudat Ila Edai Haqqil Muwalat, I provide the numerous ways of the narration of the text involved.
247. Abu Bakr As-Sukkeri: Abu Amr Al-Miqeri: Al-Hassan Bin Sufian: Ahmed Bin Azhar: Abdurrahman Bin Amr Bin Jibilla: Omar Bin Nueim Bin Omar Bin Qeis Al-Masir: His grandfather: Abdullah Bin Abi Awfa:
On that day in Ghadir Khum, the Prophet recited the Verse, and raised his hands so upwardly that his armpits were seen. He addressed at us: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him and oppose whomever opposes him. O Allah! Be the witness.”
248. Amr Bin Mohammed Bin Ahmed Al-Adl: Zahir Bin Ahmed: Abu Bakr Mohammed Bin Yahya As-Sawli: Al-Mughira Bin Mohammed: Ali Bin Mohammed Bin Suleiman An-Nawfali: His father: Ziyad Bin Al-Munthir:
I was attendant when Abu Jafar Mohammed Bin Ali was instructing. A man named Othman Al-Asha, who was relating Al-Hassan Al-Basri’s instructions, asked Abu Jafar: “O son of God’s messenger! May God make me your ransom. As Al-Hassan recited God’s saying: (O Apostle! Deliver…,) he instructed that it was revealed for the affair of someone. He did not identify that one.”
“He would have told if he had wanted. Nevertheless, he anticipated misfortunes,” spoke Abu Jafar, and narrated:
Gabriel descended to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and carried the Lord’s orders of instructing people how to perform the prayers. The Prophet carried out. Then, he descended and conveyed the Lord’s orders of instructing people how to fast. The Prophet did. Then, he descended and conveyed the Lord’s instructions of leading people to their ritual pilgrimage. The Prophet did. Then, he descended carrying the Lord’s orders of leading people to their leader so that the Lord would have the perfect claim against them. The Prophet said: “O my Lord! My people have still born customs of Jahilism. They are filled in with rivalry and pride. Their leader has beheaded a single man, at least, from each house of my people. I do anticipate their dissidence.” Immediately, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message -so completely-, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)
As the Prophet (peace be upon him) guaranteed the Lord’s protection, he took Ali Bin Abi Talib from the hand and said: “O people! He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him, and give triumph to whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him, and cherish whomever cherishes him, and detest whomever detests him.”
(Othman Al-Asha:) This narration was the ever best thing I could gain during that journey.
249. Ali Bin Musa Bin Isaaq: Mohammed Bin Masud Bin Mohammed: Sahl Bin Bahr: Al-Fadl Bin Shathan: Mohammed Bin Abi Omeir: Omar Bin Utheina: Al-Kelbi: Abu Salih: Ibn Abbas and Jabir Bin Abdillah:
The Prophet (peace be upon him) anticipated that people would criticize and revile at him when he would convey his Lord’s instructions of nominating Ali as the next leader. He expected them to accuse him of favoring his cousin for personal aims. Hence, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…) Immediately, the Prophet declared the next leadership of Ali on that day in Ghadir Khum.
250. Mohammed Bin Al-Qasim Bin Ahmed: Abu Jafar Mohammed Bin Ali Al-Faqih: His father: Sa’d Bin Abdillah: Ahmed Bin Abdillah Al-Berqi: His father: Khalaf Bin Ammar Al-Asadi: Abul-Hassan Al-Abdi: Al-Amash: Ebaya Bin Rabi: Abudullah Bin Abbas:
…and that I am to assign a vizier for each prophet. You are the Apostle of Allah, and Ali is your vizier.”
As people have just converted to Islam, the Prophet evaded informing them of that mandate. Six days after the incident, God; the Exalted, revealed: (Then, it may be that you will give up a part of what is revealed to you and your breast will become straitened by it…)
The Prophet could tolerate for more eighteen days when God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)
For that reason, the Prophet directed Bilal -the formal declarant- to inform people that none will be excused if he shuns being in Ghadir Khum the next day. The Prophet orated: “O people! My Lord has ordered me of conveying His message to you. I was wavering since I anticipated that you would accuse and belie. Therefore, the Lord blamed me. He threatened a punishment frequently.”
