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The Political Leadership in Islam

By:
Ahmad Husain Yaqub

1. REGULATIONS OF THE SOCIETY MOVEMENT
Like any other political society, the Islamic is bound by two main regulations:
The first regulation is the divine jurisprudential formulation. It is the doctrine that represents the law efficacious in the Islamic society. It is the general and the detailed outlining that totally covers the entire fields of the Islamic society. Namely, it is the central pharmacy that contains the curative remedy of every ailment that may act upon that society. This formulation comprises the hypothetical, as well as the applicable, bases of every malady and remedy, and provides a proved guarantee of the potency and the effectuality of this treatment. Moreover, this formulation is so highly designed that it covers the lives of individuals, families, societies, countries and the world as a whole. It is also designed to line up societies, lead them to cooperation and harmony and satisfy their material and mental needs.
The second regulation is the political leadership decided by the doctrine. Pursuant to the rules of the divine political formulation, this authority is empowered to submit the movement of the Islamic society to these rules. To wit, the authority stands for the engineer who is fully acquainted of the detailed and the general outlining of the divine doctrine, or the physician who supplies physical services, prescribes the remedy and the way of taking it and, finally, watches how the unhealthy takes it till the achievement of recovery. He is, also, the hypothesizer of the divine political formulation and the general supervisor on the applications and the authority to whom people should refer in understanding the ruling and their aims. This is by the reason that that authority is being the most familiar with the rulings and the aims of the divine formulation, the most favorable and the fittest for leading the followers of that doctrine.
It is to add that that authority is the explicator, of the formulation, whose mission is communicating and conveying it as exactly as he has received from his Lord, and applying its texts into factuality. He is the witness on the process of the hypothetical and applicable explication of the formulation. He is the foreteller of the individuals loyal to the doctrine, and the warner of those impeding it. He is the solicitor to Allah and the illuminated lamp that lights up the course of the society during its movements.
2. HARMONY AND PERFECTION BETWEEN THE DIVINE DOCTRINE AND THE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
The Islamic divine doctrine is, totally and fundamentally, relied upon two basic pillars; the revealed Book of Allah -the Holy Quran- and Allah's Apostle, Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). He is the political leader whom is divinely authorized of leading the solicitation of the advocacy and designated for leading the government derived from that solicitation. This means that the political leadership of the solicitation and the government established on its basis are inseparable parts of the doctrine. In the same way, the political leadership of Saul was an inseparable part of the doctrine operative at that time. The same thing can be said about the leadership of David and Solomon, the prophets.
Pursuant to the natural criteria, it is impractical to solicit the divine doctrine and explicate and implement its rulings without the political leadership of Mohammed. He is the only individual authorized to interpret the texts of that doctrine into application. Thus, he himself did this job through the solicitation he called for and the government established as a result of that solicitation. He was the pivot and base of the political leadership to whom position of authority of both solicitation and government had been designated.
This pertinent and constitutive dependence and perfection is sustained by the fact that God, the Exalted, had never revealed a -divine- missive to mankind without an apostle, and had never revealed a -divine- book without the existence of an individual the mission of whom was guiding the believers with respect to the rulings of that book. Had it been useful to disunite the interrelated bind between the divine doctrine and the political leadership -the missive and the apostle-, it would have been elementary for God to reveal copies of the divine book to each sane individual through which He, the Elevated, would have enjoined of applying the rulings given. By the same token, there would not have been need for selecting thousands of apostles, prophets and guides.
On the intellectual, logical, religious and natural criteria, the disunity of the interrelation and perfection between the divine doctrine and the political leadership is inapplicable. Similarly, adherence to the Quran and neglecting the political leadership is a matter out of the circle of reasoning. Unanimously, those who believe in Quran and disbelieve in Mohammed as a political and religious leader, are decided as disbelievers. Those who believe in Mohammed as the political leadership and neglect the Quran are, correspondingly decided as disbelievers. Giving credence to the divine doctrine as the effective law, and Mohammed as the religious and political leader whose mission is guiding the believers through that effective law, is among the fundamental bases of faith.
The political leadership, consequently, is the instituting body whose responsibility is explicating the doctrine and guiding the followers according to the rulings of that doctrine. Like doctoring, atomics and engineering, the approaches of explicating the doctrine and guiding the followers are completely procedures of specialization. It is unfeasible to leave such missions to fancies and individual hypotheses.
QUALIFICATIONS OF THE DOCTRINAL POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), as being the first political and religious leader of Islam, should be taken as the guide and the exemplar of that political leadership. Those who take the position of leadership were characterized as the Prophet's successors. Hence, being the most knowledgeable, the keenest of the divine doctrine and its rulings, the most favorable and the fittest, politically and religiously, have been the qualifications of the Prophet's political and religious leadership. Our evidence is that it was God, the Elevated, Who nominated him for joining political leadership to the religious. No single Muslim can protest against this fact.
Thereupon, any political or religious leadership succeeding the Prophet should be carrying the same qualifications. Hence, the leader succeeding the Prophet should be:
1. The most knowledgeable of the divine doctrine.
2. The keenest to the rulings of the divine doctrine.
3. The most favorable among the followers of that divine doctrine, and
4. The fittest for guiding the followers.
These are positive criteria, orderly prospects and finite purposes of every individual intending but the right and disdaining humors. It is for the good of believers -in Islam- entirely that the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest should guide them. In a like manner, it is for none's good that any unqualified individual leads the nation.
ADEPT AT ASSURING AVAILABILITY OF THE QUALIFICATIONS INVOLVED
There is no single individual, group or nation can assure in a way of certitude and conviction, the availability of the qualifications involved in a certain person. As those individuals, groups and nations enjoy natural, logical and systematic capacities and competencies too short to assure, in ways of certitude and conviction, any fact, and that they realize the manifestation only, they are not adept at assuring availability of the qualifications involved at any individual. As a matter of fact, the hiddens are unknown. The results attained after the utmost endeavors of elicitation and scrutinizing the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest, shall be indisputably grounded upon conjecture and surmise. These results may be right and may be wrong. The most unquestionable fact is that these endeavors of elicitation and scrutiny, which are the fruit of learnedness, are suffocated by whims.
Since everyone's actual demand is certitude and conviction, not conjecture and surmise, the qualified and competent of providing the secure information based upon certitude and conviction is none but Allah, the elevated. It was He Who introduced Mohammed for us and positively informed of his being the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest. It is Allah Who is the Owner of the doctrine and the Most Observant of its interest. Conformably, it is Allah Who is the One intended to introduce the qualified individual, on bases of certitude and conviction, every time commencing with the day of Mohammed's decease till the Resurrection Day.
Striving for carrying out his Lord's mandate, Mohammed worked for introducing the one elected for the political and religious leadership after him since the earliest hours of his solicitation. He also showed the course according to which the process of scrutinizing the one bearing the qualifications involved shall be adopted.
As an abstract, we can brief this study by saying that it is Allah, the Glorious, the Elevated, Who is in charge of assuring the availability of the qualifications of the political and religious leader.
THE ACCEPTINGNESS OF THE DIVINE VOLITION
Swearing allegiance is the procedure through which people can express their acceptingness of the divine volition and their admissibility of so-and-so's being elected as the most qualified for guiding the nation. Thus, people's will and purpose shall be concordant to God's will and purpose. Accordingly, the one elected shall be acquiring the legality of his position from two sources; God, Who identified the qualifications and designated as the leader due to which, and people, who accepted God's identification of the most qualified and declared their fealty to the political and religious leader.
In due course, the entire affairs of the nation, as well as the doctrine and the political leadership, shall be amenable, and everyone shall be cropping the sweetest fruits of that government. The solicitation and the government shall be sailing towards God in a peaceful climate and, finally, the shadows of the divine grace shall be covering every body.
THE REFUSAL OF THE DIVINE VOLITION
In case people disagree with the divine volition of the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest based upon certitude and conviction, and they name someone else for succeeding the Prophet, this conceivably means that they refuse the divine volition based upon certitude and conviction, and substitute it for another earthly one based upon conjecture and surmise.
As a matter of fact, this process of refusal and substitution does not change the reality in any way. It does never make the substitute more fitter than the one divinely elected. Conversely, this process acts such a categorical disunity that political and religious leadership is held by an individual other than the one divinely appointed. Considering the political and religious leadership is an approach of specialty and that the substitute is unqualified for this position, the occurrence of consecutive collapses shall certainly be befalling and continuing till disunion and degradation occupy the whole state of Islam. The nation, as well, shall be progressively moving out of the circle of the divine jurisprudential formulation to that of intellect, surmise, craving or a mixture of these three circles. When this falls, the divine doctrine shall be refraining from any more bestowal, and God's ire shall ceaselessly be chasing this nation. These deadfalls shall never be evaded unless affairs, including the leadership appointed and conformed by God, take their proper places anew.
Without a doubt, God does never coerce the diseased to take the curing remedy, nor does He drive the deviate compulsorily to the right path. God only prescribes and provides the remedy and urges the diseased to take it. In the same way, He shows the deviate the right path and encourages them to take. It is, then, the diseased's fault if they abstain from taking the remedy, and the deviate's fault if they desist to take that right path. The same thing is said about those who repel both the divine doctrines and the loyalty to the apostles of God, or any of them singly.
VARIETIES OF REFUSAL OF THE DIVINE VOLITION
The First variety is accepting the divine doctrine and rejecting being loyal to the political leadership. An example on this variety is the Israelites' believing in their prophet and rejecting the leadership of Saul. They surmised that he had been unqualified for leadership. God, then, notified that He had (increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique) and backed him with clear evidences. So, they had to accept him, and their refusal was changed into recognition.
The second variety is accepting the divine doctrine and rejecting being loyal to the political leadership succeeding the prophet. The rejectors claim that the successive leadership had been arisen by the prophet's own inference, not God's mandate. Since the prophet, according to the rejectors' opinion, is not more than an ordinary person that may make errors, there should be no blame if they violate his inference and substitute the appointed leader for another. Applying this variety on Mohammed's companions, it is to say that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) nominated a man from the Hashemites, whom had been gifted the divine prophesy, as his successor, and it is more appropriate for everybody in the Muslim society that a non-Hashemite occupies the position of leadership. In addition, the one nominated by the Prophet had been enjoying good-humoredness and a sort of self-esteem. There were many individuals, who were the celebrities of Quraish, older than that young-aged man elected by the Prophet. For the previous reasons, the Prophet's society believed in the divine doctrine, but rejected being loyal to the man God had prepared and the Prophet had contrived and introduced as his successor. This man was Ali Bin Abi Talib.
The third variety is rejecting the divine doctrine being the effective law in the society and rejecting declaring loyalty to the individual identified by God. This sort of rejection takes its embracers to atheism directly. God protect us against atheism.
THE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
THE PRE-ADAMIC DIVINE PREPARATIONS FOR NOMINATING THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR
God, the Exalted, willed the Arab Prophet's being the final apostle, and Islam's being the final divine religion. He, the Elevated, also willed the Prophet's taking the charge of promoting this religion by a solicitation and a government led directly by him. Through the stages of solicitation and government, the Prophet could evidently proclaim Islam hypothetically, and apply that hypothesis in such a way that the most diminutive hiddens were clearly revealed, and the total features were expounded. That Mohammedan proclamation was the like of a visual, audible and actable slow representational art.
Pursuant to God's will, the progression of the Prophet and his successor was to be occurring concurrently, and to be running coincidentally so that the Prophet should proclaim Islam, be its base and establish the government. Then, he should leave to God and hand his banner to his successor to continue in advancing in the same trend, bearing the same belief. This was the bright picture sketched by the Divine Care and exhibited in the believers' mentalities desiring that they should bring its implementation to view intentionally. The reciprocity between the Prophet and his successor was to be suitable enough to be a brilliant exemplar and style of the conventional fraternity fellowship. That reciprocity, likewise, portrays the nature of the relation between the ancestors and their descendants and the leader and his followers in Islam.
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) states: “Fourteen thousand years before Adam's being created, Ali and I were a light between the hands of Allah, the Elevated. When Adam was created, that light was divided into two parts. One was I and the other was Ali.” It was God who created the two lights and made them in the same progression, then distributed the roles between them. In addition, it was God, the Elevated, who took a divine look at people of the earth and picked out two men; The Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) and his son-in-law and successor. This divine process of election is considered as one of the most evident authentic facts.
IN FRONT OF THE SOLICITATION
The Prophet was a fetus when his father died. Abdul-Muttelib, the grandfather, had him in his charge. This responsibility was transferred to Abd Menaf Bin Abdil-Muttelib, the Prophet's uncle whom was called Abu Talib. This Abu Talib was the good-hearted uncle of the Prophet and the father of Ali, his successor. In his youth, the Prophet married a noble wealthy lady named Khadija Bint Khuweilid. Hence, he had his separate house. As he intended to relieve his destitute uncle, Abd Menaf, the Prophet had one of his children in his charge. It was the Divine Care's will that that child was Ali, the Prophet's successor. So, the child was brought up by his cousin. They were never disassociated till God endowed prophesy to Mohammed. Ali, in fact, was coherent to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) till death.
FOLLOWING THE PROPHESY
On Monday, the Prophet was practically given the divine missive. On Thursday, Ali embraced Islam. Hence, he went on cohering to the Prophet. They were together in Mecca as well as Al-Madina. They lived in the same house all over the Prophet's lifetime. Mohammed brought the truth and Ali accepted it. (And he who brings the truth and -that- who accepts it as the truth. These are they that guard against evil. 39:33)
Ali did neither dispute the Prophet nor was he unyielding to him. He was believing and giving credence to the entire words of the Prophet. He was the finest knight in the Prophet's battles totally. Hence he was named ‘the grand truster -Siddiq-’ and ‘the greatest distinguisher -Faruq-’ by authentic doctrinal texts.
Describing his relation with the Prophet at that period, Ali says: “Whilst I was newborn, he -the Prophet- placed me in his bosom. He was embracing me to his breast, caring for me by putting me in his bed, touching me to his body and smelling me his sweat. He had been chewing food before he was providing it to me. He did never notice any lie in my speech or any flaw in my manner. I was wont to pursue him like a child-camel's ensuing its mother. On every new day, he was elevating me a mark of his morals and ordering me of taking it as a guide. In Harra, I saw him while none else could see. In that time, no single house gathered embracers of Islam saving the Apostle of Allah, Khadija and I, the third of them. I could see the illumination of revelation and mission, and smell the odor of prophesy.”
Qethm Bin Al-Abbas was asked how Ali had inherited the Prophet alone. He answered: “He was the foremost, among us, in catching him and the most adherent to him.”
DECLARING THE SUCCESSION AFTER THE DECLARATION OF PROPHESY
Just after the revelation of the Holy Verse: (And warn your nearest relations. 26:214), the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) spoke in the meeting of the sons of Abdul-Muttelib: “O sons of Abdul-Muttelib! I do not see a young man from the Arabs introduce to his people a thing better than what I am conveying to you. I am conveying the good of this world and the Hereafter. My Lord has ordered me of calling upon you. Which one of you will uphold me in this advocacy, and thus he shall be my brother, inheritor and successor?” Ali narrated: “The entire clique retarded. I, the youngest among them, said: ‘O Prophet of Allah! I shall be your backer in this concern.’ Then, he took me from the neck and said: ‘This is surely my brother, inheritor and successor. You should listen and comply to him and..’”
This is a doctrinal text telling of the Prophet's assigning Ali Bin Abi Talib as his inheritor and successor. The Prophet's traditions; words, deeds and signature, are part of the divine doctrine. No single report referred to any sort of repellency of this text. It is an authentic narrative. In his Al-Muraja'at, Al-Amili records: “Ibn Jarir and Abu Ja'far Al-Iskafi ruled of the ultimate authenticity of this narrative.” Moreover, the narrative is too obvious to be misrepresented. Logically, representing explicit matters is impracticable.
It is most surely that the Prophet uttered only the words of which he had been ordered by a divine mandate before the clique of Abdul-Muttelib's sons. The Prophet should never speak out of desire; he only follows what is revealed to him. Consequently, he (peace be upon him and his family) should never nominate his inheritor and successor without referring to his Lord.
DECLARING AND ARRANGING FOR THE HEIR APPARENT
1. THE CREDIT
In the hearing of the Muslims, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “Your credit to me is as same as Aaron's to Moses. Yet, there is no prophet proceeding me.” According to this text, the Prophet had granted Ali the total credits Aaron had enjoyed except prophesy. Al-Amili expresses: “Excluding prophesy from the credits is an evident certification that the other credits are totally included.” Among the most significant credits Aaron had enjoyed were his being Moses' aider, associate -in the affair of conveying the divine mission-, representative and being obligatorily obeyed by people. These credits are evidenced by God's sayings: (And give me an aider from my family. Harun -Aaron-, my brother. Strengthen my back by him. And associate him with me in my affair. 20:29-32), (And Musa -Moses- said to his brother Harun -Aaron-: take my place among my people, and act well and do not follow the way of the mischief-makers. 7:142) and (He said: You are indeed granted your petition, O Musa -Moses-. 20:36).
Accordingly, Ali is the Prophet's successor and heir apparent. This hadith of Manzila -credit- is one of the most authentic traditions. It is reported so continuously that it was narrated by Muawiya even, the head of the despotic faction. Actually, the Prophet repeated this position of Ali tens of times.
2. THE FRATERNITY
In order that the ring established by the divine doctrine is firmly restricted, God determined an actual brotherly relationship between the Prophet and Ali. This relationship is an unprecedented honor and a standing none could attain. Before, as well as after, the immigration to Yathrib, the Prophet declared this brotherly relationship and affirmed it several times in several occasions so that no Muslim would forget. The following hadiths are cited as examples on this brotherly relationship:
The Prophet stated: “A good tidings I have received from my Lord concerning my brother and cousin, and my daughter; God has married Fatima to Ali.”
After Fatima had been wedded to Ali, the Prophet addressed at Ummu Aymen: “Call forth my brother.” “Do you marry him your daughter while he is your brother?” wondered Ummu Aymen. “Yes, I do..” answered the Prophet..
The Prophet addressed at Ali: “You are my brother and my associate, and you shall be my companion in the Paradise.”
The Prophet addressed at Ali: “Regarding you, Ali, you are my brother and the father of my sons and a part of me and to me you belong..”
Thusly, the Prophet continued repeating and declaring this brotherly relationship all over his lifetime. In his last moments, he ordered: “Summon my brother.” When Ali came, the Prophet asked him to be near to him. So, he began to converse with him till his blessed soul went out of his body.
On that account, Ali was used to saying: “I am the slave of Allah and the brother of His Apostle and the grand truster and the greatest distinguisher. None should say it after me but a liar.”
Within the most familiar matters generally known by people is that Ali had been the Prophet's brother before and after the immigration to Yathrib, and, likewise, the brotherly relationship between Abu Bakr and Omar had been determined before and after the immigration. Later on, Abu Bakr, in his will, designated Omar, his brother, as his heir apparent. This will was precisely implemented.
3. THE WILAYA*
As he (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “You are my successor in this world and in the Hereafter.”, the Prophet declared to the Muslims that Ali should be his successor. The Muslims, however, perceived so when the Prophet addressed at Ali in another occasion: “After me, you are the leader of every Muslim.”
One day, The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) assigned Ali Bin Abi Talib as the commander of a phalanx. As they went back bearing spoils besides triumph, Ali dedicated a bondmaid to himself. They denied so and complained before the Prophet. “Ali deserves more than this bondmaid. He is your leader after me.” expressed the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Repeatedly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was declaring: “He whosesoever master was I , Ali is being his master.” He, once, said it in the presence of one hundred thousand Muslims. Moreover, the Prophet's orders of the necessity of showing loyalty to Ali were too evident to be denied. He also expounded upon the necessity of that loyalty and its significance and effects in this world and the Hereafter. He showed that loyalty to Ali is as same as loyalty to him -the Prophet-, and cherishing to Ali is as same as cherishing to him. And bearing malice to Ali is as same as bearing malice to the Prophet. However, being loyal to the Prophet is as same as being loyal to Allah.
Among the rulings decided by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) is the following: “He whoever intends to imitate my lifetime and dies like my death and lodges in the Paradise of Eternity which my Lord promised, should be loyal to Ali Bin Abi Talib. He shall neither take you out of guidance nor shall he take you in deviation.”
Wahab Bin Hamzeh relates: During my accompanying Ali in a journey, I noticed a sort of cruelty. When I complained so before the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), he advised: “Say not such a thing about Ali. He shall be your master after me.”
SHOWING LOYALTY AND AFFECTION TO ALI IS ESTIMATED AS SAME AS SHOWING LOYALTY AND AFFECTION TO ALLAH
Once, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed a harangue at his companions: “I do promote every one, who believed and trusted me, to stick on loyalty to Ali Bin Abi Talib. He whoever shows loyalty to him is estimated as same as showing loyalty to me. And showing loyalty to me is showing loyalty to Allah. And he whoever shows affection for him is estimated as same as showing affection for me. And showing affection for me is showing affection for Allah. And he whoever bears malice to him is estimated as same as bearing malice to me. And bearing malice to me is bearing malice to Allah, the Exalted.”
On another day, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “I promote every one, who believed and trusted me, to stick on loyalty to Ali Bin Abi Talib. Surely, being loyal to him is seen as same as being loyal to me. And being loyal to me is as same as being loyal to Allah.”
THE CONSECUTIVE DECLARATIONS AND ARRANGEMENTS FOR ALI'S NEXT LEADERSHIP WERE GOD'S MANDATE
For maintaining Ali's next leadership, the Verses (Only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow. And whoever takes Allah and his Apostle and those who believe for guardiance, then surely the party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant. 5:55-6), were revealed.
These Verses were revealed for Ali who gave alms while he was performing the ritual genuflection of a prayer. The Verses, also, were regarded as a response to the Prophet's supplication: “And give me an aider from my family; Ali. Strengthen my back by him..”
THE WALI IS THE MASTER, THE IMAM AND THE LEADER
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “Allah revealed to me three attributes imputed to Ali exclusively. He is the master of the Muslims, the imam of the God-fearing and the leader of the bright-faced, the shining.”
On another occasion, the Prophet said to his companions: “Allah has revealed to me that Ali is the master of the Muslims, the guide of the God-fearing and the leader of the bright-faced, the shining.”
Before the attendee, the Prophet addressed at Ali: “Welcome, master of the Muslims and imam of the God-fearing.”
Once, while he was convening his companions, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) foretold: “The coming man, who will enter from this door, is the imam of the God-fearing, the master of the Muslims, the principal of the religion, the last of the (prophets') inheritors and the leader of the bright-faced, the shining.” Presently, Ali entered from that door. The Prophet stood up and embraced him.
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) explicated Ali's standing before his companions. He said: “Allah has surely bound me to a covenant respecting Ali. As I asked Him to show it to me, He, the Elevated, said: Ali is indeed the banner of guidance, the imam of My confidants and the illumination of My obedient ones.”
In a speech addressed at the Ansar, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: “O the Ansar! Should I guide you to what shall protect you against deviation for good if only you adhere to?” “Yes, you should, Allah's Apostle!” they answered. “It is this Ali. You should love him for your loving me. And you should honor him for your honoring me. It was most surely Gabriel, the Angel, who conveyed to me this God's mandate I have just ordered you of.” the Prophet expressed.
One day, the Prophet asked the attendees to summon “Ali, the master of the Arabs.” “Is it not you the master of the Arabs?” wondered A'isheh. “I am the master of Adam's children, and Ali is the master of the Arabs.” commentated the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). When Ali came, the Prophet summoned the Ansar and addressed at them: “O the Ansar! Should I guide you to what shall protect you against deviation for good if only you adhere to?” “Yes, you should, Allah's Apostle!” they answered. “It is this Ali. You should love him for your loving me. And you should honor him for your honoring me. It was most surely Gabriel, the Angel, who conveyed to me this God's mandate I have just ordered you of.” the Prophet expressed.
While a good number of the Sahaba -the Prophet's companions- were in attendance, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “Looking at your face, Ali, is - a sort of- worshiping. You are a master in this world and a master in the hereafter. He is bearing devotion to me that whoever bears devotion to you. My devotee is, in fact, God's devotee. Your enemy is my enemy. My enemy is, in fact, God's enemy. Woe is those who bear malice against you.”
THE MOST CONSEQUENTIAL OBJECTIVE QUALIFICATIONS ENJOYED BY THE LEADER SUCCEEDING THE PROPHET
As an indication to Ali's knowledgeability, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated before his companions: “I am the city of knowledge, and Ali is the door. He should see the door first, that whoever seeks knowledge.”
Once, the Prophet said to his companions: “I am the house of wisdom, and Ali is the door.” For several times, the Prophet asserted: “I am the city of wisdom, and Ali is the door.” He (peace be upon him and his family) also asserted: “Ali is the door to my knowledge. After me, he shall be settling questions of what I have been asked to communicate to my people. Cherishing him is creed. Despising him is hypocrisy.”
Before the Sahaba, the Prophet addressed at Ali: “Next to me, You shall be settling questions of what my nation will dispute about.”
Showing Ali's standing, the Prophet said: “At me, Ali enjoys the same degree I enjoy at my Lord.”
The Prophet also said: “My hand and Ali's are the same with respect to justice.”
Ali was wont to say: “By Allah I swear, there is no single revealed Verse I lack the information regarding the purpose, the place and the point of its revelation. My Lord has bestowed me a (perfect) heart and intellect and a speaking honest tongue.”
He was also used to stating: “Inquire me about the Book of Allah. There is no single Verse I lack the information about its revelation; whether it was at night, at daylight, in a plain or on a mountain.”
Ahmed Bin Hanbal, the imam of the Hanbalite sect, said: “No one of the Prophet's companions was enjoying merits as much as Ali’s.” Ibn Abbas said: “No one was intended by Verses of Allah's Book as much as Ali.” On another occasion, Ibn Abbas said: “Three hundred Quranic Verses were purposed at Ali.” He also said: “Ali was the prince and the celebrity of every (O Ye who believed

revealed by Allah. Abu Bakr, as well as Omar, was composing poetry. But Ali was the most experienced in this field.”
Let us close this paragraph by mentioning the following hadith:
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “Ali is being with the Quran, and the Quran is being with Ali. They shall never be separated till they join me on the Divine Pool.”
Ali's leadership and succeeding the Prophet is a religious question that belongs to believing in this religion. Here is the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stating: “Ali Bin Abi Talib is the door of ‘forgiveness’! He is reckoned as believer that whoever enters from that door. While those who find a way out of it, are disbelievers.”
Let us take a deep glance at this decisive doctrinal text:
The Prophet said: “Ali is a part of me. I am a part of Ali. None should carry my charges saving me or Ali.”
Before his companions, the Prophet addressed at Ali: “O Ali! He whoever desists from me is decided as desisting from Allah. Those who desist from you, Ali, are desisting from me.”
He (peace be upon him and his family), also states: “I am the forewarner, and Ali is the guide. By you, Ali, the guided -to the right path- shall be led.”
The Prophet spoke to his companions: “This, Ali, and I shall be the attesters on this people on the Day of Resurrection.”
The Prophet said: “On the portal of the Paradise there is inscribed: There is no god but Allah. Mohammed is the Apostle of Allah. Ali is the brother of His Apostle.”
Similarly, the Prophet said: “On the leg of the Divine Throne, there is inscribed: There is no god but Allah. Mohammed is the Apostle of Allah. I support him by Ali. I aid him by Ali.”
It is deserving to take a deep glance at the last words of the Prophet's harangue at the Ansar: “…It was most surely Gabriel, the Angel, who conveyed to me this God's mandate I have just ordered you of.”
ALLAH'S CONFIDANT AND THE APOSTLE'S SUCCESSOR IS THE KNIGHT OF ISLAM
During the entire armed conflicts between the believers and the disbelievers, the star of Ali was highly twinkling. He became the unique knight of Islam. He was totally unprecedented. Few moments before the breakout of the battle of Jamal, Ali spoke with Talha and Az-Zubeir so that he would provide his argument against them. He said: “I adjure A'isheh, by God and the Apostle of God, to witness believably for the following four matters; is she able of naming a single man from Quraish having a claim greater than that I have towards the Prophet? Is she able of naming a single man preferred to me in the concern of precedence to Islam. Is she able of naming a single man preferred to me in the concern of protecting the Prophet against the disbelievers of the Arab, using this very sword and this very spear…”
Hamzeh Bin Abdil-Muttelib was the first Muslim to whom the first pennon in Islam had been given. During the entire battles of Islam, the bearers of the pennon were either Hamzeh or Ali. This was all over the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). The first men who forwarded for fighting in Badr, the first battle of the Muslims, were Hamzeh, Ali and Ubeidullah. Ali was the headmost knight after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in the entire battles of Islam. Hence, the Prophet stated: “Tomorrow, I will be handing the pennon to a man whom is liked by God and His messenger, and likes God and His messenger. God shall conquer by his hands.”
People passed that night in excitement. The next morning, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) asked for Ali Bin Abi Talib. “He is sightless.” Some answered. “Lead him to me.” the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ordered. As Ali was before the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), he asked him to be close to him. He salivated at his eyes and wiped them with the hand. Ali stood up as if he had never been affected by ophthalmia. Hence, Ali was given the pennon and he conquered Kheiber.
Close to Kheiber fortress, Ali dislodged the great portal and used it as an armor. He kept it in his hand while he was fighting. He threw it only after the conquest of Kheiber. Eight individuals could not even move that portal.
In the battle of Khandaq, none, other than Ali, could answer Amr Bin Abdi Wudd who was shouting at the Muslims: “My voice has gone due to my numerous frequent calls for a combatant from the Muslims' party.” Who could taste that hero death other than Ali Bin Abi Talib?
Ask Badr, Uhud, Kheiber, Hunein and the whole places at which the Muslims battled the disbelievers. You shall never find a single event at which Ali or any individual belonging to the Prophet's immaculate household, abscond or retard from defending Islam. He is definitely a liar that whoever claims of having been standing in the face of Ali, offering sacrifice more than him or fighting in a way better than that adopted by him in the whole conflicts.
The heroism Ali had enjoyed made him the most twinkling star and the preferable knight of Islam.
It was Ali who killed Al-Aas Bin Sa'd Bin Al-Aas, Handhala Bin Abi Sufian, Al-Aas Bin Husham Bin Al-Mugheera and the maternal uncle of Omar Bin Al-Khattab!!
It was Ali, Hamzeh and Ubeidullah, the Prophet's relatives, who faced Utbeh, Sheibeh and Al-Waleed, the masters of the Umayids, and killed them. This might have been one of the greatest reasons beyond the Umayids' bearing malice against Ali and the Prophet's household.
As an example on God's evaluating the deeds of this unprecedented knight, the Prophet stated: “Certainly, Ali Bin Abi Talib's combating Amr Bin Abdi Wudd on the day of Khandaq is indeed favorable to the entire good deeds done by my commonalty till the Day of Resurrection.”
ALLAH'S MARRYING HIS CONFIDANT AND HIS APOSTLE'S SUCCESSOR
Fatima Bint Mohammed is the mistress of the ladies of the world and the nearest to the Prophet whose satisfaction is attained only when she is satisfied, and whose ire is arisen when she is irate. This matter is unanimously agreed upon by the entire Muslims. Every noble and celebrity wished if he could have had her in marriage. She was the exemplar of the ideal woman. Numerous suitors asked for her hand, but the Prophet refused. The same thing happened with Abu Bakr and Omar who said, referring at the Prophet in this regard: “He is waiting for his Lord's instruction.”
THE GOOD TIDINGS
One day, the good tidings of Fatima's marriage came to the Prophet who conveyed it to his companions: “A good tidings I have received from my Lord concerning my brother and cousin, and my daughter; God has married Fatima to Ali.” On many occasions, the Prophet reminded Fatima of this divine grace. He also spoke about it many times before his companions. He (peace be upon him and his family), once, addressed at Fatima: “Are you not satisfied that God has selected two men from among people of the earth; the first is your father and the other is your groom?”
She, once, complained to her father for marrying her to Ali while he was poor. The Prophet answered her: “Are you not satisfied that God has selected two men from among people of the earth; the first is your father and the other is your groom?”
The Prophet visited his diseased daughter and asked her about her manners. “By God, my grief has been increasing, my destitution has been expanding and my ailment has been continuing.” whimpered Fatima. Here, the Prophet said: “Are you not satisfied that I have married you to the principal Muslim, the most knowledgeable and the most self-possessed?”
THE BLESSED PROGENY
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) declared before the Muslims: “God has created each prophet's progeny from his own flank. My progeny is originated from Ali's.” “Every female's sons are belonged to their lineage saving Fatima's sons. I am their warden and I am their lineage and I am their father.” “Regarding you, Ali, you are my brother and the father of my sons…” “This -Ali- is my brother and the son of my brother and my cousin and my son-in-law and the father of my sons…”
It is not a matter of chance that the Prophet's progeny is restricted to Fatima's sons. The whole nation did realize well that the Prophet had no sons but Fatima's. With great pride, the Prophet was always repeating this saying before his companions: “This is Al-Hassan, my son. This is Al-Hussein, my son. It was God Who has chosen their names. They are the masters of the youth of the Paradise, and my basils among this nation.”
In spite of the surpassing endeavors of terminating the Prophet's offspring, including the processes of poisoning Al-Hassan and assassinating Al-Hussein, twelve imams, the last of whom was Al-Mahdi the messiah, descended from this blessed progeny.
THE HABITATION OF THE PROPHET AND HIS SUCCESSOR
Even the matter of the lodging of the Prophet and his successor was organized by the Divine Care that attracted people's attention to this point for the purpose of discernibility.
In one of his harangues, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) spoke: “I see there are some men feel something about the matter that I have lodged Ali in the mosque and displaced the others. By God I swear, it was not I who displaced them out of the mosque and lodged Ali. It was Allah Who displaced them and lodged Ali. Allah, the Elevated, revealed to Moses to take for their people houses to abide in Egypt and make these houses places of worship and keep up prayers. To me, Ali is indeed enjoying the same standing of Aaron to Moses. He is my brother. Except for him, none of you is licit to copulate with women in this mosque.”
Al-Abbas wondered his nephew, the Prophet, how he should take him out of the mosque and lodge Ali. “It was not I who displaced you out of the mosque and lodged Ali. It was Allah Who displaced you out and lodged Ali.”
A number of the Sahaba's houses had doors having prospect over the mosque. The Prophet ordered: “All these doors are to be crossed out except that of Ali's house.” People, however, showed dislike against this procedure. Accordingly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ascended the pulpit and orated:
“Praised and thanked be Allah.
As I ordered of eradicating these doors except that of Ali's house, you criticized. It was not I who closed or opened. It was but an instruction I was asked to carry out. I have neither taken you out of the mosque out of my desire, nor have I neglected this order. I am but a restricted servant to be carrying out what I am ordered of. I follow only what is revealed to me. Allah did reveal to Moses, His prophet, to construct a sanitary mosque in which none should lodge saving Moses and Aaron. Correspondingly, Allah did reveal to me to construct a sanitary mosque in which none should lodge saving Ali, my brother, and I.
ALI IS THE PROPHET'S DISCIPLE
Assertively, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) declared that Ali should be his disciple. He said: “This one is my brother, disciple and successor.” The familiar hadith of Ad-Dar has been decided as one of the most authentic traditions. The Prophet, repeatedly, emphasized on Ali's being his disciple. He said: “Every prophet had a disciple and an heir. Ali is my disciple and heir.” “Every prophet had a disciple and an heir. My disciple and heir is Ali Bin Abi Talib.” “Indeed, my disciple and my trustful person and the best of whom I should allocate to fulfilling my promises and settling my debts is Ali Bin Abi Talib.”
A similar oration the Prophet addressed at Anas Bin Malik: “O Anas! The coming man who shall enter from this door is the prince of the believers, the master of the Muslims, the leader of the bright-faced, the shining and the last of the prophets' disciples.” Not too long after that speech, Ali entered… There is a considerable continuation of this hadith.
The Prophet addressed at Fatima an alike speech: “O Fatima! Have you not been acquainted of the matter that Allah, the Elevated, scrutinized people of the earth and elected your father as the messaged prophet. And scrutinized them again and elected your groom. Then, He revealed to me to marry Ali to you and betake him as my disciple.”
Just after the Prophet's decease, Al-Hassan used the characteristic of discipleship in his argument when he spoke: “…I am the son of the Prophet and the son of his disciple.”
Ali's discipleship has been commonly mentioned in literature, especially in poetry and prose. Jabir was used to saying: “I was informed by the disciple of the disciples…” referring to Ali.
DENIAL OF THE PROPHET'S NOMINATING ALI AS HIS INHERITOR
Muslim and Al-Bukhari denied that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had willed of Ali's being his inheritor. They rested upon the report imputed to A'isheh, Ummul-Mu'minin. She claimed that the Prophet had not willed of anything, since he died while he was laying between her breast and neck, and was placed on her thigh. The familiarly authentic reports assert that the event of the Prophet's decease had not occurred in the previous form. Mentally, this event should not occur in this form. As a matter of fact, the Prophet died while he was on Ali's breast. Besides, tremendous efforts were exerted for the purpose of preventing the Prophet from explicating the general situation to his people. These efforts, however, succeeded in occluding him from recording what he was intending to. Al-Bukhari himself relates the following narrative to Ibn Abbas:
“The Prophet willed of three matters; taking the disbelievers out of the Arab Peninsula, permitting the delegation in the same way he had adopted and …I forgot the third!!” In this very form, Al-Bukhari records this narrative.
In addition, the form imputed to A'isheh about the Prophet's decease is not true. In fact, he departed this world while he was placed to Ali's chest. This fact is recognized by Omar Bin Al-Khattab. During his reign, the Sahaba were attendant when Ka'b asked about the last words the Prophet had said. “You should address this question at Ali.” answered Omar. Hence, Ali narrated the way of the Prophet's decease and the last words he had uttered… When the Prophet was moribund, he ordered: “Summon my brother!” They, consequently, summoned Ali. “Come near to me.” the Prophet asked Ali and went on wording to him till his blessed soul went out.
In brief words, the Prophet did not depart the life in the form imputed to A'isheh and taken as an evidence on denying the Prophet's will.
THE ENDOWMENTS EXCLUSIVELY ENJOYED BY THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR
In the attendance of the Sahaba, the Prophet said: “O Ali! I am distinct from you in the matter of prophesy. Indeed, there shall be no prophesy after me. You are distinct from people in seven singularities about which no Quraishi individual can dispute you. They are: your being the foremost to believing in Allah, the most loyal to the covenant of Allah, the best accomplisher of mandates of Allah, the finest equalizer, the greatest upright, the most intelligent in issues and the most preferable to Allah.” “Ali is being with the Quran, and the Quran is being with Ali. They shall never be departed till they join me at the Divine Pool.” “Ali is being with the right, and the right is being with Ali. They shall never be departed till they join me at the Divine Pool on the Day of Resurrection.”
THE IMMUNIZATION OF THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR
In the presence of his companions, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “O Ali! He whoever desists from me is decided as desisting from Allah. Those who desist from you, Ali, are desisting from me.” “He is reviling at me that whoever reviles at Ali.” “Reviling at Ali is reviling at me. Reviling at me is reviling at Allah. He whoever reviles at Allah shall be forcibly cast off on his nasals in the Hell-fire.” “He is hurting me that whoever hurts Ali.” “He is cherishing me that whoever cherishes Ali. And he whoever despises him is despising me.”
CROWNING ALI THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR
1. THE CIRCUMSTANCE:
THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) pointed that that pilgrimage would be the last. Hence, the Muslims all over the world readied themselves to join him for acquiring the rewards of that ritual pilgrimage and the honors of the Prophet's companionship and farewell. The number of the Muslims attained 90000 individuals. Some related that it was 114000, 120000 or more. The most authenticated matter was that such a number had actually accompanied the Prophet in Ghadeer Khum.
2. PLACE OF CROWNING:
Hutheifeh Bin Useid Al-Ghefari spoke:
“After he had accomplished the rites of the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) ordered his companions not to abide near some trees in the desert. He, afterwards, bid some to uproot thistles found under these trees. Just as he reached that place, he performed a prayer and ascended a place for sermonizing…”
Zeid Bin Arqam narrated the following: “When the Prophet went back from the Farewell Pilgrimage and resided at Ghadeer Khum…”
Al-Bera Bin Azib related it in the following form: “We were accompanying the Prophet to Ghadeer Khum where we resided. A proclamation for a collective prayer was declared. The ground of two trees was swept for the Prophet…”
Sa'd Bin Abi Waqqas reported: “On one Friday, I saw the Prophet seize Ali from the hand and sermonize…”
Sa'd also related the following: “We were accompanying the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) who ordered people to halt as soon as we reached Ghadeer Khum. He ordered the crowds preceding him to come back and ordered those retarding to catch him. As people gathered, he (peace be upon him and his family) sermonized…”
These narratives assert the fact that the place of crowning was Ghadeer Khum.