The Prophet then took Ali Bin Abi Talib from the hand, and raised it so upwardly that the armpits were seen, and declared: “O people! Allah is my Master. I am your master. He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him, and give triumph to whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him.” Concurrently, God revealed: (This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favor on you and…)
THE PROPHET’S PROGENY’S OPINION
Al-Ayashi’s Tafsir; 1/331:
Ibn Abbas and Jabir Bin Abdillah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) anticipated that people would criticize and revile at him when he would convey his Lord’s instructions of nominating Ali as the next leader. He expected them to accuse him of favoring his cousin for personal aims. Hence, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…
Abu Jafar (peace be upon him) spoke: The Lord ordered of five precepts. People applied four and neglected one. People were unaware of time of performing prayers. Gabriel descended to the Prophet and conveyed the Lord’s orders of instructing people their prayers. Then came the poor rate. Then came the fasting. On the tenth of Moharram, the Prophet instructed people of the neighboring villages to fast. Later on, Ramadan, the month between Shaban and Shawal, was identified for fasting. Then came rites of the pilgrimage. “As you have taught them their prayers, poor rates and fasting, you are now to instruct them how to pilgrimage,” Gabriel conveyed to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).
Finally, the mandate of fealty was revealed. Perfection of the religion was materialized through the mandate of loyalty to the leadership of Ali Bin Abi Talib. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) narrated the occasion:
When the mandate of loyalty to Ali was revealed to me, I thought that as my people had been fresh Muslims, they would accuse me of favoring my cousin for personal purposes. Forthwith, God threatened a punishment if I neglect. He revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)
Immediately, the Prophet took Ali (peace be upon him) from the hand and declared: “O people! Like the other prophets, I am to answer the invitation of my Lord after He has given me this age. You, as well as I, shall be interrogated. What will your answer be?”
“We do admit you have conveyed, advised and consummated. May God satisfy you with the best reward of the messengers,” acknowledged people.
“O God! Be the witness,” the Prophet repeated thrice, and added, “O Muslims! This shall be your leader after me. The attendants should carry this to the absent.”
Biharul Anwar; 94/300:
… A group of Shias and adherents of the Prophet’s progeny were attendant before Abu Abdillah Jafar Bin Mohammed (peace be upon him), when he spoke: “Do you know the day in which the Lord constructed Islam, and exhibited illumination of the religion, and made it a festivity for our adherents, Shias and us?”
“God, His Apostle and son of the Apostle are the most knowledgeable. Is it the Fitr Day, our master?” asked they.
“No, it is not,” answered Abu Abdillah.
“Is it then the Adha Day?” asked they.
“No,” answered the imam, and spoke:
“However, these are two holy and noble days. Day of illumination of the religion is holier and nobler. It is the eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijja. On the noontime of that day when the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) arrived in Ghadir Khum, in his journey back from the Farewell Pilgrimage, Gabriel descended, carrying the Lord’s instruction of declaring Amirul Muminin’s mastership and next leadership. The Angel said: ‘In this very day, you are to declare Ali’s mastership on this nation, so that he shall be the next leader to whom people should refer. He will be representing you.’ ‘O Gabriel, my dear!’ said the Prophet, ‘I anticipate that my companions will dissent since they detest him for his killing their people, and will unveil their hiddens.’
The angel carried the Prophet’s words and, immediately, came back with God’s saying: O Apostle! Deliver…
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was so apprehensive and distressed when he gave the orders of sweeping the place under these trees. His feet were sore for the great heat of the sun. He declared that Muslims should gather in that place. They, including Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and the rest of the Muhajirs and Ansar, approached together before him. He sermonized and referred to the coming leadership of Ali, and imposed it upon the entire people. He also informed that it had been God’s mandate.”
An-Numan Al-Maghribi’s Daeimul Islam; 1/14:
A man spoke to Abu Jafar Mohammed Bin Ali (peace be upon him) that Al-Hassan Al-Basri had informed of the Prophet’s saying: “I became distressed and disturbed when the Lord ordered me of conveying a message. I anticipate that people would belie me. The Lord, however, threatened a punishment if I do it not.”
Abu Jafar asked the man whether Al-Hassan Al-Basri had acquainted them of the tenor of that message. The man answered negatively. “By God I swear, he did realize that tenor, but he concealed it deliberately,” stated Abu Jafar (peace be upon him). “O son of God’s messenger!” the man asked, “May God make me your ransom. What was that tenor?”
Abu Jafar stated: The believers were unaware of the style they had been ordered of performing through the Lord’s Book. Hence, the Lord directed His Apostle; Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), to explain. The Prophet did not conceal a single word.
Similarly, the Lord ordered of defraying the poor rate. People did not have any acquaintance of that poor rate. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) explained so, when he allocated gold, silver, camels, cows, sheep and yields as the only things applicable to the poor rate. The Prophet left nothing unexplored.
People lacked knowledge of style of fasting imposed upon them. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) explicated everything evidently.
As the Lord imposed the ritual pilgrimage, He directed the Prophet to instruct them how to perform.
Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, ordered of adhering to the fealty to the Prophet’s household. He revealed: (Only Allah is your master and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow.) As God imposed the fealty to the leadership identified, people were unfamiliar of sort of that fealty. Like the prayer, the poor rate, the fasting and the pilgrimage, the Lord ordered His Apostle of explicating the meaning of fealty to the leadership. This charge disturbed the Prophet since he anticipated that people would dissent their beliefs and belie him. Hence, he sought the Lord’s relief. Immediately, God revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)
After that, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) showed no blemish in declaring the obligatory fealty to the leadership of Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him). That was on that day in Ghadir Khum. He also imposed the attendants to carry this obligation to the absent.
The precepts were revealed gradually. The seal of that precepts was the obligatory fealty to the leadership of Ali. For this reason, God revealed: (This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.) This means that the Lord would not legislate any more precept, since He has completed them.
(Another narration) The Prophet stated: “I enjoin those whoever believed in Allah, and believed and gave credence to me; I enjoin them of adhering to the leadership of Ali Bin Abi Talib. Loyalty to Ali is being as same as loyalty to me. This is a command and a covenant I have received from my Lord Who directed me to carry it to you.
The first narration is also recorded in Sharhul Akhbar; 1/101. A similar narration is registered on page 276 of part 2 of the same book.
The following is recorded in that book:
… “O Gabriel!” the Prophet addressed at the angel, “My people are fresh. They have just converted from Jahilism. I anticipate they would relapse.” The Lord soon revealed: (O Apostle! Deliver…
Hence, the Prophet had to gather people in Ghadir Khum. He sermonized: “O people! I became disturbed for the Lord’s ordering me of conveying a message to you. But He threatened a punishment if I would shun. Have you known that Allah; the Powerful the Elevated, is my Master, and that I am the master and the leader of the Muslims to whom souls I am preceded?” “Yes, we have,” admitted people. The Prophet took Ali from the hand and raised him, saying: “He whosever master was I, Ali shall be his master. And whosever leader was I, Ali shall be his leader. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him and give triumph to whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him, and make the right follow him wherever he turns.”
These words imposed fealty to Ali (peace be upon him) upon each male and female Muslim.
A similar narration is recorded in Al-Ayashi’s Tafsir; 1/333.
More narratives are to be cited during the coming discussion of Verse of Ikmaluddin -perfection of the religion-. In the Shiite reference books of hadith, these narrative are so much and authentic that they are ruled as continuous.
GENERAL REMARKS REGARDING THE OTHER OPINIONS
Except for At-Tirmithi, who records the narration regarding the surveillance practiced on the Prophet, and decides it as a one-way strange report, none of the most remarkable Sunni hadithists refer to the exegesis of Verse of Isma. Yet, Al-Bukhari allots two titles for the Verse. First is on page 88 of part 5, in which he records Aisha’s report about the conveyance and evading concealment, and the second is on page 9 of part 8, in which he records Az-Zuhri’s narration about the Prophet’s conveyance. In addition, Al-Bukhari records two other reports respecting the Verse, on page 50 of part 6 and page 210 of part 8. On page 110 of part 1, Muslim records a report respecting the Verse.
As a matter of fact, such a negligence does not prove or indicate inauthenticity or dubiety of the report. Numerous are the authentic reports that are not recorded in the most remarkable books of hadith. And more are the inauthentic that are written down in such books. The most important matter is that compilers of the most remarkable books of hadith exert all efforts for refuting the Prophet’s progeny’s sect. They do realize that Verse of Isma is an evident on accuracy of the Prophet’s progeny’s sect. For detaining the Shias narrations, they would have repeatedly narrated and recorded any report that refuted so if only they had any.
For this reason, it is obvious that they neglected recording such reports for their claiming dubiety of their documentation, their context, or contradiction of their texts. They aimed at creating a number of problematic matters for each. Hence, they had to evade refuting the Shias’ narratives and the Sunnis’ that are concordant. As a result, such narratives are not objected in the six most remarkable Sunni reference books of hadith.
Except the period of Farewell Pilgrimage, the entire twenty-three years of the Prophet’s solicitation were covered through the various Sunni narratives respecting the revelation of the Verse. The excluded period, in fact, is the very time in which the Verse was revealed. This fact arises the question that eluding referring to the exact period in which the Verse was revealed, was the purpose beyond expansion of these narratives.