THE DIVINE MANDATE OF NOMINATING THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR
As a matter of fact, people of Al-Madina and the surrounding villages had full acquaintance of Ali's having been the Prophet's successor. This cognizance were obtained according to the consecutive statements repeatedly addressed by the Prophet in the attendance of individuals as well as groups.
Al-Madina is the capital of the Islamic state. Its people and their neighbors are the ones legally and actually concerned in the affair of nominating the leader and the Prophet's successor.
As the Lord willed that Muslims should apperceive congregationally that the next leader and the Prophet's successor would be Ali, He ordered His Prophet of acquainting them of this matter during the Farewell Pilgrimage so that none would disremember. This declaration occurred near a spring which carried the core of life at that deserted peninsula; water. That place which was called Khum was too distinct to be having an alike all over the Arab Peninsula. Besides, that was the only place which carried the name Khum. Thousands of wonderments and probabilities are arisen from the declaration of that grand event that occurred before such a huge number of people in proportion of population of the world at that time. The attendants were of different degrees of faith, knowledge and cognition. This truth was taken in consideration during the Prophet's preparing and readying for delivering the divine mandate. Hence, the Lord willed to fasten the Prophet's heart and find an excuse and regiment for conveying this divine mandate respecting nominating the coming leader and the Prophet's successor. Hence, the Verse of Tabligh -conveyance- was revealed.
THE VERSE OF TABLIGH
Instantly, the Angel Gabriel descended carrying the Verse of Tabligh to the Prophet: (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people. 5:67)
The future of the Islamic mission depended upon this conveyance. On the eighteenth of Dhul-Hijja, this Verse was revealed in Ghadeer Khum. It was the same day on which the Prophet designated Ali as people's head, leader and his successor. That was on Thursday.
THE STYLE OF THE DECISION OF NOMINATING THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR
1. THE TEXT RELATED BY HUTHEIFEH BIN USEID AL-GHEFARI AND RECORDED IN AT-TABARANI'S AL-KABEER
Hutheifeh says:
The Prophet, then, stated: “O people! The Aware, the Knowing informed me that prophets attain only the half of the age of the succeeding ones. I do conclude that I am to be soon invited, and I am to answer. I, as well as you, shall be questioned. What will you reply?” “We do confirm that you have conveyed, done well and advised. God may reward you with good.” They answered.
Thence, the Prophet said: “Do you maintain there is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is Allah's slave and apostle, and the Paradise is true, the Hell-fire is true, death is true, the post-earthly life resurrection is true and the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it; and Allah shall raise up those who are in the graves?” “Yes, we do maintain so.” they answered. “O Allah! Be the witness.” supplicated the Prophet, and added: “O people! Allah is surely my Master. I am the master of the believers. I am preceded to the believers' souls. He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”
The Prophet then added: “O people! I will be preceding you to the Heavenly Pool and you shall be following me. It is a pool of an area larger than the distance between Busra -Syria- and San'a -Yemen-. In it, there shall be cups as numerous as stars. When you shall be coming to me on that Pool, I will ask you about the two weighty things. Suppose how should you esteem me in these two. The major weighty thing is the Book of Allah, the Elevated. It is a cord, one of its brims is at Allah's hand while the other is at yours. Cling to it and deviate not and distort not. The other is my clan; my household. The Aware, the Knowing has informed me that they shall never separate until they shall join me on the Pool.”
2. THE TEXT RELATED BY ZEID BIN ARQAM
Zeid relates:
When the Prophet went back from the Farewell Pilgrimage and resided at Ghadeer Khum, he ordered of sweeping the ground under some bushes there. He, then, sermonized: “I do conclude that I am to be soon invited, and I am to answer. I am leaving among you the two weighty things, one of whom is greater than the other. It is the Book of Allah, the Elevated, and my clan; my household. Suppose how you should esteem me in these two. Certainly, they shall never separate until they shall join me on the Pool. Allah, the Exalted, is surely my Master. I am the master of the believers.” He then took Ali from the hand and declared: “He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”
3. THE TEXT RELATED BY AL-BERA BIN AZIB
Al-Bera narrates:
We were accompanying the Prophet to Ghadeer Khum where we resided. A proclamation for a collective prayer was declared. The ground of two trees was swept for the Prophet who performed the Dhuhr prayer there and, afterwards, took Ali from the hand and asked: “Have you known that I am preceded to the believers' souls?” “Yes, we have.” they answered. “Have you known that I am preceded to every believer's soul?” questioned the Prophet. “Yes, we have.” they answered. Immediately, he took Ali from the hand and declared: “He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”
Not too long after that, Omar met Ali and addressed at him: “Congratulations, son of Abu Talib! You became the master of every male and female believer.”
4. THE TEXT RELATED BY SA'D BIN ABI WAQQAS
On one Friday, I saw the Prophet seize Ali from the hand and sermonize:
“Praised and thanked be Allah.
O people! I am your master.” “You have said but the truth, Allah's Apostle!” they confirmed. The Prophet, then, raised Ali's hand and declared: “This is my successor. He shall be settling my debts. I am acceding to whomever accedes to him and opposing whomever opposes him.”
5. THE TEXT RELATED BY SA'D IN ANOTHER FORM
Sa'd also relates:
We were accompanying the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) who ordered people to halt as soon as we reached Ghadeer Khum. He ordered the crowds preceding him to come back and those retarding to catch him. As people gathered, he (peace be upon him and his family) sermonized: “O people! Who are your masters?” “Allah and His Apostle are.” they confirmed thrice. The Prophet, soon, took Ali from the hand and raised him and declared: “He whomever Allah and His Apostles were his masters, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”
THE PERCEPTION OF THE DECISION AND RECEIVING CONGRATULATIONS
As they could totally perceive the significance of the decision, the attendants in Ghadeer Khum, proceeded towards the leader and the Prophet's successor for offering him congratulations on this divine grace. Omar Bin Al-Khattaab, who could never forget that day, was in the top of the list of the congratulators. “Be felicitate, son of Abu Talib! You became the master of me as well as every Muslim.” Omar addressed at Ali as he offered congratulations. In another occasion, he said to him” “Congratulations, son of Abu Talib! You became the master of every male and female believer.”
While Omar was the caliph, some wondered the reason beyond his having estimating Ali particularly. “He is my master.” answered Omar.
Omar asked Ali to judge in a case between two Bedouins. “Is it this man who will judge?” said one of them. Immediately, Omar jumped to him, hanged from the dress and said: “Do you not know this one. He is your master, and my master, and the master of every male and female master. He is not a believer that whomever Ali is not his master.”
TEXTS QUOTED FROM THE IMMORTAL DECISION OF NOMINATING ALI FOR THE LEADERSHIP
Unanimously, Sunnis relate that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) referred to Ali in Ghadeer Khum by stating:
THE FIRST TEXT
“He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him, and champion whomever champions him and deject whomever dejects him.”
THE SECOND TEXT
“He whomever I was his master, this, Ali, is being his mater.”
THE THIRD TEXT
“He whomever I was his master, Ali is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him and oppose whomever opposes him.”
It is obvious that the previous texts have been excerpted from the decision of nominating Ali for the leadership. The texts involved told of the place of occurrence, which was Ghadeer Khum. They also fitted the size of the crowds that heard the decision and that it occurred during the Prophet's last pilgrimage; the Farewell Pilgrimage. The decision was so strong that it imposed itself on others. Despite the fact that reviling at Ali was an official act obligatorily burden on the Umayid state's people, and that this state had the full actual dominion on the state's imports, capacities and mass media, they showed total dearth to shade this decision. The compact of the decision, however, remained along with days. It became the evident witness on this nation's deceiving the real leader and the Prophet's successor. Allah's, however, is the consequence of affairs.
THE HADITH OF GHADEER AND THE EVENT OF THE NOMINATION IS A CERTITUDE
This hadith is related by Ahmed Bin Hanbal from forty different ways of narration. Ibn Jarir relates it from seventy two different ways of narration. Al-Jizri Al-Miqerri relates it from eighty different ways of narrations. Ibn Uqda relates it from 105 different ways of narration. Abu Sa'eed As-Sejistani relates it from 120 ways of narration. Abu Bakr Al-Hassabi relates it from 125 different ways of narration. Mohammed Al-Yamani claims of relating it from 150 different ways of narration. Abul-Ala Al-Attar Al-Hamadani relates it from 250 different ways of narration.
The entire Shias believe in the authenticity of the hadith of Ghadeer in an indisputable way. They do believe undiscussibly in the ceremonies of nominating Ali for leadership and succession of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) that occurred in Ghadeer Khum.
The entire Sunnis admit the authenticity of the Ghadeer hadith. They acknowledge of the Prophet's uttering that hadith. They, however, adopted the misrepresentation of the hadith and the event of the nomination originated by the rulers who regarded the hadith as a mere merit imputed to Ali. They discarded the actual meanings and purports of the hadith and the event. Thus, Sunnis inherited this misrepresentation. They reckoned it with the traditions of the ancestors that it is illicit to be neglected. Supposing Sunnis adopted other than this opinion, they would drag the rug of legality on which the Umayids, the Abbasids and the Ottoman stood. Other would be included in this process of dragging; the matter that would prove the righfulness of Shias. This would contravene the tradition of Shias have been the enemies of this religion!!
THE GHADEER FESTIVITY
In the former times, Muslims appraised the anniversary of the Ghadeer day as a festivity. They were wont to celebrate on this anniversary. When the enemies of the Prophet's household came to power, the Muslims stopped celebrating it. Hence, because of the pressure imposed by the rulers, the next generations overlooked that anniversary. For Shias, they still celebrating it.
FASTING ON THE DAY OF GHADEER
Abu Hureira sates:
He whoever fasts on the eighteenth of Dhul-Hijja, Allah shall record for him the reward of a sixty month fasting. This anniversary is the Ghadeer Khum day when the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) took Ali from the hand and said: “He whomever I was his master, this -Ali- is being his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him and champion whomever champions him.” Omar Bin Al-Khattaab commentated: “Be felicitate, son of Abu Talib! You became the master of me as well as every Muslim.”
THE PERFECTION OF THE RELIGION AND THE COMPLETION OF THE GRACE BY NOMINATING THE IMAM
After the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had designated Ali Bin Abi Talib as the imam and his successor in front of that great population, the religion was perfected and the divine grace was completed. The doctrinal jurisprudential formulation became perfect and the Prophet did nominate his heir apparent; therefore, he can leave this world with full satisfaction of the affairs of his religion and nation. The mission of the nominated successor, Ali, would be nothing more than continuing the progression originated by the Prophet, following the course he received for twenty three years. The Verse of Perfection was revealed immediately after the ceremony of the nomination. (This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion. 5:3)
Had the Prophet departed this world without nominating the imam and the successor, this would have been opposing the religion's perfection and the grace's completion. The imam is the representative of the Prophet who is the base of the mundane and heavenly regulations and the center of every single movement.
The rulers descried this point. Hence, no single ruler died before he had appointed his heir apparent. “This is an ultimate right for them.” some defended. Describing the caliph, Ibn Khuldoun says: “He -the caliph- is their warden and custodian. He has to select, the coming caliph, on behalf of people in his life and, sequentially, after his death. He also has the right of designating the one who should be in charge of their affairs in the same way he -the current caliph- himself is doing. They should trust him in this affair like they did in others…”
The caliph should be blamed if he neglected nominating the heir apparent. Let us take a look at Abdullah Bin Omar Bin Al-Khattab's statement. While his father was dying, Abdullah stood before him and said: “O Ameerul-Mu'minin! Nominate a successor for leading Mohammed's nation! You should certainly reproach the supervisor of your camels or sheep if he left the animals without appointing a supervisor as his representative. You would blame him for missing his depository. How would you, Ameerul-Mu'minin, then do it with Mohammed's nation?”
Let's take another look at A'isheh's following advice:
A'isheh addressed at Abdullah, the son of Omar Bin Al-Khattaab: “O son! After carrying my greetings to Omar, tell him that he should never leave Mohammed's nation without a guide. He should nominate a successor, lest, they shall be dispersed. I anticipate that they shall be engaged in seditious matters.” Abdullah carried Ummul-Mu'minin's message to his father.
The entire caliphs of the history could realize the fact that leaving the nation without assigning an heir apparent had been an act opposing wisdom and opening the doors of sedition and leading to reproach as same as a shepherd's being reproached when he leaves his cattle without appointing a supervisor. Even A'isheh, Ummul-Mu'minin, the woman, could recognize so!
In Title Three: The Authority, this matter has been indicatively debated.
How did, then, all those individuals recognize this matter while the prophet of Islam did not? Alas! What misfortune occurred to Islam?! How should every ruler be confided in the question of nominating an heir apparent while the Prophet of Allah should not?
The blind imitators had one of two courses to follow; either Mohammed's religion as exactly as he had explicated, or the religion adopted by the rulers. They opted for the latter choice since they decided that they should be with the dominant party. “We are being with the dominant party.” This statement, uttered by Abdullah Bin Omar, has been changed into a lawful rule. Alas! The matters became submissive to this form; the coming ruler is that whom is nominated by the current one. The dominant should be the ruler whatever he was! Allah's, however, is the sequences of affairs.
THE DIVINE DISPOSITION OF THE TRANSFERENCE OF IMAMATE AFTER THE LEADER'S DECEASE
Allah has revealed the Quran as a missive and a divine doctrine to mankind. It is also representing one of the necessities of explicating this doctrine. The Quran was revealed to Mohammed, none else, since this man was the divinely prepared for being the most knowledgeable of this doctrine, the keenest of the rulings of this operative lawful collection, the most favorable among the followers of the doctrine and the fittest for leading these followers presently and in the future.
On that account, the Prophet was seen as the guide of the solicitation. He also was the head of the state originated from that solicitation. Mohammed's conducts; words, deeds and signature are contemplated as a part of the doctrine. During his blessed lifetime, none should represent or supplant Mohammed in this mission. He is the center of the circle and the leader of the nation in both political and religious affairs.
THE SPECIALIST IN NOMINATING THE PROPHET AND THE IMAM
Allah, the Elevated, is the Authority exclusively having the right of nominating imams. Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) was the first leader, imam and president of the Islamic state. He was selected by Allah for this position. This was by the reason that he had been the most knowledgeable of the doctrine, the keenest of perceiving its rulings, the most favorable among the followers of the doctrine and the fittest for leading and applying the regulations. God, gave himself the exclusiveness of having the right of selecting the imam, the authority and the leader since He, the Elevated, is the only One Who has the propensity, based upon certitude and conviction, of recognizing the fittest. It was He, the Exalted, Who gave the conscript imam, in every time, the right of explicating the divine doctrine, enjoying authority, joining political and religious leadership and issuing verdicts on the light of this doctrine.
THE CONSCRIPT IMAM
In every period of time, the head of the Prophet's household is the nation's imam. The reason beyond dedicating leadership to the Prophet's progeny is their being the other weighty thing beside the Quran, the greater weighty thing. And guidance cannot be attained and deviation cannot be evaded unless these two weighty things are clung. This rule is inferred from doctrinal texts of the Quran and the Prophet's traditions with its three classes; words, deeds and signature. God has also showed us that the Prophet's household, are the like of Noah's ark, he shall be certainly saved that who takes it at any epoch, while those who eschew shall certainly sink. They are also the security against engaging in discrepancies. They are prepared by God for this mission. They are also Mohammed's progeny. Saving Mohammed whose progeny is the offspring of Ali and Fatima, the prophets' progenies were their direct sons.
Except for Allah, the Elevated, none can recognize, so certainly and convictionally, the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest for understanding, applying and leading the doctrine's followers. Hence, He, the Elevated, has been the specialist of nominating the Prophet's successor. He did opt for Ali Bin Abi Talib for the Muslims' leadership and the Prophet's succession. The Apostle was ordered to prepare and arrange the grounds for his successor. Hence, this successor became the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest after the Prophet. He also became the only authority enjoying the right of practicing the entire political and religious missions previously practiced by the Prophet. Prophesy, however, is excluded since no prophet should come forth after Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). Through the instructions of the Prophet, God, the Exalted, showed us that the right shall be invariably with Ali, and Ali shall be with the right which follows Ali wherever he turns. Therefore, Ali is ‘trustful’ as Ibn Khuldoun figures out in Chapter: 30 of his Muqaddima.
THE AUTHORITY IN CHARGE OF NOMINATING THE SUCCESSOR OF THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR
Ali Bin Abi Talib is the direct successor of the Prophet. The right is always with Ali and Ali is always with the right which follows him wherever he turns. Similarly, the Quran is with Ali and Ali is with the Quran so continuously that they shall never be separated till they join the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) on the Heavenly Pool. Ali is the most favorable and the fittest among the followers of the Islamic doctrine, and the most knowledgeable and the keenest according to the statements of Allah and His Apostle. For all these reasons, he is being the authorized of nominating his successor. In due course, every imam should nominate his successor. They are, pursuant to the Holy Quran, the Prophet's sons. The Verse of Mubahala -supplicating God to curse the liar party- blows every obstinate on the face.
Unanimously, the Islamic hadithists agree upon the fact that the Verse of Mubahala: (But whoever disputes with you in matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come on let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars. 3:61), was revealed in the favor of the Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (peace be upon them). Accordingly, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein are the only sons of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Which statement, after this, will make you believe?! Which language, other than this, will make us affront partisan imitation and follow the right and the intellectual results?!
They are, at least, from Quraish, the Prophet's clan. According to authentic traditions, the Muslims' leadership should be from Quraish. The Hashemites are the forehead of Quraish. The Abdul-Muttelibs are the forehead of the Hashemites. The forehead of the Abdul-Muttelibs is Mohammed and his progeny. They are purified by Allah. The Verse of Tatihir -purification- is so evident. Considering they claim that the Verse concerned the Prophet's women, we ask: how should a man's women be purified while his sons be not?! At the minimum, they should be esteemed for their having been blocked in Col Abu Talib for three years!
Those imams, however, are twelve in number. It is they that are the purified imams, not the prevailing Quraishi rulers who were more than one hundred.
THE WISDOM OF DEDICATING IMAMATE TO MOHAMMED'S PROGENY
The Prophet's progeny were given the Imamate because Allah has purified them -mentally and physically-. Hence, they shall be forming no dangerous on this nation. Another reason is that discrepancies and rivalry about leadership shall be excavated. When others hold the position of Imamate and leadership, the prevailing, apart from regarding his religiousness, knowledgeability and honesty, shall be ruling. In case the position of Imamate is dedicated to the Prophet's progeny, everybody's satisfaction is attained. Settlement shall be achieved and selves shall be affable and avarice shall be detained if the ruler is Mohammed's son.
PEOPLE'S ROLE IN THE PROCESS OF NOMINATING THE IMAM
When people are faithful, honest and broad-minded, they are, naturally, to scrutinize the most knowledgeable and the keenest of the divine doctrine and its rulings since this doctrine is the heavenly jurisprudential systemization that is the operative law, and the imam is the responsible for applying this law. Anticipated dangers shall certainly occur if the leader is an individual other than the most knowledgeable and the keenest.
In addition, every nation is, absolutely, to search for the most preferred among individuals. It is for everybody's good and pride that the most preferred is the ruler. In a like manner, the intellectual, faithful, and broad-minded nation should seek the fittest for leading to the course of Allah.
It is not attainable for any individual, group or nation as a whole, to recognize, in certitude and conviction, the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest.
It is none but Allah, the Elevated, Who has the aptitude of recognizing such attributes so certainly and convictionally. For His grace, mercy and comprehension, God directs His servants to their very acquaintance they are searching for, and refers to the most qualified to leading the march towards Him.
Having enjoying intellectuality, faithfulness and broad-mindedness, the nation should embrace the divine contribution of nominating the qualified individual for leadership. The nation should also be blissful as the one for whom they are searching is already provided by God. Consequently, people should swear their allegiance satisfactorily, not coercively, to this imam and leader. When this declaration of fealty is accomplished, the imam selected by God becomes the legal and actual leader of the nation. He should, then, aid the nation in applying the heavenly jurisprudential systemization.
DISINTEGRATION BETWEEN ACTUALITY AND LEGALITY
In case people reject the heavenly contribution of nominating the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest for leadership, and probe, according to personal inference, another, then a process of disintegration shall be occurring between actuality and legality. Thus, the actual ruler who holds fast on power shall be an individual other than that nominated by God. Hence, the latter shall be powerless and incapable of directing people who will not accede to him. As a matter of fact, this individual selected by God shall be impotent to practice illegal ways to come to power since he is the bearer of ethics imposed upon him by his religion. Later on, the prevailing illegal ruler shall be having the entire power in the hand and claiming of his being the Prophet's successor and representative. The stick of sovereignty will be shaked in the faces of those who may oppose.
Al-Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib is the imam, the leader, the authority and the guide of people of his time. He attained such attributes by categorical doctrinal texts. Voluntarily or coercibly, people swore allegiance to Yazeed Bin Muawiya. Hence, the latter became the actual ruler. Al-Hussein, the legal ruler, became unable to practice his competencies since force and usurpation were the two aspects due to which Yazeed came to power. People shunned this matter. Deliberately or forcibly, they declared their fealty to this ruler and turned aside from the legal one, Al-Hussein, who had to opt for one of two situations; either to submit to the actuality or confront the prevailing power that had the ability of pressing on him through means and material media that might reached to executing death penalty. Authority, in fact, stands for a legal wife of Al-Hussein, the imam. This wife loves her husband and is sincere to him since she sees him be the very one who deserves her.
By means of force, prevalence and arrogance, the actual ruler usurped that wife and compelled her to live with him. This ruler, in fact, realizes that he owns only the body of that wife whose soul is clung to her legitimate husband. Hence, he shall never be contented unless he gets rid of that husband. By achieving so, the ruler shall be seizing this wife's heart and she shall never be back to her beloved.
THE LEGAL IMAMS
The legal imams are:
Ali Bin Abi Talib.
Al-Hassan Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib.
Al-Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib.
Zeinul-Abidin Bin Al-Hussein Bin Ali.
Mohammed Al-Baqir Bin Zeinul-Abidin Bin Al-Hussein.
Ja'far As-Sadiq Bin Mohammed Bin Zeinul-Abidin.
Mousa Al-Kadhim Bin Ja'far Bin Mohammed.
Ali Ar-Ridha Bin Mousa Bin Ja'far.
Mohammed Al-Jawad Bin Ali Bin Mousa.
Ali Al-Hadi Bin Mohammed Bin Ali.
Al-Hassan Al-Askari Bin Ali Bin Mohammed.
Mohammed Al-Mahdi Bin Al-Hassan Bin Ali.
EXPOSING THE FUTURE FOR THE LEADER AND THE PROPHET'S SUCCESSOR
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) fulfilled the trust, conveyed the mission so successfully, explicated everything, carried out his Lord's mandate of nominating his successor, familiarized the entire individuals and groups of his nation with this decision and, subsequently, declared this decision before one hundred thousand Muslims. Headed by Omar Bin Al-Khattab, the entire present individuals offered congratulations to Ali on this occasion. It seemed that everything would be in its proper place, and matters would go so relaxedly and openly. Being not sufficed with all these procedures, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) revealed some of the morrow issues before his companions. In the presence of the grand Sahaba, like Abu Bakr and Omar, the Prophet foretold: “From among you there shall be an individual who will fight for the sake of safeguarding the correct interpretation of the Quran as same as I have fought for the sake of its revelation.”
The attendants expected themselves to be the intended. “Is it I?” asked Abu Bakr. “No.” answered the Prophet. “It is I, then.” stated Omar. “No.” answered the Prophet, “He is the repairer of the sandal.” The Prophet referred to Ali. Abu Sa'eed Al-Khidri commentated: “When we carried this good tidings to him, Ali did not even raise his head, as if he had already heard it.”
The Prophet exhibited a general view of his successor's future. He addressed at him: “Surely you shall be facing arduous matters after me.” “Shall this happen while I am saving my religion?” asked Ali. “Yes indeed. Your religion is saved.” asserted the Prophet.
He also foretold his successor of the nation's betraying him soon after his -the Prophet- decease.
The most important matter Ali had been foreseen was that he should be fought. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “You shall be battled by the despotic faction. You shall be the right. He whomever will not support you on that day, shall not be reckoned with my people.”
The Prophet spared no efforts for cautioning his nation against the matter falling in the morrow. He addressed at one of his companions: “O Abu Rafi! After me there shall be some people fighting Ali. Conflicting these people is one of Allah's obligatory duties. If it is helpless to fight them with hands, tongues should be used. When these are also unworkable, fight them with your hearts.”
THE COLLAPSE OF THE JAHILITE POLITICAL FORM
A total collapse occurred to the Jahilite -pre-Islamic- political form. This collapse was rendered by the divine arrangements appertained to the position of the Islamic state's leadership. For Islam's viewpoint, nominating the leadership is a total disciplinary process dedicated to specialists. It must be exclusively conferred to the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest among the followers, disregarding clans and tribes.
The Jahilite political form, on the other hand, is based upon surmising leadership as a common practice headed by each clan in definite shares. These clans concluded a political form grounded on partitioning the honor of the political positions including headship, the pennon, the assemblies, watering the pilgrimages, hosting the guests... etc.
Congregationally, they esteemed this political form as the best attainable system at which the highest level of equity could be achieved. Accordingly, the political positions were seen as a fate common among these clans and it is for nobody's good that any change occurs. This made this form the title of a political belief and an impossibly passable tradition. The Meccan tribes attempted at stopping the advent of the Hashemite prophet, but they failed although they had spared no efforts at all for achieving so. Hence, the Hashemite's prophesy was proved to be an inescapable fortune. Considering the Hashemite's prophesy has been an unfailing destiny, is it, then, practicable to regard their enjoying leadership and the Prophet's succession as an unfailing destiny, too? It is infeasible that God grants them prophesy and leadership altogether! Correspondingly, the Quraishis were enraged due to the divine arrangements appertained to the Prophet's succession. This spite had been the architect of the slogan: “It is impracticable for the Hashemites to join leadership to prophesy.” In the presence of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), this slogan was behind bars. Yet, there has been an appropriate opportunity for it to emerge. For achieving a methodological coherence of this thesis, I am to provide the historical debate anew, so that the portrait should be perfected and the topic comprehended.
THE REBELLION
THE HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCE THAT HELPED THE REBELLION PREVAIL AND THE LEGALITY RETREAT
A. THE CLANS OF QURAISH
The Quraish consist of twenty five clans. The best and the most honorable clan is the sons of Hashim Bin Abd Menaf. They are directly followed by the sons of Abdul-Muttelib Bin Abd Menaf,... Al-Harith Bin Abd Menaf,..., Umaya Bin Abd Shams Bin Abd Menaf and Nawfel Bin Abd Menaf respectively. The Hashemites are the celebrities of Quraish. They succeeded their father in management. They are named ‘Al-Mujebbirun -The healers-’. They are regarded as the foremost in holding peace treaties with the kings of that time. Hashim held a peace treaty with the kings of Syria. Abd Shams held an alike one with Nejashi, the king of Abyssinia. Nawfel held an alike one with the kings of Persia. Abdul-Muttelib held an alike one with the kings of Himyer; Yemen. According to such treaties, people of Quraish could settle in various areas of this world. For the high standing and the mastery of the Hashemites upon the Arabs, they were called ‘Aqdahun-Nedhar -Cups of Gold.-’
B. THE POLITICAL FORM
The Quraishi clans concluded a political form respecting distributing positions, such as the leadership, the pennon, the assemblies, watering the pilgrimages, hosting the guests... etc. This form was the furthest thing the clans could achieve. They, as a whole, were convinced that that had been too satisfactory to abuse any one's rights. The political positions are estimated as the fate of those clans that it is none's benefit to alter or change, since it is impossible to recognize the consequences of such attempts of altering or changing. It might, at least, result in losing what had been achieved. The entire clans, in addition, were pleased to such a form that arranged the affairs of the pilgrimage and the Holy House. Gradually these positions and missions became a significance of a political belief and a heritage of the forefathers. It became impermissible for any to stand against such missions.
C. ENDEAVORS FOR SHAKING THE FORM
In the years of starvation, Hashim was the only individual who committed himself to providing food to people. He was named the master of Bat'ha. His food-tables were spread in times of amenity and distress. He was wont to host the guests and the passers-by and secure the troubled. Umaya Bin Abd Shams feared and envied him. He failed in imitating Hashim; therefore, the other Quraishi people criticized and imputed dishonor to him. Hashim rejected his challenge to argue about the more honorable of them. Owing to Umaya's insistence, he accepted it. They agreed that the loser should undergo fifty she-camels and banished. As the arbiter ruled of Hashim's being more honorable, fifty she-camels of Umaya were slaughtered and he was deported to Syria. This was the first seed of hostility between the sons of Hashim and those of Umaya. It seems that the motive beyond Umaya's challenge was his envying Hashim and the apprehension that he would be a serious danger against the political form according to which the sons of Abd Shams had been the leaders. Furthermore, He might have realized that the fame of Hashim would shake the form as a whole and would, as a result, cause people to follow him.
D. THE AUGURY OF PROPHESY
In Mecca, it was commonly spread that soon there would be a prophet to be assigned by God, and that he would be a successor of Abd Menaf. Abu Sufian was one of those who believed in this foretelling and worked depending on it. He established distinguishable relations with Abdullah Bin Abis-Salt. According to his conception, Abu Sufian was certain that the intended prophet should cancel the political form -of the Quraishi clans-, the leadership of which was in his hand. Hence, this prophet would be forming the most hazardous factor against the sons of Umaya. After a long period of panic and suffering, he could have a term of tranquillity since he believed that the prophet would be a successor of Abd Menaf, and there was none, from among the successors of Abd Menaf, fitter than him in undergoing such a mission. On that account, he should certainly be the very one intended.
E. THE DECLARATION OF PROPHESY
Mohammed, the successor of Hashim, declared his being the anticipated prophet whom had been favored by God for leading the Arabs and the mankind to the right path. He declared that the evidence of his prophesy had been God's words. A little group of eloquent individuals and those who were harshly treated in this world, followed Mohammed.
F. THE HASHIMITES' GUARDING MOHAMMED
With all their forces, the Hashemites embraced Mohammed. The leaders of Quraish threatened that they would kill him. In fact, they spread a rumor of Mohammed's being killed. Abu Talib gathered the Hashemite men and gave each a hard bar. Walking with the sons of Hashim and his, Abu Talib raised his voice at the people of Quraish: “O people of Quraish! Do you realize what I am to do?” “No, we do not.” they answered. Abu Talib ordered his people to show what they were keeping in their hands. Each showed the hard bar he had. Abu Talib commented: “By God I swear, if you kill him -Mohammed- I will never keep any of you alive unless we both are terminated.” Accordingly, people of Quraish were defeated. Abu Jahl countered the largest share of that defeat.
G. NOT FOR THE FAVOR OF THE PAGANS, IT WAS ENVY, AND PRESERVING THE POLITICAL FORM
Led by Abu Sufian, the other clans of Quraish exerted all their efforts for the sake of facing Mohammed. Nevertheless, they could not intercept him. For countering the importunity and the rejection of the Hashemites, the clans of Quraish unanimously agreed on the following decisions:
1. Issuing a total boycott against the Hashemites. The Quraishi clans, including Teim and Edi, ostracized the Hashemites. They restricted them in the cols of Abu Talib for three continuous years. The Hashemites, during that period, had to have from the leaves of the trees due to the starvation they suffered. Their children, likewise, had to suck the sands due to their thirstiness. This is an indisputable fact that is as clear as sunlight. Neither Mohammed nor did the Hashemites submit to the Quraishi people. Finally, God refuted the trickeries of the Quraishi people and leaders. After a three year boycott, the blockade proved its failure.
2. As they realized that Mohammed would soon immigrate to Yathrib, where he could find supporters and could establish a base for his advocacy, the clans of Quraish decided unanimously to kill him. They selected a man from each tribe so that they would strike him together that his blood would be distributed among the entire tribes equally. The purpose beyond such a cabal was obliging the Hashemites to miss out any opportunity to revenge Mohammed. They believed that Mohammed would achieve his goals and, in sequence, divest them from their leadership and authority, if he reached in Yathrib.
They applied this cabal so accurately, but they were astonished when they found Ali Bin Abi Talib sleeping in Mohammed's bed. The leaders of Mecca became so perturbed that they offered big prizes as a remuneration for those who would be able to capture Mohammed, alive or dead.
In the other side, Mohammed, his companion and the guide were pushing their way to Yathrib in safe, by God's will. This is an indiscussible fact that is as clear as sunlight.
H. NOT FOR THE FAVOR OF THE PAGANS, THE WARS WERE DUE TO ENVY AND PRESERVING THE POLITICAL FORM
Neither the Quraishi clans led by the Umayids, nor were the Hashemites, Mohammed and his group despondent from achieving triumph against the adversary party. The Arabs were three parties; one was supporting people of Quraish and their joint commandment. The other, even few, was supporting Mohammed. The third was waiting for the outcome for supporting the victorious. In Badr and Uhud, wars broke up between the two parties. A third war broke out when the leadership of the Quraishis raised armies and allied the Jews forming the multipartite army. They advanced towards Al-Madina, the Prophet's capital. Precisely, these multipartite armies failed. A while later, the Quraishi were surprised by the armies of God in Mecca, their capital. Hence, the leaders of Quraish were submitted and they had to embrace Islam. Owing to this submission, the entire Arabs were dominated by the Prophet's government and, consequently, they embraced Islam in groups.
I. THE HASHEMITE PROPHESY IS AN INESCAPABLE FATE
Sparing no single sort of rejection and resistance, the clans of Quraish, led by the Umayids, opposed the religion established by Mohammed, the Hashemite. Apart from their loyalty to their pagans, the main reason beyond this resistance was their abhorrence that a Hashemite would be the one to whom this religion had been revealed. They disliked the Hashemites’ leadership. The shade of the old political form was another motive towards their resisting this advocacy.
Finally, Abu Sufian was surprised by God's soldiers on the doorsteps of Mecca. Al-Abbas detains him so that he should see God's soldiers with his own eyes. “I have never seen such a domination alike of which is not existed neither at Khosrow, Caesar nor the Romans.” expresses Abu Sufian. Before the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), Abu Sufian is dragged by Al-Abbas. “O Abu Sufian! Woe is you! Is it not the appropriate time to realize that there is no god but Allah?” the Prophet addresses at him. “I do conceive that Allah would not affect me in any sort if there was another god besides Him.” answers Abu Sufian. “O Abu Sufian!” the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) reasks, “Is it not the proper time to realize that I am the messenger of God?” “Regarding this, my soul, by God, cannot receive it completely!” admits Abu Sufian. Al-Abbas shouts: “Woe is you, Abu Sufian! Declare your being Muslim and admit that there is no god but Allah and Mohammed is surely the messenger of Allah, lest you shall be beheaded.” Only after mentioning beheading, surrounding and hopelessness, Abu Sufian declares his being Muslim for nothing other than saving his soul. He was gazing at the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) surprisingly when he said to himself: “By which weapon did this man overcome?” God, informed His Apostle of Abu Sufian's wonderment; therefore, he came to him and said: “By Allah I overcame.”
Thus and so, the Quraishi clans realized the following facts:
The Hashemite prophesy is an inescapable and determined fate.
They, as clans, had no role, at all, in this preference. They would never agree upon this option if only they had any role in the operation.
The prophesy is a one time phenomenon.
No single clan of Quraish will be catching or joined to the Hashemites.
The political form was not only shaked, but also was it completely blasted.
Hence, the Quraishi clans worked furtively for occluding this (Hashemite) advancement towards governing the royalty besides the prophesy, the matter which results in gaining the integrity as a whole.
The most enthusiast clan towards occluding the Hashemite advancement: The clans of Quraish, altogether, believed that the Hashemite prophesy had certainly shaked the political form of distributing roles of celebrity among them in an unprecedented form. Saving the Al-Muttelib Bin Abd Menaf who supported the Hashemites, the Quraishi clans, as a whole, rejected this Hashemite prophesy. The Umayids, however, were the most enthusiast and denying against this Hashemite advancement. They did their best for the sake of intercepting the Hashemite from joining headship to the divine prophesy. The following are some of the reasons beyond such an enthusiastic situation:
1. Before Islam, the Umayids were engaged in considerable hostility, enmity and envy against the Hashemites.
2. Owing to the Hashemites' prophesy, the Umayids lost the headship they had enjoyed.
3. It was the Hashemites who killed the chiefs of the Umayids. Utbeh, Al-Waleed and Sheibeh were killed by Hamzeh, Ali and Ubeidullah. In addition to their abhorrence, the Umayids bore malice to the Hashemites. The amount of this malice is evidently reflected by Hind, Muawiya’s mother and Abu Sufian’s wife. Being not sufficed by killing Hamzeh, she corrupted his celibate corpse. On account of the victory and the expansion of Mohammed's prophesy, besides the Umayids retardation to join Islam and their long and famous history in antagonizing, they could not have any opportunity to declare their plan of intercepting the Hashemites from gaining the authority, beside the prophesy, of this nation.
J. THE PREEMINENT TREND
The notion of the unacceptability for the Hashemites to join headship to prophesy became the preeminent trend, although it was stable only in the hidden because of the presence of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), the dominion of legality and the unification of the Prophet's virtuous companions. As soon as any of these three factors is missed, the legality will be shaked and the virtuous companions will be (the like of a single white hair in a black bull's skin) as Muawiya describes. The authority, then, will be the prevailing's.
K. THE IMMACULATE KINSHIP IS THE STATUTORY BASE OF CALIPHATE
The following is the argument of the three Muhajirs -immigrators to Yathrib- in the Saqeefeh of Bani Sa'ideh:
Abu Bakr stated: “We are the Prophet's clan while you are his supporters. Thus, you are our supporters in this religion.”
Omar stated: “Two swords cannot be put in the same seath. Nay, by God. The Arab shall never accept your being the leaders while the Prophet is another clan's. The Arab should never select but those from whom the prophesy came forth. The evident argument and the manifest evidence is ours against our opposers. Who dare to litigate with us about the authority and the heritage of Mohammed while we are his backers and people? None but the wrong, the sinful or the involved in a disaster may do so.”
The Ansar -the supporters; people of Yathrib who supported the Prophet and his followers.- shouted in one voice: “We shall select none other than Ali.” Ali, however, was absent. Some of the Ansar shouted: “We shall select none other than Ali.”
Without any respite, the matter of Mohammed's succession became in the hands of As-Siddiq, Abu Bakr. As he was called for declaring his fealty to Abu Bakr, Ali stated: “I am the most rightful in this affair. I am not to submit to your leadership. It is you whom are to be submitted to my leadership. You seized it from the Ansar claiming of the Prophet's kinship. Now, you intend to seize it from the Prophet's household coercively?! Have you not argued before the Ansar that you are more rightful in holding this affair of leadership due to your relation to the Prophet? And they complied to your claim and gave it to you. Now, I do provide the very same argument before you; we are the most rightful in enjoying the Prophet's authority and heritage in and after his life.. etc.”
L. THE REBELLION AND THE DISSIPATION OF THE PREEMINENT TREND
Bed-ridden, Omar were engaged in planning for the future of Mohammed's nation. Evading no single face, he stated: “Had Abu Ubeideh, Me'ath Bin Jabal, Khalid Bin Al-Waleed or Salim the slave of Abu Hutheifeh been alive, I would have nominated as my successor.
Salim is a non-Arab slave whose lineage is unknown. Me'ath is one of the Ansar whom were impermitted to have the authority in the meeting of Saqeefeh. Khalid is from Bani Makhzum. He is a ten class companion since he immigrated in the period between the Hudeibiyeh peace treaty and the conquest of Mecca.