For the Shiite reference books of hadith, the entire reports that referred to the revelation of the Verse bring up, assuredly and convictionally, the same reason and date. On the other hand, the Sunni reference books bear contrary reasons in varied dates that their scholars could not get rid of perplexity and suspect. The six most remarkable Sunni reference books of hadith escape recording any of these narratives some of which support the Prophet’s progeny’s opinions, aside from seeking the blessing of the Quraishi caliphs.
As a rule, when Muslims entirely, including the Prophet’s progeny, identify a definite reason and date for the revelation of a Quranic text, while others refer to miscellaneous reasons and dates, we can surely understand that the reason unanimously admitted should be the preferred in adoption and issuing rulings.
EVALUATION OF THE OPPOSING OPINIONS
First Question: The Matter To Be Delivered.
The Verse is meaningless unless the verb ‘revealed’ is seen to consider a past incident. Grammar of the Verse, however, refers to this point. The tense of the sentence indicates a previous incident. Besides, no other element may hint at a coming revelation. Secondly, the Verse was revealed in the final months of the Prophet’s lifetime. Supposing the verb ‘revealed’ refers to a coming matter, this should mean that there should be a matter to be revealed in the next period. This meaning is wholly refused by the entire reports, as well as the Shiite and Sunni scholars.
When the tense shows a previous revelation that the Prophet should deliver, this proves that the Prophet has already received a heavy mandate to deliver, and that he has been conceiving of the way of its conveyance. Hence, the Verse was revealed to stop the Prophet’s anticipations, and give him the order of delivering as soon as possible, disregarding whether people would admit or refute. He was also relieved that they should not apostatize and that he would be guarded against them. This is the exegesis adopted by the Prophet’s progeny and supported by a number of the Sunni reports.
Second Question: Confirmation Of The Case And Its Conditions.
It is so vague for any to say: “You should convey the messages I shall give to you, and if you do it not, I shall not name you a conveyor.” This sentence does not need that case of condition, since it is logically understandable that the characteristic of being conveyor is null if the one to bear the message is not going to convey them. The stated sentence, then, shall be ruled as meaningless.
If there is a remarkable message to deliver, it will be quite true to say to the formal conveyor: “I will not regard you as a conveyor of my previous messages that you have already carried, if you avoid carrying this most remarkable one.”
Tafsirul Mizan; 6/49:
Style of the sentence is stated in a form of threat. It insinuates the importance of the judgment. It is formed in the pattern that if the message intended was neglected and not carried to people, the other parts of the religion would be regarded as if he had not conveyed. God’s saying: (If you do it not, then you have not delivered his message,) is a conditional clause that elucidates the importance of the condition in its occurrence or nonoccurrence, since the most important reward relies upon that occurrence or nonoccurrence. It is not an ordinary conditional clause which is usually used for specifying the result of an unknown matter. For God, this is inapplicable, since He does realize results and everything. The Quran does not have probabilities whether the Prophet will convey or not.
Third Question: Sort Of The Prophet’s Fear.
The Prophet anticipated that the divine message would be in danger. He was too brave to fear an assassination or injury, since he was pious, courageous and sinless.
Since the earlier days of the prophesy, the Apostle was foretold of the arduousness of the responsibility of prophesy and conveyance, and the jeopardous detriment he would suffer. Hence, he (peace be upon him and his family) anticipated dangers, injuries and difficulties. Accordingly, it is trivial to believe that the Prophet showed any defect or laziness at any period of his solicitation, that he was threatened and reposed.
Finally, the Prophet had apprehensions that people might apostatize and reject his progeny’s imamate and leadership, and consider the question of nominating Ali for the next leadership as a personal decision.
Fourth Question: The Interpretation Of ‘People’.
Al-Fakhr Ar-Razi’s Tafsir; 6/12/50:
As God ends the Verse with (surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people,) it is understandable that ‘people’ mentioned in the Verse refers to the unbelieving ones exclusively.
This opinion is unacceptable. The word ‘people’ cannot be consecrated to a definite group since the Verse shows that the Lord will protect His Apostle against all people. Ar-Razi then made a mistake when he perceived that meaning of the Verse was that the Lord would protect the Prophet against the unbelieving ones whom should not be guided to the right path. A good deal of meanings can be inferred from the relation between ‘people’ and ‘the unbelieving ones.’ The meaning might be: (God will protect you against the whole people, and He will not guide those who intend to hurt you, since they are unbelievers.) It also might be: (Deliver the message, and Allah will protect you against people, and the rejectors, who are decided as unbelievers, shall not be guided by Allah.)
The latter is the most preferable, since it is supported by a prophetic text recorded on page 139 of part 8 of Al-Bukhari’s Sahih:
Abu Hureira: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “My people, entirely, shall be in the Paradise saving the rejectors.” “Who are the rejectors, God’s messenger?” asked people. “He shall be in the Paradise that whoever obeys me. And he shall be with the rejectors that whoever disobeys,” explained the Prophet.
The comprehensive and logical meaning of ‘people’ fits the source of injury and danger, which was not dedicated to the unbelievers only. The Prophet was also antagonized by the hypocrites who were among his people. We have already elucidated that the danger intended by the Verse was, to great extent, that of the hypocrites. Ar-Razi, however, aims at removing the style of censure addressed at the Quraishi hypocrites, and wants to take that divine mandate away from leadership of Ali Amirul Muminin (peace be upon him).
Fifth Question: Meaning Of Protection Against People.
The promised protection intended in the Verse should be befitting the amount of danger the Prophet expected. It should stand for the protection against people’s suspecting the prophesy and accusing him of favoring his household, and nominating his progeny for the coming leadership. One of the most famed saying the Quraishis used to utter, was that Mohammed (peace be upon him) intended to give prophesy and leadership to the Hashemites exclusively, so that the other clans of Quraish would be taken away. It was not the Prophet’s concern to nominate for the prophesy or the coming leadership.
This is the meaning befitting the amount of danger expected by the Prophet who, constantly, was thinking of the anticipated actions that might occur when he would declare the next leadership of Ali Amirul Muminin.
Unlike claim of the other opinions, the protection intended in the Verse does not stand for protecting the Prophet against being assassinated, hurt or injured. It is a guarantee of saving the prophesy against the Quraishis. This is evidenced by the fact that the Prophet’s surveillance was not changed after that event. Likewise, danger and harm were not changed. It was augmented!
In abstract, the protection mentioned in the Verse intends saving the Prophet’s advocacy in his nation who could rarely accept the matter, that they decided mutiny. Hence, the recognized amount of concept of that protection is surviving the prophesy and consummating the Lord’s claim against people. It is unlike that divine sinlessness the Prophet enjoyed in his deeds, words and the entire behavior.
The Exalted Lord fulfilled His promise. On that day in Ghadir, the Prophet nominated Ali for the next leadership, and asked people to offer him congratulations on the divine leadership. People did without arising any sort of rejection.
Nevertheless, as soon as the Prophet was deceased, they took Ali and his progeny away from positions of leadership. Moreover, they had his house on fire and obliged him to declare fealty to their acquaintance
QUESTIONS INVOLVING THE VERSE
There are two questions involving the Verse of Islam, I am to discuss briefly.
First Question: Using The Verse As A Weapon Against Ali.
The entire Muslims testify that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) conveyed what he had received from his Lord perfectly. They also testify that he suffered what no other prophet had. After all, Sunnis accused Shias of claiming the Prophet’s concealing some matters. As an answer, they cited Verse of Isma. We seek God’s protection against such a claim!
Al-Qurtubi’s Tafsir; 6/243:
He is fabricating that whoever claims the Prophet’s concealing any of the revelation. The Lord says: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people.) Deformed be the Rafidites! They claim that the Prophet (peace be upon him) concealed some of the revelation people needed.
Al-Qastalani’s Irshadus Sari; 7/106:
… This is contrary to the Shias’ wording. They claimed the Prophet’s concealing some of the revealed issued, applying circumspection.
It seems that this accusal is inferred from Aisha’s famous saying: “He is forging the greatest lies against the Lord, that whoever claims the Prophet’s concealing any of the Lord’s book.” This saying is intended to refute and belie Ali (peace be upon him).
Ali affirmed that he had been the Prophet’s heir and that he had his wording and the heritage that were different from the Quran. Ali had such a comprehensive book that it included everything needed by people even amount of the compensation for a violated retaliation of a scratch. Ali also asserted that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had foretold him of the coming misfortunes his progeny would have to counter, even the attack on his house and setting it on fire. Ali asserted that the Prophet instructed what to do during such situation.
For us; the Shias, we do believe so. In our, as well as the Sunni, reference books of hadith, tens of reports carry the unique standing and status of Ali. Others relate the special prophetic care for him that prove the Lord’s mandate of bringing him up in peculiar way fit enough for transferring his prophetic knowledge to him. Moreover, Ali was given exclusive characters, qualifications and inspiration. We also believe that Ali tells nothing but the truth, even when the matter concerns himself and his progeny
As-Suyouti’s Ad-Durrul Manthour; 6/260:
… The Prophet addressed at Ali: “Allah gives me the orders of favoring you, and avoiding keeping you away, and teaching you that you will perceive. And you shall perceive.” For these words, God revealed: (And a retaining ear will retain it.)