Once, in his reign, Omar argued Ibn Abbas:
“O Ibn Abbas! Do you realize the reason beyond your people's neglecting your nominating for managing the Islamic state?” Evading the anticipated consequences, Ibn Abbas escaped from the answer. “Well, Ameerul-Mu'mineen! If I ignore the answer, you are definitely in full awareness of it.” commented Ibn Abbas. “Your people disliked the matter that you would have the prophesy and the authority altogether and then, you would have been unjust to them. People of Quraish selected for themselves. Indeed, they succeeded as they opted for the right one.” expressed Omar. “O Ameerul-Mu'mineen!” Ibn Abbas worded, “May I speak provided that you shall not be irate?” “Yes, you may.” permitted Omar. Ibn Abbas signified: “Regarding your saying (People of Quraish selected for themselves. Indeed, they succeeded as they opted for the right one.), they would have been right absolutely and without litigant if only they had clung to what God had opted for. Regarding your saying: (Your people disliked the matter that you would have the prophesy and the authority altogether.), God, the Exalted, described a people who disliked; saying: (That is because they hated what Allah revealed, so he rendered their deeds null.)” “Far it is, Ibn Abbas!” replied Omar, “I have been informed of some news about you, but I do not like to discipline you about so that your status would not be lessened.” Ibn Abbas answered: “O Ameerul-Mu'mineen! My status at you must not have been lessened in case these news were true, otherwise, I am one of those who obviated the ill deeds from approaching towards their entities.” Omar said: “Well, I was informed of your claim that the general authority had been taken away from you, Mohammed's clan, due to envy, aggression and injustice.” “Respecting the injustice,” responded Ibn Abbas, “it had been realized by the level-headed, as well as the ill-minded. Respecting envy, Adam was envied, and we are his envied sons.” “Far it is. Far it is.” expressed Omar, “Your hearts, sons of Hashim, are filled in with an immovable envy.” Ibn Abbas answered: “Slow down, Ameerul-Mu'mineen! Do you impute such a description to hearts that God has (kept away uncleanness from them and purified them a thorough purification?)”
The event recorded by Al-Mas'udi in his Muroujut-Theheb, regarding the conversation of Omar and Ibn Abbas, does reveal the intellectual rebellion and the disclosure of the preeminent trend which was hidden during the Prophet's lifetime before the foundation of the caliphate. The following is a literal quotation of this narrative:
The literal quotation of this narrative:
Ibn Abbas related:
I responded Omar's summon. I was before him when he addressed at me: “O Ibn Abbas! The governor of Hims has just died. He was one of the rare virtuous people. Except for the matter I have against you, I do regard you with those rare virtuous ones. Do you accept my offer to be the governor of Hims?” “I will not work for you unless you tell of the matter you have against me.” I said unto him. “What for are you asking so?” asked Omar. “I do desire to know it. I will be cautious if it is a real thing, and if not, I will realize that I do not have it. Then, I will accept your offer. I noticed you have hardly asked for a matter with respite.” I answered. Omar expressed: “O Ibn Abbas! I anticipate that I will face my fatal chance while you are keeping your position, then you may call people to select you as the new leader. I noticed the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had neglected assigning you, his household, in any position.” “Yes, by God. I noticed so, too. Do you realize the reason?” I wondered. “I do not know exactly. Was it for the reason that he had been too cautious to give you official positions to which you are certainly authorized, or was it for that he anticipated that you would be elected for the leadership because of your relation to him? Only then, blame would fall. Inevitably, blame shall fall. That is it. What do you see now?” commented Omar. “I see I should not accept this position.” I said. “What for?” questioned Omar. “I shall be a permanent mote in your eyes as long as you bear this opinion...”
Even after his decease, Omar, the excessively careful for the Muslims' interests, must be sure that the Hashemites shall never be having dominion over people, and shall never be ruling Mohammed's nation.
In general, the saying of the abomination of the Hashemites' joining headship to prophesy was changed into a preeminent trend. This trend could find a ground to show and impose itself as a common conception adopted by the authorities and the priority of people. It is considered as the ultimate way against the Hashemite injustice and the apt course that enables the Quraishi clans to enjoy headship respectively as a compensation to be undergone by the authorities of the Hashemite prophesy. As Al-Faruq describes: “This conception is one of the appearances of the divine discrimination of Quraish. By inducing Abu Sufian to the ruling regime, giving him the right to dispose in the alms he had levied, nominating Yazeed, his son, as the commander of the army of Syria and nominating Muawiya, his other son, as a commander and, then, as the governor of Syria; all these procedures resulted in the formation of a factual alliance between the ruling regime and the ‘released.’ Both parties have the same access to intercept the Hashemites from joining headship to prophesy. This alliance eradicated the opposition and worked seriously for rehearsing the conception of the impermissibility of the Hashemites’ joining headship to prophesy.
Thus, the Prophet's immaculate household, besides their having been completely deposed and blocked, lost every thing including the privilege of honorability granted by the political form according to which Mecca was ruled before Islam. This seems clear in Al-Faruq's saying to Ibn Abbas: “By God, we did not refer to you due to need, but we disliked you to object against the matter on which people agreed unanimously. That would cause them, as well as you, suffer catastrophic consequences.”
The degree of humiliating the Prophet's progeny attained such a great level that even Abdullah Bin Az-Zubeir menaced to put the Hashemites' houses on fire with their inhabitants. Without the intercession of some virtuous individuals, this would have happened.
This proposes that every clan among those who imposed a blockade on the Hashemites in the cols of Abu Talib for three continuous years, and participated in the congregational cabal of assassination against the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), became in a state better than that enjoyed by the Hashemites themselves. Likewise, every individual of such clans became more rightful in coming to power than the Hashemites. Headship and authority is practically licit for every one except the Hashemites. All these procedures were taken for one goal only; occluding the Hashemites from joining headship to prophesy. Is the reward of goodness aught but goodness?!
M. THE STATUTORY GROUND OF THE CONCEPTION OF INTERCEPTING THE HASHEMITES FROM JOINING HEADSHIP TO PROPHESY
Totally, the conception is uncivilized. It is completely contradictory to the divine texts and the political regulations derived from the divine beliefs. The Prophet David, was inherited by Solomon, his son. Both joined headship to prophesy. None objected against the prophets and their progenies who had been gifted judiciary, prophesy and divine manuscripts. Privilege is in God's hand. Caliphate is a religious and, in the first place, mundane position. A Caliph is the prophet's representative. Stating arguments and setting forth rules that are completely methodological processes, are the main missions of prophets.
It is effortlessly probationary for the aware of the basic components of the Islamic political strategy, to recognize that the conception of intercepting the Hashemites from joining headship to prophesy has entirely blasted that strategy, as being divine, and has totally extricated its constituents. It is also proved that the conception involved has practically changed it into an ordinary positive strategy that is different from others in the political form only. Moreover, the leadership of the state became a prey obtained exclusively by the prevailing whoever he was. After achieving prevalence, that one occupies the Prophet's chair (reed mat, in fact), attires the cloak of Islam and, hence, becomes the new caliph. In case any one of the ‘released’ who fought against Islam as much as possible till he was surrounded and had to show his being Muslim to save his soul, prevails, he will openly impose his orders upon the Muhajir who participated in every battle supporting the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). Similarly, God's representative who is, according to divine regulations and texts, the president of the Islamic state will become an ordinary citizen under the authority of such a ‘released’. Thus, for the sake of seeking justice of the other clans and intercepting the Hashemites from joining headship to prophesy or, in other words, reviving the old political form of distributing missions in a new dress, the illiterate ruled and the learned's mouth was shut up.
As the old political form distributed missions among the clans, the new one, when applied, ranted such clans to come to power in turn and, in the same time, to share positions of headship. Regarding the divine regulations appertained to the Islamic political strategy, they were reckoned with other irrelevant topics since they were unfitting the political form established before Islam.
N. EFFECTS OF PRACTICING THE CONCEPTION OF INTERCEPTING THE HASHEMITES FROM JOINING HEADSHIP TO PROPHESY
The first effect was the total disappearance of the discrimination between those who fought against Islam and those who fought for its sake till triumph was achieved. From the political side, the two categories are Muslims of the same credit. Consequently, the all shall be in the same Paradise. The Hashemite individual, in a like manner, who was occluded in cols of Abu Talib for three years, is not different from that previously polytheist who imposed this blockade upon him since he declared his being Muslim!! Islam does erase what precedes it! Had Hamzeh been alive again, he should have been as same as Wahshi -his killer-. This is from the practical political side. The killer and his victim are enjoying the very same rank. The Muhajir and the ‘released’ are enjoying the very same rank, too. The same is said about the illiterate and the most learned. Supposing this illiterate predominates, it shall be politically obligatory upon that most learned to obey and comply to. This is not regularly; on the assumption there is a most learned Hashemite, like Ali Bin Abi Talib, to compete with an Ansari with a less degree of knowledge, the latter will certainly be preferred. This is evident from Al-Faruq's following saying: “Had Me'ath Bin Jabal or Khalid Bin Al-Waleed been alive, I would have nominated as the caliph.” This was said with the presence of Ali Bin Abi Talib! Besides the battle of Uhud, Khalid fought against Islam in many positions, while Ali fought for the sake of Islam in all of its positions. Nonetheless, Khalid is preferred. Al-Faruq, also would have opted for Salim, the slave of Abu Hutheifeh, if only he had been alive. He would have made this non-Arab slave the chief of Ali Bin Abi Talib who is “the master of Omar, Abu Ubeideh and every male and female believer,” as Al-Faruq himself had declaratorily confessed.
The second effect was seeding and sheltering the unceasing discrepancy. As long as there is no discrimination between the Muhajir and the ‘released’ or the killer and his victim, and it is rightful for every one to take in Islam according to his idiosyncratic elucidation, this will result in the existence of various sources of jurisconsultance, notions and independent impressions. Hence, every party claims of being the right, and takes a path not taken by others. With the absence of a leading jurisconsult, whose judgments are followed by the all considering it as juristic doubtless evidences, the seed of discrepancies was planted in a fertile land. Supposing Ali and one of the ‘released’ judge in a certain issue, the receiver of these two judgments will be having the full prerogative to opt for any. This is by the reason that practically they, Ali and the ‘released’, are indiscriminately Muslims of the same rank. They both shall be in the same Paradise. So, both are Sahaba. Practically also, there is no statutory preference for Ali's judgment; how, then, is it to make preference between the equal, or how is it to make a distinction between the completely alike? In the same manner, to take any of the two pieces of gold that are having the very same size, shape, amount and value, is practically acceptable. Making any discrimination is a cautioned matter. The harmony involved is external, while the discrepancy is developing under that exterior. Sooner or later, this discrepancy will certainly be grown into a fatal malignancy that shall tear the unification of this nation and pull them out of their frame into mystery and the unknown.
The third effect was excluding the Hashemites particularly from coming to power. This meant that there was no obstacle at all against any Muslim to have the leadership of the Islamic state, provided that this position could be attained by any means including the illegal. This gives the opportunity to come to power using any methods if it becomes liable to subject people. A condition that forms an obstruction against this process is the belongness to the Hashemites, whom were exclusively granted with prophesy. So, they are fully sufficed with prophesy.
This general privilege turned the avarice for authority into a horrible nightmare and an irksome approach that made the nation lose their decision and settlement, and an experimental program for all those who looked forward to coming to power. Owing to such a privilege, the constitutional political strategy of the Islamic state became off. Regarding discerning this new ruler's lineage, knowledgeability, beliefs or preference to Islam; these matters became a second class affairs that are practically valueless and no-good since the predominating ruler has already prevailed, and the prevailed's satisfaction is a matter of an idiosyncratic interest.
Thus, what should prevent Yazeed, the notorious lascivious, from being the head of the state since he is the son of Muawiya, the former chief? What should prevent Al-Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib who is, according to categorical divine texts, (the master of the youth of the Paradise,) (the dweller of the Paradise,) (the Prophet's basil) and (the constitutional imam of this nation), from being an ordinary citizen in Yazeed's state? Both, Al-Hussein and Yazeed are Muslims of the same rank that shall be in the Paradise. Yazeed, the murderer, and Al-Hussein, the victim, will both be in the same Paradise. Both are Sahabi!! Those who criticize this notion are miscreants whom should be neither shared in food or drink nor offered the Funeralt's Prayer when they perish!!
The fourth effect is confusedness. The good has been confused with the bad, the right with the wrong, the sweet with the bitter. The precedent became as same rank as the tardy, the attacker as same rank as the absconder, the killer as same rank as his victim and the supporter of Islam as same rank as the antagonist. They all embraced Islam and saw or were seen by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family); therefore, the all are Sahaba, the all are in the Paradise.
The virtuous ones hid themselves in the numerous provinces of the state and became “the like of a single white hair in a black bull's skin”, as Muawiya describes. The Islamic political strategy collapsed. The preferred became tardy and the tardy preferred. (And Allah's is the end of affairs.)
INTRODUCTORIES TO THE REBELLION
1. WITH THE PROPHET IN HIS FINAL DISEASE
The Prophet was in his final moments. The Angel Gabriel visited him ceaselessly. He had full knowledge of the future of his nation. He did his mission so completely, conveyed his Lord's missives and explicated every thing totally and was familiar with the surrounding incidents. He realized the current silence should be followed by an explosion that would destroy the political legality and the doctrinal authority. This destruction would certainly disarm Islam and cripple the central originator of the divine solicitation and government.
For his nature, the Prophet should never be inclined by storms, and should never be occluded from keeping his deep pathos of kindness and mercy towards these peoples. In addition to the completion of the religion, the perfection of the divine grace and the comprehensive explication of every thing needed by people including ways of appropriate defecation and urination, the Prophet insisted on condensing the entire situation for people. By this, he intended that people would be guided and would never be deviated or affected by the imminent pitfalls waylaying for them and waiting for the Prophet's decease so that they -the pitfalls- would be opening their mouths for troubling Islam's pureness, hampering its movement and digressing its course.
The Prophet's blessed house was suffocated with the grand Sahaba. It was the best opportunity to disclose. He importunately persisted on summarizing the situation and reminding of the future course of the march of Islam. The Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree after which you shall never be deviated.”
What is the wrong with such a prophetic cognizance? Who would reject preservation against deviation? For what is this matter rejected? For whose good is it rejected? Moreover, considering Mohammed as an ordinary Muslim, not a prophet and a leader of the nation, it is rightful for every Muslim to record his will and say whatever he wants, specially just before his final departure. It is optional for the receivers to apply or discount that will or saying.
Omar Bin Al-Khattab interfered and addressed at the retinue: “The Prophet is dominated by his pains. You have the Quran. We are sufficed by God's Book.”
The retinue were engaged in discrepancy. Some supported the Prophet's demand with recording a decree after which deviation shall be thoroughly suspended, while others supported Omar's request of standing against that demand. When their dispute attained its climax, the Prophet dismissed them.
According to another narrative, when the Prophet demanded with a paper on which he would record a decree protecting against thorough deviation, the retinue disputed. It is disapprovable to dispute in the attendance of a prophet. They claimed that the Prophet had been speaking out of dotage. “Quit me!” the Prophet said, “The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
According to a third narrative; The Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper and an inkpot so that I will record a decree protecting you from deviation for ever.”
They said: “The Prophet of God is speaking out of dotage.”
According to a fourth narrative ascribed to Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you from deviation for ever.” Omar Bin Al-Khattab commented: “The Prophet is affected by his pains. We have, sufficiently, the Book of God.” So, they were engaged in litigious dispute. “Quit me.” the Prophet settled the divergence, “Before me it is disapprovable to engage in dispute.”
According to a fifth narrative of Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you thoroughly from deviation.” They were engaged in dispute. It is disapprovable to dispute before a prophet. “What is the wrong with him? Has he been speaking out of dotage? Ask him.” they commented. Some faced him with these questions frequently. “Quit me,” he said, “the pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
According to a sixth narrative reported by Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you thoroughly from deviation.” They were engaged in dispute. It is disapprovable to dispute before a prophet. “What is the wrong with him? Has he been speaking out of dotage? Ask him.” they commented. “Quit me,” he said, “the pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
As to a seventh narrative of Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said: “Let me record a decree according to which you shall never be deviated.” “The Prophet has been affected by his pains. You have the Quran. We are sufficed by the Book of Allah.” Omar commented.
The attendants were engaged in litigious dispute. Some supported the Prophet's demanding with a record protecting against deviation for ever. Some supported Omar's suggestion. “Quit me.” The Prophet said as their divergence attained its climax.
According to another report, Omar Bin Al-Khattab said: “The Prophet is speaking out of dotage…”
Al-Faruq declared that he had occluded the Prophet from recording that decree so that he would prevent him from nominating Ali for the leadership.
ANALYSIS OF THE ENCOUNTER
PARTIES OF ENCOUNTER
The first party: Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), the messenger of Allah, the last of the prophets and the imam (president) of the Islamic state.
The adversary party: Omar Bin Al-Khattab; one of the grand Sahaba and the most remarkable viziers of the Islamic state and the second successor of the Prophet.
Place of encounter: The Prophet's house.
Witnesses of the encounter: the grand Sahaba (pleased be them).
THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE ENCOUNTER
1. DISSENSION
The attendants dissented on two groups. The first supported Al-Faruq in preventing the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) from recording that decree. This group argued that Al-Faruq had been one of the most considerable Sahaba and the Prophet's viziers. He cared for Islam. He thought that there had been no incentive to annoy the diseased Prophet by allowing him to record that will. The Quran is sufficient in this regard. It is the security against deviation. Hence, it is inconsequential to have the decree the Prophet would write.
The second group rejected originally any sort of encounter between the followers and their leaders; a believer and a prophet whose mission is acceptably satisfactory; an apostle who directly receives instructions from God and an applier of such instructions; a prophet that is a head of a government and one of his ministers. The group members determined the imperativeness of giving the Prophet a chance to say or record everything he intends since he is still a prophet and the head of the government till the last moment of his life and till someone occupies his place. From another face, he is a Muslim who lawfully enjoys the freedom to speak out and record whatever he intends. Lastly, he was the master of the house at which these incidents had occurred. So, every individual has the right to say anything in his own house.
2. THE EMANATION OF A NEW HUGE TREND
Al-Faruq proved his being a new huge trend that had the capability of preventing the Prophet from recording his will. A many supporters was attracted by this new trend in the case of encountering the Prophet directly. Decorously, he could move and lead the coming incidents. Till this time, none could certainly identify the individual who advised the Ansar to hold a meeting in the Bani Sa'ideh's Saqeefeh -shed-. Similarly, none could understand the way by which this meeting was held. None also understood how Omar had lonlily known of it. The most authentic matter is that Abu Bakr, Omar and Abu Ubeideh had been the only Muhajirs who attended that meeting. The most authentic report is that Abu Bakr (pleased be him) had been helping the Prophet's immaculate household establish their decedent’s funeral. A most authentic matter, also, is that it was Omar who had called Abu Bakr and told of the meeting of the shed. Another most authentic report is that Abu Bakr and Omar had taken Abu Ubeideh with them as they accidentally found him in their way to Bani Sa'ideh's Saqeefeh.
Al-Faruq, therewith, lived in the core of these incidents. He shadowed the situation so scrupulously and continuously. In the meeting of the Ansar, he was the star who could steer the results to his wishes. He would have been the caliph had he intended to. Just after the cessation of that meeting and the majority's declaring fealty to Abu Bakr, Omar himself led the completion of the fealty declaration process. He promoted that the Muhajirs should swear allegiance to Abu Bakr whom had just been elected, by the Ansar and Omar himself, as the new leader. The Umayids, led by Othman, hurried to declaring their fealty to As-Siddiq. It was Omar Bin Al-Khattab who enlisted, from the voters of Abu Bakr, a phalanx that took Ali and his companions out of Fatima Az-Zahra's house by force for forcing them to swear allegiance to the nominated caliph. It was Omar who menaced to kill Ali if the latter would refrain from swearing allegiance It was Omar who advised Abu Bakr to gift Abu Sufian the alms for guaranteeing his loyalty to the new government It was Omar who suggested to Abu Bakr assigning Yazeed Bin Abi Sufian as the commander of the army of Syria that became the tremendous power that helped in the settlement of Abu Bakr's government. Soon after that, As-Siddiq was deceased. Omar inherited that stable government easily and without any sort of opposition. This inheritance was a step followed by another. Sooner or later, the researchists of history shall perceive that Al-Faruq had an immense unprecedented capacity of planning and hypothesizing. He played the role of the constituent body of the post-prophesy era. He arranged the essentialities of the coming ruling of Islam. He decided not to let the Hashemites join leadership to prophesy. Thus, caliphate should be inherited far away from them. It should be a pure right of the predominant individuals apart from the legality or the illegality of means of predominance.
3. EMERGENCE OF THE IDEAS OF PREDOMINANCE AND PREFERRING THE FOLLOWER TO THE MASTER
By the previously mentioned encounter, the ideas of predominance, preferring the follower to the master and the equality between masters and their followers were originated. Moreover, states of confusedness and perplexity of discerning the right were emanated.
Al-Faruq argued that a hazardous question might have been arisen from the diseased Prophet's recording his will. A group of Sahaba supported this claim. This argument was created out of doubt.
The other party argued that Mohammed had been still a prophet till his last respiration and till his immaculate soul leaves to the Creator. They believed he had never been speaking out of desire. This is an ascertained fact. Consequently, it is irrational to depend upon doubts and disdain the ascertained fact. Disease is not an obstacle against speaking.