Abu Naeem’s Hilyetul Awliya:
The Prophet addressed at Ali: “You are the retaining ear that perceives my knowledge.”
Hutheifa Bin Al-Yeman, who was one of Ali’s followers, was the keeper of the Prophet’s secret in the concern of distinguishing the hypocrites. Whereas Ali was the keeper of the entire secrets and knowledge of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). The whole hadithists relate the Prophet’s foretelling Ali of the coming fighting against the breachers, the unjust and the deviate, for the interpretation of the Quran.
Some of the Prophet’s instructions, given to Ali exclusively, were familiar during his lifetime. One of these was that he would record his wrongedness and manifest his claim and avoid fighting for the position of leadership. Had this fact been null, they would never have such a bravery when they attacked Ali’s house and arrested and obliged him to declare fealty to the new leadership!
Ali was a miracle and an unparalleled phenomenon of might and courage. He planted horror and panic in people’s hearts. Most of those who participated in that attack were so coward that they could not record any situation of courage during battles. As soon as Ali unsheathes his Dhu’l-Feqar, none of such cowardly people, or anyone else, had hearts can stop in his face. Hence, they were sure that he would not unsheathe his sword, and he would act according to the Prophet’s will even if Az-Zahra would be beaten and her baby would be aborted.
In due course, the pro-Quraishis and their masters refute Ali’s claim of having the Prophet’s heritage and knowledge. They deny that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) left anything for his family; no knowledge, no properties entailed in mortmain and no assets. On that account, Abu Bakr confiscated Fadak which the Prophet endowed to Fatima (peace be upon him) when God revealed: (And give the near of kin his due.)
The ruling authorities exceeded the limits when they claimed atheism of those who averred that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had instructed them peculiarly. Aisha’s forecited wording is the evidence those ruling authorities used for refuting Ali’s claims.
Aisha: “He is fabricating that whoever claims the Prophet’s concealing any of what was revealed. God says: O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you…
Al-Bukhari repeats the same on pages 50 and 210 of parts 6 and 8. The same is recorded in Muslim’s; 1/10, and At-Tirmithi’s; 4/328… etc.
At any rate, this process practiced by the ruling authorities and Ali’s rivals, included two flaws regarding expansion of meanings of the matter to be conveyed and the parties to receive that conveyance. In addition, the process comprised a misrepresentation of the saying of Ali and his adherents; the Shias.
It is untrue that the Prophet was ordered of conveying everything, he had been given, to people. The Prophet’s knowledge that is received via revelation, inspiration and divine views is too comprehensive to be carried to people. It is impracticable that the Lord dictate so, since people, even the faithful, are too incompetent to receive such knowledge.
Secondly, some instructions were addressed at specific individuals. Hence, the Prophet did not carry them to the public. This is evidenced by God’s saying: (And speak to them privately effectual words.)
Neither Ali nor did any of his adherents claim the Prophet’s showing any shortcoming in carrying the Lord’s message. They claimed that he (peace be upon him and his family) took people’s mentalities and competence of intellectual reception in consideration during carrying the divine message. Therefore, Ali was so receptive that the Prophet delivered him an additional and peculiar knowledge, as the Lord instructs. Unlike opinions of Al-Qurtubi and Al-Qastalani, this concept is far away from any accusal of showing shortcoming during conveying the Lord’s words. The matter was no more than a supplementary conveyance addressed at Ali, Az-Zahra, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them).
Furthermore, Ali and his adherents assert that the Prophet conveyed numerous matters respecting his progeny and many other subjects. Hence, they claim a prophetic conveyance more comprehensive that that claimed by the Quraishi caliphate and their adherents.
The pro-Quraishis used to wrong and forge lies against Ali. In the same time, they overlook Omar’s statement that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had not clarified a number of Quranic texts, such as those regarding Kelala and usury.* as a matter of fact, this is an apparent accusation of the Prophet’s showing blemish in explaining God’s revealed texts.
In abstract, the Prophet’s selecting Ali for specific revealed matters does not violate his carrying out the Lord’s instructions, since this question is enlisted under the same title of conveying the Lord’s mandate. In like manner, it does not violate the question of circumspection applied by the Prophet with definite men of Quraishi and other tribes. The Prophet carried the instructions of using wisdom, circumspection and nicety for achieving goals of Islam.
Imam Jafar As-Sadiq: The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “As my Lord orders me of performing the precepts, He orders of using nicety with people.”
Abu Huraira: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “Directly after believing in God comes nicety to people as the acme of intellectuality.”
Bureida: I was attendant before the Prophet (peace be upon him) when a Quraishi man came, and was warmly welcomed. “O Bureida!” addressed the Prophet when the man left, “Do you know this man?” “Yes,” I answered, “I do know him. He is the best of Quraish in lineage and wealth. This is my opinion, what about yours, God’s messenger?” said I. “This is one of those whom shall be worthless on the Judgment Day,” stated the Prophet.
Al-Bukhari allots more than one title in regard with question of using nicety with people. On page 102 of part 7 of his Sahih, Al-Bukhari writes down:
Abud-Derda: We do smile in the faces of some people, while our hearts curse them.
Aisha: “Let him in. He is the worst among his clan,” the Prophet said as he permitted a man to see him. He then received him easily with nice words. When the man left, I sought an explanation from the Prophet. He said: “O Aisha! The most evil people are those whom are received nicely for the sake of avoiding their evil.”
An-Nisapuri’s Al-Waseet; 2/208:
When he was in Mecca, the Prophet used to hide some Verses, since he anticipated evil of the polytheists against his companions and himself.
For us; the Shias, we do believe that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) did explanatorily convey the entire revealed matters so perfectly. We also believe that the Lord instructed him to speak to people according to the degree of their perceptions and intellectualities. Some could not sustain more than the general elucidation, while others could. Ali (peace be upon him) was a first class man with regard to intellectuality. The Lord instructed His Apostle to give him more explanation. Ali was granted unique memory, intellectuality and tongue. Finally, he was made the retaining ear that receives understandably the Prophet’s wording.
We are indeed not those who accuse the Prophet of concealing a part of the revealed matters. Before us are their most remarkable books of hadith that are filled with reports uttering that Omar asserted the Prophet’s concealing explanation of some Verses, such as those of Kelala and usury. Meanwhile, these Verses formed an obligatory canon.
Second Question: The Verse Refutes The Claim Of The Prophet’s Bewitchment.
A group of scholars from both sects cite Verse of Isma as an evidence refuting the claim of the Prophet’s bewitchment. A number of narratives storied that a Jew bewitched the Prophet when he could take his comb and some hairs, and bury them in a well after he had spelled bewitchery on them. This bewitchery influenced the Prophet so heavily that he imagined doing some acts. The Prophet kept on this state till a man or an angel or Gabriel led him to the place of that well. He destructed that well since he had been already cured from the bewitchment, and that he had not wanted to arise a problem.
This false accusal is related to Aisha according to Al-Bukhari’s report recorded in five positions of his book. For instance, it is recorded on pages 91 and 68 of part 4. It is also recorded on pages 28-9 and 164 of part 7. Muslim and many others record the same.
The entire Shiite scholars refute this accusal. A few Sunni scholars had the courage to refute. They cite Verse of Isma as one of their evidences.
At-Tusi’s Tafsirut Tibian; 1/384:
Reports that related tale of the Prophet’s bewitchment are inconsiderate and baseless. The Prophet are too elevated to have such a characteristic of imperfection that lead to the receivers’ rejecting his instructions. He is the Lord’s claim against creatures, and His choice among His servants. Due to the Lord’s wisdom, the Prophet was selected. He was saved from vulgarity and harshness, in addition to any ill behaviour. Except those who discount the Prophet’s real characters, How can anyone dare to ascribe such tainted matters to him? Moreover, the Lord says: (And Allah will protect you against people.) He also shows falsehood of those who said: (You are following but a bewitched man.)
Ibn Idris Al-Ujeli’s As-Serair; 3/534:
Unanimously, we prove that the Prophet was never bewitched. This is evidenced by God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you against people.) Some of the opposite parties believe that he was bewitched. This is contrary to the Glorified Revelation.
Al-Mejlisi’s Biharul Anwar; 60/38:
… Providing that had been right, the sorcerers would have injured the whole prophets and pious men. Similarly, they would have had the greatest standing for themselves. This is contrary to God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) and (And a magician shall not be successful wheresoever he may come from.) At length, the atheists imputed bewitchment to the Prophet, while they did realize their being liars.
An-Nawawi; the Sunni scholar, was one of those who refuted the accusal. In his Al-Majmu; 19/243, he writes down:
…Reports regarding the Prophet’s bewitchment should be refuted since they support the atheists’ accusing him of bewitchment. It is also contrary to the Quranic texts that belied them.
Al-Qadi: Such narratives are false. It is impracticable to admit them while the Lord says: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) and (And a magician shall not be successful wheresoever he may come from.) Giving credence to such narratives leads to libeling the prophesy. Had that been right, the entire prophets and pious people should have been influenced by bewitchery.