TWO SIMILAR OCCURRENCES
1. When Abu Bakr was arduously affected by his disease, he sought the celebrities' advice. After that, he summoned Othman alone. “Write down:” Abu Bakr asked Othman just before he was fainted. During these moments, Othman wrote: “I do use Omar Bin Al-Khattab as my successor to caliphate.” When he regained consciousness, Abu Bakr ordered Othman to read what he had written down. “So, you did so since you anticipated that people would be engaged in discrepancies if I passed away during my previous syncope. Did you not?” said Abu Bakr. “Yes, I did.” asserted Othman. “God reward you for Islam and its people.” blessed Abu Bakr. This form was agreed upon by Abu Bakr. This is an unanimously authentic fact.
2. When Omar was in his final disease, the physician surprised him that he would not catch that evening. “Fetch me that paper, son.” Omar asked Abdullah. As the paper was between his hands he erased it and shouted out of the pains he was suffering: “By God I swear, I would sacrifice what is all found on this globe for the horror of the coming stage.” Abdullah, the son, rejected his dying father's demand with fixing his cheek to the ground. “Woe is your mother. Put my cheek to the ground. Woe is Omar and Omar's mother if God will not forgive him.” said Omar to his son.
In spite of the harsh pains Abu Bakr and Omar were suffering in their final diseases, they could record their wills. Omar could arrange the matter of the six-member advisory board in a form that he was assured of Othman's being the caliph. He also guaranteed that a Hashemite would never be elected for leadership whatever his qualifications were. Scrupulously, the two wills were implemented. Although the two were suffering unbearable pains, they were allowed to speak out their wills. During recording their wills, Abu Bakr and Omar were ceremoniously the caliphs of the Muslims. Thus, they enjoyed the right of practicing their duties since they were still alive and operative.
By common consent, this is an indisputable fact. How was it allowable for Abu Bakr and Omar to record their wills while they were suffering pains of their final diseases harsher than those suffered by the Prophet during his final disease? Nevertheless, the Prophet was prevented from recording his will.
Supposing Mohammed is equated to Abu Bakr and Omar; had it not been rightful for him -Mohammed- to practice what they -Abu Bakr and Omar- practiced thereafter? At any cost, the supposition of equating Abu Bakr and Omar to Mohammed is topically and positively inoperative. This is by the fact that Mohammed was an imam and a prophet masseged by God, while Abu Bakr and Omar were only fellows. Mohammed was speaking out of God's revelation. In several occasions, the Prophet asserted that the revelation had been coming to him during periods of physical complaint. God, in the Quran, says: (And whatever the Apostle gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back.) (And your companion is not gone mad.) (Nor does he speak out of desire.) (It is naught but revelation that is revealed.) How should a man with such divine qualifications and attributes be instantaneously changed into a dotard? How should he be irreliable even in recording his own will?
Despite that this occurrence is an undeniable and indefensible fact that exploded the entire future of Islam and was the seed from which the total tragedies and catastrophes that acted upon Islam were originated, Sunnis are still paying no attention to it. They are neglecting inclusively and regarding it as an ordinary narrative.
Thus, the scale of the follower was practically weighed against the leader. The follower became an authority while the leader stood watching. The follower achieved his layout and his volition, around which people circumambulated, became the prevailing. The idea of prevalence was applied and fruited. Later on, the principal of prevalence was legislated. It became licit for people to watch the combat before they opt for being in the predominant's line, aside from regarding qualifications, legibility and religion of that predominant. Hence, the follower contained his master and the less favorable preceded the most.
Thereupon, it is not surprising to see Muawiya Bin Abi Sufian, the ‘released’ and the son of the ‘released’ and one of the heart-inclined class, come to power and contend with the foremost Muslim and Allah's devotee and the master of every male and female Muslim, according to divine texts, for the caliphate. It is not astonishing to see him exert efforts to persuade the Muslims of his being fitter and more preferred than Ali. As well, it is not remarkable to see many people in the various eras of Islam reckon the two in the same degree considering them as equally authorities and people of the Paradise.
It is also not inconceivable to see Marwan, the son of Al-Hakam Bin Al-Aas who had been banished from Al-Madina all the times of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Omar, demand with the position of caliphate since Othman had assigned him as his prime minister and his son-in-law after he had permitted his father to enter Al-Madina city with exquisite reverence and honor.
The differences between the followers and their masters, the favored to Allah and Islam and the retarded were rendered null and void. Al-Waleed Bin Aqaba, who led the collective Fajr prayer and performed it in four Rak'as -units of prayer- while he was drunk and wondered if people asked for more, became the leader of Al-Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib who should, according to the Umayid criteria, listen to the sermons of that drunkard governor and ask his advice in his mundane and religious questions!!
4. SUCCESS AND MASTERY OF THE PREVALENT
The prevalent, whatever he was, became the predominant and the master. He became the imam and the president of the Muslims and their state, and the only one to whom they should refer in mundane and religious questions. He was the holder of power means and in whose hands was the perfect control on the imports of the state. He enjoyed the right of giving or depriving any of their rights. Except for Allah and his religion, none had been the supervisor of that prevalent. He was the general leader of the Muslims' armed forces, and he had full competency to use these forces for achieving internal or external security and for submitting his people whether voluntarily or coercively. He had full control on the mass media and the ability of changing the white into black and the opposite. By controlling the mass media, the predominant had the capability of making the dwarf seem to be giant and the opposite. The supporters of such a predominant ruler were reprogrammed to be the front of their master who had extensive ground in directing the policy of that state. Later on, they became authorities to whom people should refer. Their duties were adopting that predominant's viewpoint and using his methods for their impressive authorities. Hence, they were regarded as celebrities of the society and the gleaming stars. They were leading to the concentration point; the predominant's viewpoint. Ordinary people played on the same cord. This became the formulation to which people had been unitedly submitted. With the pass of years, this formulation were devoted. With the pass of decades, it was radically planted in the ground of factuality. Finally, it became a public opinion and a political persuasive belief.
5. DISMISSING THE PROPHET'S IMMACULATE PROGENY
In the midst of the previous circumstances, the Prophet's immaculate progeny demanded with the prevalence of legality. They called for their right. People, however, stood against their legality. Abul-Hassan's style of opposing Abu Bakr was ultimately civilized and logic. This matter was supported by Bashir Bin Sa'd, the first man who declared loyalty to Abu Bakr as a leader. When he listened to Ali's argument, Bashir said: “The Ansar would have referred to you totally if they had listened to your words before they swore allegiance to Abu Bakr.”
At any rate, the power and the opposition are of customary situations. Naturally, it is impractical for the rulers or their supporters to trust politically the opposition or to handle their achievements to them in any consequence. In the case involved particularly, it was decided not to do away with Ali since Fatima, the daughter of Mohammed, was backing him. Still, he was threatened to be killed if he would disdain swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr. It was also decided not to coerce him to declare his fealty to the new leadership, for the sake of Fatima.
Besides, while Imam Ali and his wife, Fatima Az-Zahra, were passing by the sessions of the Ansar at night and asking for support, the authorities took no influential procedures against them. The Ansar said: “O daughter of God's messenger! We have already declared loyalty to that man. We would not have elected other than your husband and cousin had he come to us before Abu Bakr.” Ali answered them: “Should I have left the Prophet's body in his house without burying him and gone out for contesting people in his government?” Fatima commented: “Abu Hassan did exactly what was required from him. They did what Allah shall penalize and amerce for.”
By this logical result, Imam Ali and his supporters were dismissed just after the decease of Fatima. The ruling authorities' inclination of isolating Imam Ali from the Hashemites became evident due to their endeavors of dragging Al-Abbas towards their power by urging his progeny and him on holding positions in their government. Al-Abbas refused such endeavors so strictly and rejected their offers so antiseptically.
It is a categorical standard that ordinary people, in case they are given the alternative to choose either the side of the ruling authority or the opposition side, to opt for the earlier. Consecutively, the Prophet's progeny's attitudes were about to dissect the rope of intimacy with the ruling authorities thoroughly after Omar's intendment to put Fatima's house on fire while there was a number of people inside it. God, however, saved against so.
As a means of stopping the Hashemite march, the ruling authorities were converted that it is illicit for the Hashemite to join leadership to prophesy. They also believed that people of Quraish had been right when they applied this principal. Moreover, a provisory decision that any Hashemite individual, apart from qualifications and legibility, should not be held any position in the government, was enacted. In the reigns of Abu Bakr and Omar, this decision was literally implemented. Besides, Omar asserted practically that any supporter of the Hashemites should not hold any position in the government.Accordingly, Ali and his party were secluded.
Imam Ali and his party could live peacefully with the two Sheiks -Abu Bakr and Omar-. The Prophet's progeny were preceded in distributing the imports of the state among people. Their souls and properties were secured in that period. The two Sheiks were wont to refer and seek the advise of Imam Ali in many questions. Affairs of the state were stable owing to the conquests and the two Sheiks' scorning their own caprices.
Not too long after Othman's being the caliph, the Sahaba left him gradually and the Umayids supplanted them. Othman's palace was suffocated with the Umayids who, actually, did not add anything new. The positions from which the Prophet's progeny were forbidden during the two Sheik's reigns, were not allowed for them during Othman's. The difference was that since Ali and his party were not to shun the flaws of Othman's men; the Umayids, the ruling authorities reckoned Ali's enjoining good and forbidding evil with the banned activities of the opposition. Therefore, they regarded Ali and his party as unwelcomed persons. In addition to the past throngs of hostility between the Hashemites and the Umayids, these motives were extended till they attained the climax when a military combat occurred between Muawiya, the governor of Syria, and Ali, the imam and the leader of the Islamic nation. Power overcame legality. Muawiya was assigned as the actual king of the nation. That occurred in the year called later on ‘year of congruity’. A new era of persecuting Mohammed's progeny started. It was teary and bloody. Mohammed's progeny, hence, were almostly terminated. Maligning and reviling at them became a legislative imposing precept all over the state. People were the chorus whose job was repeating the ruler's slanderous words. Mohammed's progeny were banished. Their testimonies were decided as inadmissible. Names of those who showed any sort of loyalty to Ali and his sons were erased from the general register of the state. Salaries and rights of such individuals were cut off.
SEIZURE OF THE POWER
1. RECOLLECTION AND RECONNECTION OF EVENTS
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) asked the attendants to fetch him a paper so that he would record a will due to which they should never be deviant in the future. As immediate as the Prophet uttered this statement, Al-Faruq addressed at the retinue that the Prophet had been dominated by his pains, and that they have to be sufficed by the Quran between their hands. Forthwith, the attendants became two parties; one called for fetching the Prophet a paper to record that protective -against deviation- will, while others adopted Omar's opinion. These party were so stiff that they claimed of the Prophet's mental decline!! “Quit me!” the Prophet said, “The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
2. THE CONCLUSIVE SUCCESS
Al-Faruq achieved his great victory by portioning the attendants into tow groups; a group supporting him -while he was mere a follower of the Prophet- and another supporting the Prophet, the actual leader. Hence, Omar could eliminate the distinct differences between leaders and their followers. Omar and his backers, however, could occlude the Prophet from recording his will.
THE TWO CHOICES
Had the Prophet insisted on recording his will, Omar and his group would have accused him of speaking out of senility. This should certainly bring a disastrous misfortune to this religion. Had the Prophet overruled the idea of recording his will, this would have made Omar's party rule of the Prophet's having been dominated by his pains and deciding the idea of being sufficed by the Quran. The Prophet opted for the latter. As he was effectively shocked by their claim of mental declination, the Prophet addressed at them: “Quit me! The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
DRESS OF LEGALITY
Formally, Al-Faruq did not vacate the frame of legality. He was not calling for a wrong matter. He was saying: “You have the Quran. We should be sufficed by the Book of Allah. The Prophet is dominated by his pains.” Thus, he was caring for stopping the Prophet from recording his will. In the same time, he was caring for providing the ceremonial program of respect. “The Prophet is dominated by his pains.” he said. He was caring for adhering to the Quran considering it as the only thing that is acceptably sufficient. So, the Prophet's will should be needless, then. These conducts, however, are totally dressing the wear of legality. This was the very situation adopted by Omar, Amirul-Mu'minin.
AIMS AND OBJECTS OF AL-FARUQ
The total Quraishi clans exerted any possible efforts for resisting the Hashemite prophesy. They used every possible weapon for conflicting them. This was not for the favor of their pagans, neither was it for their malice against Islam. Islam, however, is too even to be opposed. The celebrities of Quraishi clans worked for the permanence of the political form based upon distributing positions of honor among them. They also disliked the idea that the Hashemites would be distinctively preferred to others. They understood the Hashemites' extreme defense and encompassment around the Prophet as their desire to precede others. Hence, the total clans of Quraish confined the Hashemites and prepared cabals to assassinate the Prophet. They also agreed upon combating the Prophet congregationally. Their blockade and cabals, after all, failed. They also were defeated in their conflicts against the Prophet. Hence, they gave up after they had been surrounded. Finally, they realized that the Hashemite prophesy has been an inescapable fate. Quraishi clans conceived their disability to face the Hashemite prophesy; hence, they decided to stop this Hashemite march towards the other clans' rights at this point. The Prophet was preparing Ali and his progeny for leadership regarding them as the most knowledgeable of Islam, the keenest of its rulings, the most favorable among the followers, the fittest for leading this nation and the most acceptable at the public.
THE IDEAL SOLUTION
Actually, the entire Quraishi clans embraced Islam that effaces what all is preceding. It is for the good of legality to unify the Quraishi clans under the shades of Islam. This unification is, in fact, seen as one the essential bases of the mastery, extension and commonness of Islam. These matters can be achieved only by consecrating prophesy totally to the Hashemites, and consecrating the successive leadership to the other Quraishi clans totally. It is not iniquitous for the Ansar and the slaves to enjoy a position in the leadership intended, since this participation will not serve the Hashemite precedence and distinction. The saying of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy settled in the mentalities of these groups so deeply that it had been changed into a fixed prevalent trend.
PROBING THE SOLUTION
Unanimously, the Quraishi clans had to submit to the Hashemite prophesy considering it as an unfailing destiny. They wished they had had the potential of achieving their dream of carrying through their ideal solution of preventing the Hashemites from having leadership beside prophesy. These dreams were unrealizable as long as the Prophet was alive. The probability of making these dreams come true is workable and operable only after his decease.
AL-FARUQ'S ADOPTING AND DEVELOPING THE SAYING
Unfortunately, Al-Faruq perceived the Quraishi saying of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy as a categorical fact. This meant that he had taken the same course taken by the predominant trend mentally lived by the Quraishis and prepared to be emerged just after the Prophet's eternal departure. Coloring this conception with legality, Al-Faruq described it as the most proper and the most prosperous thing. He also stated that he had only aimed at ceasing the Hashemites' inequity against the other Quraishi clans. In this very way, Al-Faruq succeeded in developing this conception and attiring it wear of legality. As a result, this conception found its way easily forwardly, and walked flaunting with its new legal garment hiding its Jahilite feelings. This slogan, however, is totally Jahilite. In the Jahilite political form, based upon the principal of distributing positions of honor among the Quraishi clans, which was prevailing in Mecca before the arising of Islam, the roots of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy conception are seemingly settled. In addition, the leader suggested by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was namely Ali, that hero who aggrieved the entire Quraishi clans. Each clan had individuals killed by Ali. He was the killer of the Umayids' celebrities in the battle of Badr. Besides, it was Ali who did away with Handhala Bin Abi Sufian, Al-Aas Bin Husham Bin Al-Mugheera, cousin of Omar. It was he whose sword and spear were the protectors of the Prophet against the Arab disbelievers. How should Abu Sufian, then, accept the killer of his son and cousins? How should Hind and Muawiya, her son, accept the headship of those who killed her lovers and dearest ones? Omar, however, might welcome the killer of his maternal uncle. Others might not. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was not in the face of blame, it was not he who killed with his hands. It was Ali's hands that shed those individuals' blood. Therefore, the Quraishis prepared for avenging from Ali to whom they faced their blame and malice. In the midst of this feelings, they kept their Islamic identity and their loyalty to the Prophet. Had they, the Quraishis, committed themselves to the merits imputed by the Prophet to Ali, and submitted to his morrow leadership, they should have never united under the shade of his leadership. On the contrary, they should have been engaged in numerous discrepancies, divergences and hostilities. These matters, however, should have been reflecting oppositely on the future of Islam and the Prophet's loyalty. Besides, seditious matters should have been occurring in a way causing inconveniences to Islam and Muslims.
This is the only explanation we can provide to exonerate the tremendous progression practiced by Al-Faruq towards this tendency. It also interprets the aim of the close conformity between the other Quraishi clans and him involving the slogan of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy. This progression reached the extent that Omar became the only actual planner and hypothesizer of this trend.
LIKE THEIR ALLIANCE AGAINST THE PROPHET, PEOPLE OF QURAISH ALLIED AGAINST HIS SUCCESSOR
The concert of the essential views was the main cause beyond the Quraishis' unification under implementing the slogan of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy. Unexceptionally, the entire Quraishi clans stood in the face of the Hashemite prophesy and participated practically in the three year blockade for eradicating this prophesy. This blockade, however, proved its failure. They also planned congregationally for assassinating the Prophet. Each clan opted for a man to participate in the process of assassination. This cabal failed, too. The Prophet could escape. The Quraishi clans enlisted armies for battling the Prophet. They did, but they, as usual, failed. Finally, they gave up as they were surrounded. In which case, they realized that prophecy had been an inescapable destiny. They, accordingly, submitted to the Hashemites. They, nevertheless, importunately decided to prevent the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy. Hence, they stood altogether against Ali in the same way they had stood against the Prophet. Their aim had been always the same; preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy and keeping the Islamic identity and loyalty to the Hashemite prophesy in the same time. This was provided that this loyalty should be in an amount attesting the success of that conception.
THE QURAISHIS WERE PLANNING WHILE THE HASHEMITES WERE DROWNED IN THEIR GRIEF
The Quraishi people realized the Prophet's near death during that final disease. They had been already foretold of this truth by the Prophet himself whom they trusted. They also realized that the unavoidable result would be Ali's gaining headship if matter were left to go naturally. Only then, the eminent danger shall be occurring and the Hashemites shall be having headship beside prophesy. Hence, it is indispensable to move furtively towards occluding the occurrence of such a danger.
Expecting that the others are sharing the same misfortune, the Hashemites were continuously engaged in their calamity of the Prophet's death. He was their prophet and master, and they were his sincere adherents. He was the unprecedented brother, the unique kinsman, the ideal cousin and the unequaled dearest. Hence, they all committed themselves to working according to this disastrous event, leaving everything else behind.
THE PUNCTILIOUS PLANNING
How did Omar limit the very hour at which the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) would utter his will? By whom was he told? How did the assemblage who supported Al-Faruq's immediate opinion of depending on the Book of Allah and deferring the Prophet's expected record gather, since, as Omar explained, it had been spoken out of pains? Furthermore, this assemblage added: “Allah's Apostle is speaking out of dotage! Ask him a clarification! He is mentally affected, indeed!!”
As a matter of fact, the Prophet's demand would not be so strange that it might have created such an instantaneous loathing. Similarly, Omar's reply of “The Prophet is highly affected by his pains! We should be sufficed by the Book of Allah we have between our hands.”, would not be so strong that it might have originated that instantaneous satisfaction.
The matter nearest to the mentality, logic and intellect is that the group who issued such an instantaneous satisfaction, spoke badly, disputed and engaged in discrepancy before the Prophet, had been already acquainted of the contents of the Prophet's will to be recorded. It is also clear that there was a sort of a previous arrangement for preventing the Prophet from recording this will, even if this practice would result in being involving in a direct confrontation against him, or accusing him of mental senility or the like. It is also reasonable to adjudge that there was a strong correlation or agreement among this group that guaranteed their coalition and unity in situations even those inviting to facing the Prophet directly. Allah, the Elevated, lonelily realizes whether such a coalition had been a fruit of a punctilious planning or it had been an arbitrary serendipity. The most accurate thins is that this confrontation had indeed broken the spine of legality.
THE FIRST FRUIT OF THE PLANNING
This group succeeded in occluding the Prophet from recording his will. Omar Bin Al-Khattab was seen as the strongest man in this trend. It was he who spoke at the attendants: “The Prophet is surely prevailed by his pains. We have the Book of Allah. We should be sufficed by the Book of Allah.” This statement indicated that they had had not been in need of the Prophet's will, since they had the Book of Allah that was acceptably sufficient. Hence, redundancy is what all is behind sufficiency. This suggestion incited the supporters of this trend to dare to impute dotage to the Prophet. Far away is the Prophet from such an accusal!
Precisely, succeeding in preventing the Prophet from recording his will was the first fruit of that punctilious planning. Supposing, dialectically, the Prophet had insisted on his demand and said: “Forget not the order of Ali's being the next leader!”, this would have meant that the mission of that party would be so complicated that they should prove the Prophet's speaking out of mental affection afterwards. This would surely bring calamitous misfortunes and adversities to this religion. Islam itself would have been in danger if those party had called for the slogan of the Prophet's senility and, consequently, it would have been so arduous to distinguish the words said during full saneness from those said during misalleged senility. Thus, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) preferred to provide the important -Ali's leadership- as a sacrifice for the most important -Islam-. “Quit me! The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.” By these words, the Prophet settled that dispute. The refractory group went out thinking of their victory, yielding the fruit of their cabal and celebrating of removing the hugest rock laying in the way of hitting their target.
PLANNING FOR DEFEATING THE HASHEMITES
Occurrences of history proved the Hashemites' overcoming in every combat they were engaged in against people of Quraish. The blockade practiced upon the Hashemites for three years, by the entire clans of Quraish proved its failure. At a second attempt, the entire Quraishi clans participated in assassinating the Prophet congregationally by selecting a man from each clan to take a part in the process so that the Hashemite should be too short to avenge their killed. This endeavor failed, too. Hence, the Prophet was saved, and the Hashemites were triumphed.
As a third endeavor, the Quraishi clans enlisted numerous armies for battling Mohammed and the Hashemites. The end was the triumph of Mohammed and the Hashemites, and the defeat of the entire Quraishi clans. Finally, they had nothing other than submitting and admitting of Mohammed's prophesy as they were surrounded. They realized this prophesy had been an inescapable destiny. Therefore, they aimed at acknowledging the prophesy of Mohammed and admitting the Hashemites' enjoying it exclusively, provided that headship should be turned among them apart from the Hashemites. In order that any Hashemite would never come to power or enjoy any sort of headship, they decided that they would accept the headship of a non-Quraishi individual. They believed that if leadership went to a Hashemite, it would be impossible to take it out of them anew. Hence, they would join leadership to prophesy. However, events proved the triumph of the Hashemites at any confrontation.
BENEFITING THE SAME PREPONDERANCIES FOR ACHIEVING AIMS
The Quraishi clans conceived that the secret beyond the Hashemites' consecutive victories and superiority had been the existence of a preponderancy contributing in outweighing them over others. Preponderants due to which the Hashemites achieved triumph over the Quraishi clans had been, first, the support of God and, secondly, His objectives of preponderancy. The congregational blockade applied upon the Hashemites was such a discernible wrong that it caused an error in guideline. God's upholding the Hashemites by supplying them with patience and guiding individuals from the other clans for supporting them and demanding with canceling the decision of that blockade; all these were reasons resulted in the failure of the blockade.
In due course, the cabal of assassinating the Prophet was a process of vitiation on the earth and an inexcusable homicide. Ali Bin Abi Talib's sleeping in the Prophet's bed, that led to his escape and resettlement in Yathrib, was a preponderant reason that led to the failure of the assassination.
Correspondingly, enlisting armies for battling the Prophet and chasing him continuously was a deed of wrongful perseverance and insisting on inequity. The Ansar’s encompassing, embracing and defending the Prophet, and being in the same front with the Hashemites, on the other hand, was a preponderant reason that resulted in the failure of the total aggressions led by the Quraishi clans against the Prophet. These clans were defeated to termination that their headship was inclusively foundered and, accordingly, they had to submit to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).
EQUALITY, OPPORTUNITY AND OBJECTIVITY
The Hashemite conception shall certainly prevail and prove its being the most correct and the most favorable if there is any sort of equality in the opportunities granted to it and to that of the Quraishi clans. By the same token, the fascinating argument provided by the prophetically nominated leader shall certainly nullify the others' arguments if there is an objective opportunity to provide both arguments obviously. This is by the reason that the prophetically nominated leader is, according to categorical doctrinal texts, being with the Quran and the Quran is being with him. Similarly, the right is being with the prophetically nominated leader and he is being with the right. This prophetically nominated leader shall certainly win at any unadulterated combat. This is because he is being the victorious by God's will. However, the Prophet's successor is not ready at all for plotting in darkness, planning for cabals nor is he ready for disobeying God.
THE AUTHORITY CAPABLE OF DEFEATING THE DIVINELY ELECTED LEADER, AND THE FLAWLESS CABAL
Finally, the Quraishis could snare the decisive party; the Ansar. The ultimate victory and the supreme aim -of withholding the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy- shall be assuredly attained and achieved if only the Ansar’s loyalty to Quraishi clans is guaranteed. They conceive that as soon as the divinely elected leader, Ali, holds the position of headship, he shall positively nominate Al-Hassan as the heir apparent. Al-Hassan, however, is previously nominated by Allah and His Apostle for leadership. Supposing this nomination occurs, none shall have the courage to object against Al-Hassan for the highest standing he is enjoying. He is, at least, the son of the Prophet's daughter. In a like manner, Al-Hassan shall nominate Al-Hussein, his brother, as his heir apparent. None shall have the courage to protest against so, for the standing enjoyed by that nominated individual. Thus, affairs of leadership will be kept in the hands of the Hashemites for ever, and they will enjoy headship as well as prophesy. This will be seen as the greatest defeat of the other Quraishi clans.
Three points are the only means of standing against the occurrence of the previous affairs:
1. Existence of an authority. Actually, the Ansar are seen as the premium authority that can play the greatest role in the process of leadership. Supposing they support Ali, the Quraishi clans, pursuant to their criteria, shall be absolutely defeated and the matter of the Hashemites' having headship and prophesy together shall be occurring. If they support the other party; the Quraishi clans, in achieving their aim, only then the Hashemites and the divinely elected leader shall be certainly quelled according to the criteria posited by that party.
If the Ansar adopt a non-allied situation, this will be considered as a prosperous achievement for the Quraishi clans. As a result, the possibility of consummating the Quraishis' aim will also be attainable by the whole objective criteria.
2. Vacuity of equal opportunities. In case the divinely nominated leader stands in equal positions with the heads of Quraishi celebrities, triumph shall certainly be his share as he will provide the most convincing arguments. The most important matter in this question is that the Quraishi head should be the spokesman of his allies; the public, the Muhajirs or the majority of the nation. Pursuant to their criteria, in this case only, he may defeat the divinely elected leader.
3. Maximum promptness practiced for consummating the subject of next leadership. This should occur during the Prophet's household's being engaged in the funeral of their deceased. Thus, none of them would attend the furtive ceremonies of electing the leader in order that they would lack any argument to provide later on. Sedition and confrontation of an actual government having a president, a prime minister, an army and followers would be the result of any objection against such ceremonies.
THE SAQEEFEH MEETING
By the decease of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), the illuminating moon, whose gleam covered everything, has departed. As soon as this news was publicized, the populace of the capital formed undeviatingly a circle around the Prophet's house. They were weeping their grand prophet and imam. The honorable household, headed by the divinely nominated leader, were totally engaged in their calamitous misfortune. They were preparing for the funeral. Meanwhile, a meeting was held in Bani Sa'ideh's Saqeefeh.
UNANSWERABLE QUESTIONS
Why was the meeting held in these very hours? Who called for it? How had it been possible to hold a meting in such an embarrassing time? When had the arrangements been commenced? Which individuals, from the Ansar, attended that meeting, while the Saqeefeh -shed- was too narrow to include the great numbers of the Ansar most of whom were encompassing the Prophet's house? Rationally, it is impossible that no single individual from the Ansar was attending at the Prophet's funeral. Who arranged for that meeting? How much time did these arrangements take? Why was it only Omar who had acquaintance of that meeting? By whom was he informed? Omar was in a place remote from the Prophet's house. He knew that Abu Bakr had been necessarily at the Prophet's house. He came near the house and called for Abu Bakr. “I am busy now.” answered Abu Bakr. “It is a matter too dangerous to be neglected.” told Omar. As Abu Bakr was before him, Omar informed: “Are you not informed that the Ansar are holding a meeting in Bani Sa'ideh's Saqeefeh for nominating Sa'd Bin Ebadeh for leadership? They are so firm in this affair that the least suggestion one of them provides is electing two princes one of whom should be a Quraishi.” Hence, the two hurried up to the place. Abu Ubeideh Bin Al-Jarrah accompanied them.
WHO CONVEYED THE NEWS OF THE MEETING?
“Omar was the first man who had known of the meeting of the Ansar.” At-Tabari states. Another narrations tells that it was Abu Bakr who informed him of the news. A third one related by Ibn Husham tells that somebody came to Abu Bakr and Omar and informed of the meeting. No historian at all could recognize the name of that reporter. It seemed that his name had been lost.
TWO MEN FROM THE ANSAR
In their way towards the Saqeefeh, Abu Bakr, Omar and Abu Ubeideh met Uweim Bin Sa'ideh and Ma'an Bin Edi. These two men are reckoned with the celebrities of the Ansar. At-Tabari relates the following report: “…they were met by Asim Bin Edi and Uweim Bin Sa'ideh; the two Sahaba who participated in the battle of Badr.” Another narrative affirms: “The two men advised Abu Bakr, Omar and Abu Ubeideh to settle this affair secretly away from the Ansar.” Another narrative, however, claims: “The two men advised the three to turn back since they would never achieve any of their demands.”
Despite the fact that these two men were reckoned with the Ansar and the warriors of the battle of Badr, they were neither attendants at the Prophet's funeral nor were they addressing at there while they were aware of the current occurrence of the meeting. They were walking oppositely to the three men's direction. They only chatted with those three men and each group took their way. There is no indication that those five individuals took the same way towards the Saqeefeh afterwards. There are contrary narratives regarding these two men's sayings. Once, they advised the three to settle their affairs secretly away from the Ansar who had no relation at all with the whole question. Another narrative affirms that they advised the three to evade fatigue since the Ansar should never grant them any share in this question. Which one is likely true?
A OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS, AND DENIAL OF SERENDIPITY
Among Sunnis' historians, there is a sort of unanimity on the fact that it was Omar who first knew of the Ansar’s meeting. According to another narrative, it was Abu Bakr who informed him of this news. A third narrative related by Ibn Husham, however, tells that a man came to Omar and Abu Bakr and told of the news. No single historian could realize the name of that man who carried the news to Abu Bakr and Omar!! The loss of this man's name should have never be an accidental matter. It seems that he was one of the celebrities in that society since he had acquaintance of secret matters of such a degree of sensitivity. Then, how should Abu Bakr and Omar have listened and believed him if he had not been a noble character? The name of such a noble individual that carried such an important news, should have never been lost. This matters throws shades of suspicion whether this man had been actually existed or had he been a mere legend!!
As a matter of fact, it cannot be an accidental matter that Omar would be the only individual who had been fully acquainted of the meeting held secretly by the Ansar, the majority of the Prophet's capital. What was the reason beyond Omar's having called Abu Bakr lonelily for informing of this news? Why did he not call the entire Muhajirs who were taking the final look at their prophet and imam, and participating the honorable household in their disastrous misadventure? This matter should not be considered as an accidental event. Moreover, at which location was Al-Faruq who lost his physical capability as soon as he had been informed of the Prophet's decease, and menaced to kill and amputate the limbs of those who claimed of the Prophet's decease? Normally, he should have gone to the Prophet's house when he was convinced of the his decease, for taking the final look and participating in people's misfortune? Supposing he did direct towards the Prophet's house, how could he exclusively realize the news of the Ansar’s meeting? Who carried this news to him particularly? How should that carrier of news have found Omar among thousands of people crowding there? Indisputably, it was not an accidental matter!
It is most surely that the meeting was not attended by the entire Ansar. Among this group, there were the warriors of the battle of Badr. They are the most virtuous, as described by categorical doctrinal texts. It is impracticable that those most virtuous men were absent from a meeting held by the Ansar. The two men who met Abu Bakr, Omar and Abu Ubeideh were among the warriors of Badr. How should it be conceivable that a meeting held for electing a leader is not attended by two virtuous people? They, at least, should have been in the meeting on these moments principally. It is irrational that the Ansar left the Prophet's body in his house without taking a final look at him while his immaculate household were arranging for his funeral. This matter is unbelievable unless partisan imitation is pronounced.
Supposing the entire Ansar were meeting in that saqeefeh -shed- for electing the new leader, how should they act so while they had full awareness of the doctrinal rulings among which is that imams should be from people of Quraish? They did accurately recognize the rulings appertained to the Prophet's household. They witnessed the recent ceremonies of nominating the coming leader and the Prophet's successor held in Ghadeer Khum. Recurrently, the Prophet commended them of favoring Ali and his household. Once, he (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at the Ansar: “O the Ansar! Should I guide you to what shall protect you against deviation for good if only you adhere to?” “Yes, you should, Allah's Apostle!” answered they. “It is this Ali. You should love him for your loving me. And you should honor him for your honoring me. It was most surely Gabriel, the Angel, who conveyed to me this God's mandate I have just ordered you of.” the Prophet expressed. How should they all disremember this address? How should they neglect the issue of nominating Ali for heir apparentship? Besides, they have no relation with the slogan of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership and prophesy, importunately carried by the Quraishis? They are not from Quraish. They have no interests to be achieved only by taking Mohammed's household far away from leadership. They should have never disdained the Prophet's saying about Ali: “He is your leader after me. He is the master of every male and female believer…” What is the advantage the Ansar may gain from neglecting such decisive doctrinal texts? The meeting held by the Ansar was not aimed at electing a leader from them. This is, however, a matter arduously believable on the total criteria. They did realize the real religious and political leader. This fact is evidenced by the event that as soon as they lost any hope of having leadership, they nominated Ali, who was absent, as the only person they might elect for leadership. Another narrative relates the same matter: “…the Ansar shouted: ‘We shall declare fealty to none other than Ali.’…” Regarding the authenticity of this narrative, it indicated that others had been intending to elect another name. Yet, one of these two narratives is definitely true. After they had been overthrown, they answered Fatima Az-Zahra, who passed by their sessions asking for support, with the following words: “O daughter of God's messenger! We have already declared loyalty to that man. We would not have elected other than your husband and cousin had he come to us before Abu Bakr.” Ali answered them: “Should I have left the Prophet's body in his house without burying him and gone out for contesting people in his government?” Fatima commented: “Abu Hassan did exactly what was required from him. They did what Allah shall penalize and amerce for.”
When he listened to Ali's argument, Bashir Bin Sa'd, the first man who had declared loyalty to Abu Bakr as a leader, said: “The Ansar would have referred to you totally if they had listened to your words before they swore allegiance to Abu Bakr.”
On that account, it is unreasonable for such men with such a conception to hold a meeting for electing the next leader while the divinely elected one was absent after he had been nominated by the Prophet so declamatorily that they all comprehended the question. Besides, they heard the Prophet more than once say: “He is your leader after me. He is the master of every male and female believer…”
It is to add that Sa'd Bin Ebadeh, the principal Sahabi, the master of the Al-Khazraj and the man of inflexible situations, was too exalted to admit being the Prophet's successor in the presence of the divinely nominated leader, the Prophet's household and masters of the Muhajirs. Besides, he was so ill that he could not even stand erect. Had this man been able to stand up, he would have never left his master and prophet without taking a final look at him. According to Ibn Quteibeh's narrative, Sa'd, after the conclusion of the meeting, was shouldered and taken home. This assured the fact that Sa'd's house was next to the Saqeefeh -shed- in which the meeting had been held. Possibly, the group of the Ansar were visiting Sa'd to convey him the misfortune of the Prophet's decease. Similarly, it is not unacceptable to say that a tranquil dispute had actually occurred between the two groups respecting the next stage.
THE ENTERING OF THE THREE MUHAJIRS
By the joining of these three Muhajirs, the meeting was straightly colored with a special paint. Naturally, silence covered the place and the conversation was ceased. Who opened the door to the question involved? Who arose the dispute after their entering? The one fully aware of that person is totally nonexistent. Al-Faruq conceived that those individuals had been planning for “eradicating the Quraishis' origins and usurping their rights.” He himself expected new groups' joining that meeting. The Aslem attended with all their groups. They were too many to have locations in that place. They all swore allegiance to Abu Bakr. About that event, Omar was wont to say: “I believed in our victory as soon as I saw the Aslem.” This affirmed that he had previous knowledge of his supporters.
The Aslem were one of the Ansar’s clans. Although they were very numerous, as it seemed, the Aslem did not participate in that meeting. This asserts that the meeting was not political at all. Who was the party against whom Al-Faruq was seeking victory? What sort of victory was that? All these matters support the Ansar’s mission of preponderance we have previously referred to.
THE PURPOSE BEYOND THE THREE MUHAJIRS' PARTICIPATION
The exact purpose beyond the three Muhajirs' joining the Ansar’s meeting was nothing but constituting the new leader. Since the entire Quraishis' opinion was as same as that of those three Muhajirs, especially Omar who believed in the idea of preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy as intensely as possible, the existence of any other Quraishi was unimportant. They also purposed for another matter; holding the ceremonies of designating the new leader in the absence of the Prophet's household or their head, Ali Bin Abi Talib. They believed in the fact that the results should have been definitely changed in case the head or any of the Prophet's household had attended there. That head of the Prophet's household would have opposed the expected results, provided inescapable evidences and convinced the Ansar had he only been present in that meeting. In the absence of the Prophet's household and their head, climate should be so quiet and pleasant for that group to achieve their purpose of designating a new leader actually. They aimed at making a party of the Ansar declare fealty to the leader they are to nominate. Achieving so, the other clans of the Ansar should be following one another in swearing in order that they would have the honor of acting so. Only then, the Prophet's household and their head should be faced by an authority backed by the Ansar who should never break their covenants. Hence, the expected confrontation Ali should be one of its parties, would not be against Abu Bakr, Omar or any other person alone. The confrontation would be between the head of ruling authority and one of his people, or a vizier and one of the public. Such a sort of confrontation is of well-known results. Al-Faruq lacks the ability of facing the divinely elected leader, who is the door of the heavenly wisdom, in cases of equal confrontations. On levels of physical abilities even, the divinely elected leader should most surely be having the entire situation for him in case of any bodily confrontation against Al-Faruq. The fighting skills of Al-Faruq are very remote from those of Ali, the divinely nominated leader. For instance, in the battle of Al-Khandaq, Amr Bin Wudd's voice of challenging the Muslims had vanished before he was responded by any, including Al-Faruq whose ears were filled in with these words. Saving the divinely nominated leader, none had the courage to challenge that hero. Nevertheless, when Al-Faruq is being the caliph's vizier, he will not be having to be face to face with the divinely elected leader. He may enlist an abundant phalanx for this purpose. Hence, they will pull that divinely elected leader before Al-Faruq. This very procedure was actually taken, and this process of pulling had actually occurred.
The time picked up for holding the ceremonies of electing the new leader was precisely suitable. It coincided the very hours of holding the ceremonies of the Prophet's funeral. It was the ideal time for guaranteeing the absence of the Prophet's immaculate household and their head. These individuals were totally engaged in their misfortune and were inattentive to what was going around them. The entire Muslims, in fact, were living in shocking reflection. Accordingly, this was the most suitable time the Quraishi clans had ever dreamt of for achieving their purpose. In addition, choosing the Ansar as the preponderant entity was greatly appropriate and accurate. Since the Quraishi clans' purpose was only preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy disregarding the race of the surrogate party, they would not object if the Ansar dominated that leadership. They were sure that any Quraishi, other than the Hashemites, would never object this leadership. Hence, Othman, the Umayid, and his clan were the foremost in declaring their fealty to the new caliph. This group was followed by Sa'd Bin Abi Waqqas, Abdurrahman Bin Awf and their relatives, the Bani Zuhra. Declaration of allegiance would be valueless indeed if the entire Quraishi people uttered it and no single man from the Ansar supported them. Besides, the divinely nominated imam would overcome them by the Ansar’s aid. From this point, the attendance of the Quraishi people was ineffective since those three individuals represented them and were to achieve the very purpose they were aiming at.
The three individuals had the ability of comprising the Ansar exclusively, expressing the Quraishi clans’ hiddens and banishing the Hashemites totally out of the field of leadership. Accordingly, the Prophet's household and the Hashemites generally were lacking, for the ever first time, any actual preponderant that might guarantee their victory against the other Quraishi clans.