Ar-Razi’s Tafsir; 16/32/187:
Majority of Muslims adopt the Prophet’s being bewitched by Labid Bin Assam; the Jew. Mutazilites, totally, refute this saying. It is impracticable to regard authenticity of such a claim since it contradicts God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people.)…
The forecited scholars form only a minority of the Sunni scholars majority of whom do admit this fabrication. Root of the problem is that they cannot refute words and reports of Aisha and Al-Bukhari at any circumstance. Likewise, they never permit any to scrutinize or criticize such reports. This trend carried tens of varied doctrinal problems to them. These doctrinal problems comprised monotheism, prophesy and intercession. Reports respecting the headmost revelation and Waraqa Bin Nawfal, reports of ‘the handsome pagans’ that Suleiman Rushdi betook as a principal for his The Satanic Verses and reports regarding the Prophet’s being bewitched by the Jews are cited as examples on their blind imitation. As we have already cited, they were perplexed since none had been brave enough to declare that such reports are falsely ascribed to Aisha, or women’s dreams!!
In abstract, the accusal is originally contrary to the prophesy. Atheists are the root of that accusation. This fact is proved by a Quranic text. Citing Verse of Isma as the refutation of the forecited accusal is seen as baseless, since it can be claimed that the Verse was revealed in the final stage of the Prophet’s lifetime while the occurrence, as they claim, came before that time.
As much as our exegesis is concerned, we see that the recognized amount of concept of the protection is guarding the Prophet against apostasy of the Quraishis, together with the Muslims, during his lifetime, unless there is a matter evidencing its comprising another matter.
Sunni exegesists and scholars discuss the protection mentioned in the Verse in such a prolonged and thoroughgoing way that they do not miss any point that is pertinent or irrelevant. They suffer such a toilsome undertaking owing to their erroneous exegesis, and their misthinking that the Prophet’s protection stands for guarding him against assassination, poisoning, injury or harm.
In due course, they apprehend that the Verse is contrary to the narratives relating that the Prophet’s decease was due to having a morsel from the meat of a poisoned ewe served by a Jewess. The narrative states that Gabriel descended to inform of reality of that meat. Hence, the Prophet ceased, but a drop of that poison that lied in the single morsel he had had, was the reason beyond his decease the next year.
Q. How is it possible to admit God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people,) and the narrative -of the Prophet’s being deceased due to the poisoning of that Jewess- that denies the Prophet’s protection?
A. The Verse was revealed in the year of the battle of Tabuk, while the poisoning occurred before so, in Kheibar.
They also refer to a number of questions pertaining to the Verse. One of these is that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) longed for martyrdom, while the Verse guarantees safety from killing. How is it workable for him to long for something he realizes impossibility of its occurrence?
Fetihul Bari Fi Sharhi Sahihil Bukhari; 8/2644:
Abu Hureira: I heard the Prophet say: “By the Prevailing of my soul, I wish I were to be killed for the sake of Allah.”
Commnetation: Some exegesists showed preservations against ascribing this text to the Prophet (peace be upon him), since it is impracticable for him to long for martyrdom while he does realize that he is protected against countering killing. Ibnut-Tin answers: The statement might have been said before the revelation of God’s saying: (And Allah will protect you from the people.) This is in accurate. The Verse was revealed during the Prophet’s early residence in Al-Madina. While Abu Hureira, who attests that he heard the statement directly from the Prophet, arrived there in the first days of the seventh year after the Prophet’s immigration.
On the other hand, it seems that longing for a virtuous matter does not necessarily require probability of its occurrence. It can be averred that the Prophet aimed for urging the Muslims on jihad. This opinion, however, is the most acceptable.
Some claim that Abu Hureira added ‘I wish’ to the Prophetic text. This opinion seems unsatisfactory.
It is to add that if the previous prophetic text was authentic, the Prophet’s wish would be applicable. The Verse guarantees that people would not apostatize during the Prophet’s lifetime. It is irrelevant to guaranteeing that the Prophet would not be assassinated, injured or hurt. On the contrary, God’s saying: (And Mohammed is no more than an apostle; the apostles have already passed away before him. If he then dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels,) indicates that the Prophet would not to die so normally, since the Lord made the sort of His Apostle’s decease inconspicuous. Besides, the Lord identifies natural death and assassination as the two sorts that the Prophet would counter. The only interpretation of God’s confusing the sort of His Apostle’s death is that He; the Elevated, knows that the Prophet would be killed or suffering a quasi-assassination.