From this cause, we can perceive Omar's approach of seizing the fealty of the Muhajirs, the Prophet's immaculate household and their head to the new caliph. That occurred after their departing the Saqeefeh:
People were gathering in the grand mosque when Abu Bakr and Abu Ubeideh advanced towards them after the Ansar had declared their fealty to Abu Bakr. Omar spoke: “What for are you grouping yourselves in scattered crowds? Come on and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. The Ansar and I have just declared!!” Immediately, Othman and the Umayids rose up and declared fealty. Sa'd, Abdurrahman and their relatives did so, too. Ali, Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib, the Hashemites and Az-Zubeir Bin Al-Awwam left that place directing towards their pack animals. Omar led a band and went to them. “Go now for declaring your allegiance to Abu Bakr!” shouted the band. The group, however, declined…
Al-Faruq's accent and style of seizing people's fealty to Abu Bakr needs a deep view…
IN THE SAQEEFEH
Neither the entire Ansar were attendant at the Saqeefeh, nor were their half, quarter or one-tenth even. They were forming the majority of Al-Madina people. Reasonably, the greater number of them was encompassing the Prophet's house at these hours. The two virtuous men (Asim -according to At-Tabari's narrative- or Ma'an -according to another- Bin Edi or Uweim Bin Sa'ideh, who were reckoned with the warriors of Badr, did not join the three Muhajirs after they had met in their way. They would have never been absent if there had been a meeting of considerable significance for the Ansar. Moreover, the Aslem, who were too numerous to have enough locations to stop at, came afterwards. Omar obviously had previous knowledge of these men's eminent arrival. This is evidenced by his later saying: “I believed in our victory as soon as I saw the Aslem.” Besides, these individuals arrived directly after the declaration of fealty to Abu Bakr. Consequently, those three Muhajirs were the originators and the imposers of the question of electing a man succeeding the Prophet. The conveyor of the news of the Ansar’s meeting is still unknown. Similarly the one who provided the subject of electing the new leader after the three Muhajirs’ arrival is still unknown either. Naturally, after they had greeted the attendants, they spoke. Who was the spokesperson that indicated to the affair involved? Like the conveyor of the news of the Ansar’s meeting, that person is still unknown! This matter is contrasting the facts that the names of those who had played a very ignoble role in the events involved were accurately written down and recognized. All the above assert that there were remarkable sections intentionally excerpted from the whole story in spite of variety of reports and reporters!
It is provable that the whole story of the Ansar’s meeting was rewritten and revised under the supervision of the party of As-Siddiq and Al-Faruq. So, events were amended in such a way that rulers would neither be enraged nor would their fellows be provoked. By this new reprogrammed narration, those three Muhajirs had been depicted as heroes of a historical tradition. This is obviously seeable through the variety, contents and occasionally contrast of the narratives. For instance, the utterance of the two virtuous warriors of Badr was reported in two different ways. A narrative describes Sa'd Bin Ebadeh as one of the most striking seekers of leadership and a contumacious opponent to the three Muhajirs that was about to be attacked by the groups he had enraged to excess. In addition, some suggested that he should be killed; “Kill him. May God kill him.” While another report describes him as that man whom had been overcome by arguments provided by Al-Faruq. After all, he had to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr since he had been persuaded. Hence, no signals of rebellion had been shown by Al-Habbab or others since affairs were correctly settled.
THE GREATEST HUMANITARIAN WEALTH
Let us picture the following:
The three Muhajirs participated in the Prophet's funeral beside the immaculate household and the other Muslims. Having accomplished the Prophet's burial ceremony, the consolers went to the mosque for performing the obligatory prayer led by the imam of those three Muhajirs and every male and female believer, according to these three Muhajirs’ recognition. Immediately after accomplishing their prayers, any one of the three might have provided his conception and adduced his apprehension so freely. Hence, each was granted equal opportunities to demonstrate his own opinion. Finally, the divinely nominated leader would render his opinion and the legal judgment of every opinion recently provided considering him as the guide, in accordance to doctrinal texts, and the explicator of every discrepancy after the Prophet, by doctrinal texts, too. Meanwhile, the Ansar and the Muslims, as a whole, would listen and comprehended his speech. They would play the role of the preponderant factor. They would, soon, swear allegiance to the imam previously elected by God.
In the event that the previous program had actually occurred, the flout of such an argumentation would have been the greatest humanitarian wealth. Similarly, the total tide of history would have been completely changed. The application of the Islamic political system, God had revealed to His servant, would have been literally actualized. As a result of such an application, mankind would have been entirely saved and the international divinely regulated government would have been established. This was a mere expectation. Just because we had overlooked the divine texts and worked in reliance on our personal illation, we lacked capability of achieving that hope. Categorically, collapse is the fatal destiny of any nation that overlook the doctrinal texts and cling to their own inference. Such a nation shall definitely taste bitterness of defeat and relapse as a penalty for misrepresenting and substituting God's grace and guidance, presented through explicit texts, for claimed caprice and whims.
THE LEGAL ARGUMENTS OF PEOPLE OF SAQEEFEH
Sooner or later, the researchists will certainly observe that the Ansar met Sa'd Bin Ebadeh for a fully natural reason which was not political at all. Any political talk occurred there was not more than unintentional viewpoints said during visiting a diseased.
The arrival of those three Muhajirs colored that interview with dark paints of policy and an aimed origination of an election of the next political leader. As long the subject of that simple visit became totally political and establishmentarian, what sorts of legal arguments were to be provided for attaining triumph?
THE ARGUMENT OF THE PRESENT ANSAR
Unlike the representation concentratively asserted by historians, the Ansar were not aiming at inducting one of them in position of leadership. They totally had already understood that they should never enjoy any position of leadership. The idea that all of them had virtually broken the covenant of Allah and His Apostle is rationally unacceptable, especially when the Prophet had not been buried yet. They also had already witnessed the ceremonies of the Prophet’s nominating his successor, and the congratulations had been immediately offered. Correspondingly, every Muslim, including those three Muhajirs, had full awareness of Ali’s being the believers’ master and the religious and political leader, congregationally, after the Prophet. They also had full acquaintance of Ali’s being the leader and the master of each male and female believer, individually. The present Ansar were purposeless. They were showing no avidity for occupying the position of leadership. Besides, the question of leadership had not originally discussed before the arrival of those three Muhajirs. For the above factors, the nonexistence of any argument provided by the Ansar was a spontaneous question. Regarding the arguments imputed to them, it seemed that they had either provided them for creating a spirit of suitability and equality, or they -the arguments- were visualized as a main element serving the direction of the story, the crowning of its stars and the semblance of those stars’ acts. Under the superintendence of the stars themselves, this story was conveyed to one another in the same fashion admitted and used by the formal mass media. Contrary narratives, however, were neglected. The next generations dealt with that tale as a formally and popularly maintained fact. Thus, refusal and denial were the share of any wrong might have been seen on that tale since it was adjudged as rebellion against this nation’s congruity.
THE PURPOSE OF THE THREE MUHAJIRS
The purposes of those three Muhajirs were:
1. Installing a man in the position of the Prophet’s succession at the very time of the absence of the Prophet’s immaculate household and everybody’s being engaged in the Prophet’s funeral.
2. Attaining the attendants’ support and swearing allegiance to the nominated man. If the Aws’s declaration of fealty would be gained, the others should necessarily swear their allegiance so that the Aws would not enjoy that honor alone. Hence, it should be for the swearers’ good that the new man elected for leadership was to be having his new position. As a result of that equation, the man to whom fealty had been presently declared should be the formal and actual caliph -the Prophet’s successor-, and the two others should be the formal viziers. The swearers, likewise, should be the army following the steps of their new commanders. Regarding the objectors of such a declaration of fealty, they should be opposing the Prophet’s successor and mutinying against their leader. The caliph, however, should be lawful to kill such mutineers who should be seen as dissidents and illegal seekers of power. The legal answer for such a practice is evident; (The position of leadership is not to be held to its seekers…) This had exactly occurred.
THE LEGAL ARGUMENTS OF THE THREE MUHAJIRS
What were the arguments provided by those three men that submitted the Ansar? Were their arguments actually legal?
Abu Bakr and Omar provided their kinship to the Prophet as their arguments. They indicated to the rule that the relatives are more meritorious of their kinsman’s heritage.
SUMMARY OF ABU BAKR’S ARGUMENT PROVIDED BEFORE THE ANSAR
Abu Bakr stated: “We, the Muhajirs, preceded others in embracing Islam. Others are only our followers. We are also the Prophet’s clan. Besides, we are enjoying the best lineage among the Arabs. Every Arab clan must have a relation in Quraish.”
SUMMARY OF OMAR’S ARGUMENT PROVIDED BEFORE THE ANSAR
Omar said: “Nay, by God. The Arab shall never accept your being the leaders while the Prophet is another clan's. The Arab should never select but those from whom prophesy came forth. The evident argument and the manifest evidence is ours against our opposers. Who dare to litigate with us about the authority and the heritage of Mohammed while we are his backers and people? None but the wrong, the sinful or the involved in a disaster may do so.”
THE ANSAR’S REPLICATION
The Ansar said: “We should declare our fealty only to Ali.” Some of the Ansar, according to another narrative, repeated the same previous statement while Ali was absent. What should have occurred if only Ali had been present?!
EXPECTATION AND SUBSTANTIATION
Any problem should have never occurred, and the Islamic political system should have been operative naturally had those three Muhajirs admitted to Ali’s leadership. They, however, are too short to do so, since they believed in the impracticality of the Hashemites’ joining leadership to prophesy. The Hashemites did seize prophesy exclusively; therefore, they should not have any governmental position since this is the right of the other Quraishi clans.
THE CALIPH SHOULD BE ONE OF THOSE THREE
The Ansar’s slogan of “We should declare our fealty only to Ali.” went in one ear and out the other. Abu Bakr suggested: “I do advise you to accept one of these two men; Abu Ubeideh Bin Al-Jarrah or Omar, for caliphate. You may declare your fealty to any of them.” Omar replied: “God forbidden! Such a thing should never occur while you are among us… Open your hand and I will swear allegiance to you.”
THE FIRST DECLARER OF FEALTY
As he realized that the three Muhajirs had rejected Ali’s leadership, Bashir Bin Sa’d knew the new caliph should be inevitably designated on that very session. He desired to have priority in this affair; therefore, he declared: “Mohammed, the Apostle of God has been a Quraishi man. Hence, his people are the most meritorious of receiving his heritage and power…” immediately, he jumped towards Abu Bakr and declared his fealty to him. By the way, this Bashir Bin Sa’d became, later on, the second Ansari who stood with in the line of Muawiya against Ali.
NOMINATING AND SWEARING ALLEGIANCE TO THE CALIPH
Useid Bin Hudheir, the chief of the Aws, scrutinized the situation of Sa’d Bin Ebadeh, the chief of the Khazraj, and the three Muhajirs’ situations. Immediately, he realized that Abu Bakr should be soon nominated as the new caliph. Hence, he ordered his group to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. They did at once. In order that the Khazraj would seize a part of that honor for themselves, most of them imitated the Aws.
THE REWARD
Bashir Bin Sa’d was appointed as one of the most significant counselors and viziers of the caliphs. It was he who advised Abu Bakr and Omar not to kill Sa’d Bin Ebadeh. Useid Bin Hudheir became the commander of “the internal security forces.” It was he who backed Omar in leading the phalanx that took the responsibility of subjecting the Hashemites, Az-Zubeir and the rebellious ones. Selemeh Bin Aslem aided Omar in using force for dragging those groups to declaring fealty to the new caliph!
SPREADING OF THE NEWS OF THE DECLARATION
People were gathering in the grand mosque when Abu Bakr and Abu Ubeideh advanced towards them after the Ansar had declared their fealty to Abu Bakr. Omar spoke: “What for are you grouping yourselves in scattered crowds? Come on and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. The Ansar and I have just declared our fealty to our new leader!!” Immediately, Othman and the Umayids rose up and declared fealty. Sa'd, Abdurrahman and their relatives did so, too. The Ansar attending in the mosque rose up and swore allegiance as it had been publicized that the other Ansar had declared their fealty to Abu Bakr. This is a typical result especially when Bashir Bin Sa’d and Useid Bin Hudheir were behaving as if they had been a part of that new power. Ali, Al-Abbas Bin Abdil-Muttelib and the Hashemites left that place directing towards their pack animals. This matter incited the prime vizier of the new caliph to lead a phalanx of the supporters, including Useid Bin Hudeir and Selemeh Bin Aslem, to take that group by force and lead them to declaring fealty. He insisted on that order even if it required setting fire in Fatima’s house, the place at which they were residing. More than once, we proved the episode of burning Fatima’s house. However, this action was not too astonishing to expect. Fatima was not more significant than her father, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), whom had been already prevented from recording his will, and accused of speaking out of senility!! Far is the Prophet from such an accusation.
THE UNEQUAL CONFRONTATION BETWEEN THE DIVINELY NOMINATED LEADER AND THE NEW POWER
After the Prophet’s decease, the divinely nominated leader was stripped from his entire authorities. He was enchained and attended before Abu Bakr. In this situation, he was shouting: “I am the slave of Allah and His Apostle’s brother.” “Declare your fealty to Abu Bakr.” some ordered. “I am the most rightful in this affair. It is you whom are to be submitted to my leadership. You seized it from the Ansar claiming of the Prophet's kinship. Now, you intend to seize it from the Prophet's household coercively?! Have you not argued before the Ansar that you are more rightful in holding this affair due to your relation to the Prophet? And they complied to your claim and gave it to you. Now, I do provide the very same argument before you; we are the most rightful in enjoying the Prophet's authority and heritage in and after his life. Be just with us, if you were believers. Lest, live in your wrong, while you are aware.”
These words were too genuine to be replied by the ruling authorities. Nevertheless, Omar answered him instantly: “You shall never be let alone unless you swear allegiance.” “You are milking for gaining the half of the product, and strengthening his position so that he will hand it to you in the morrow.” answered Ali, and added: “O Omar! By God I am neither to welcome your words nor am I to swear allegiance to him.” Abu Ubeideh intruded: “O cousin! You are middle-aged. Those are the old-aged men of your people. You do not enjoy their experience and sagacity. I see Abu Bakr be fitter, more tolerant and more broad-minded than you in this affair. You should submit to Abu Bakr. You are, however, fitting this matter and rightful of receiving it for your virtue, piety, knowledgeability, cogency, precedence, lineage and matrimonial relation. This is only if you live and endure.” Contiguously, Ali shouted: “By God I ask you, Muhajirs! Do not take Mohammed's sovereignty of the Arabs out of his area and his own house, and transmit it to your areas and houses. Do not push his people away from his standing and right among people. O groups of Muhajirs! We, by God, are the most meritorious of him. We are his household and we are the fittest to this position whilst the perceiver of God's Book, the studious of God's religion, the most familiar to the traditions of God's Apostle, the well-acquainted of people's affairs, the defender of people in misfortunes and the distributor between them in full justice is among us. He is, by God, among us that who carries such attributes. Follow not your fancies that you shall be certainly deviated and be remoter and remoter from the right.”
THE FOREMOST DECLARER’S JUDGMENT
Unmistakably, the ruling authorities had nothing adapted to reply the decisive argument of the imam. Bashir Bin Sa’d, the foremost declarer, was attendant. Before the columns of the new power, he spoke: “O Ali! If only had the Ansar heard your current words, they should never have agreed upon declaring fealty to Abu Bakr and, as a result, no any two of them would have litigated about your meritoriousness in this position.”
AN ACTIVITY
At night, Ali (God may dignify his face) took his wife, Fatima Az-Zahra (peace be upon her), on a pack animal and passed by the Ansar’s sessions asking for support. The Ansar said: “O daughter of God's messenger! We have already declared loyalty to that man. We would not have elected other than your husband and cousin had he come to us before Abu Bakr.” Ali answered them: “Should I have left the Prophet's body in his house without burying him and gone out for contesting people in his government?” Fatima commented: “Abu Hassan did exactly what was required from him. They did what Allah shall penalize and amerce for.” From this cause, the Imam realized that people had betrayed him as exactly as the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had informed.
HUMILIATING AND THREATENING THE DIVINELY NOMINATED LEADER FOR TAKING HIS DECLARATION OF FEALTY
As we have previously referred, the ruling authorities menaced of setting Fatima’s house on fire if the group of the imam’s acceders would not leave it. “Fatima is in that house.” some reminded Omar. “Even so!” challenged Omar. The sitters in Fatima’s house realized Omar’s seriousness in his menace. Thereupon, they went out and swore allegiance to the new ruler. Ali, the owner of that house, remained there. Fatima stood at the door of her house and shouted: “I have never known people had been in a situation more offensive than yours. You left the funeral of Allah’s Apostle between our hands, and settled your own affair without seeking our opinions or observing our right…”
Abu Bakr sent a man for summoning Ali. These summons were frequently rejected. Hence, Omar took a group of people and came to Fatima’s house. They knocked the door. As she recognized their voiced, Fatima shouted: “O Father! O Allah’s Apostle! What misfortunes we have encountered after you from the son of Al-Khattab and the son of Abu Qehafeh!” The group left that place weeping as soon as they heard her groan. They were so touched that their hearts were about to be ruptured. Omar, the rigid, who had never known lenience and had never been influenced by any matter for the sake of the right, remained there accompanied by small group. They took Ali, by force, out of that house and dragged him to Abu Bakr. “You should declare your fealty now.” they ordered him. “What if I do not?” answered Ali. “Then, we, by Allah but whom there is no god, shall behead you.” they threatened. “Then you shall be killing the salve of Allah and the brother of His Apostle.” clarified Ali. “It is yes that you are the slave of God, but it is no that you are the brother of His Apostle.” commented Omar. (Anyhow, Ali’s enjoying brotherly relation with the Prophet is a matter too authentic to be denied.) Omar, therewith, urged Abu Bakr to issue the order of killing him. Abu Bakr answered: “As long as Fatima is next to him, I am not to drive him to any matter.”
Thus, Ali went directly towards the Prophet's tomb weeping and crying: “(Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me.)”
AN ENDEAVOR FOR SEEKING AZ-ZAHRA’S AFFABILITY
After their frequent importunate insistence, Al-Faruq and As-Siddiq were permitted to meet Az-Zahra. She spoke: “I adjure you both by God; have you heard the Apostle of Allah say ‘Fatima’s satisfaction is a part of mine, and her ire is a part of mine. He whoever cherishes my daughter, Fatima, is cherishing me. He whoever pleases Fatima, is pleasing me. He whoever enrages Fatima is enraging me.’?” “Yes, we have.” they answered. She, then, declared: “I do ask the witness of Allah and His angels, that you have enraged me indeed, and that you have not pleased me. I shall surely complain against you both before the Prophet when I shall meet him.” Abu Bakr wept heavily while she was addressing at him: “By God I swear, I will supplicate Allah against you at every prayer I am to perform.” Hence, he went out while he was weeping.
ABU BAKR AIMED AT ABDICATING
When Abu Bakr left that place, people encircled him. “You are passing your night each hanging his woman and leaving me alone in my torment! I do not lack your allegiance. Draw your declarations of fealty.” shouted he. Naturally, his surrounders should be rejecting this demand and finding legal excuses for it.
THE FINAL SITUATION OF THE DIVINELY NOMINATED LEADER
Actually, affairs were settled for the new authorities. The divinely nominated leader became an ordinary citizen who has nothing more than the normal rights enjoyed by any civilian. The ruling authorities had the actual right in favoring or disapproving him. As a matter of fact, although it was his divinely dedicated right, authority was usurped from him for good. He might be killed for his keeping on opposing that ruling authorities. There were tens of amends the authorities would provide for sentencing him to death penalty. They could easily accuse him of mutiny, dissension and competing the rightful owners.
Saving his household, none stood with him. Describing that period, Ali says: “I looked around me and recognized that saving my household, none was with me. I banked them away from death, and closed my eyes on the mote, and drank on that suffocation, and endured adopting self-possessedness and suffered a matter more bitter than coloquintida.” On another occasion, Imam Ali said: “…The Quraishis retaliated me so heavily. They disconnected my relations and expropriated my brother’s mastery, (This indicated that Imam Ali had believed that leadership had been his right exclusively), and agreed upon usurping an affair exclusively dedicated to me. One might address at me: You are so interested for this matter, son of Abu Talib! Nay, you are for this matter more interested than me. I have demanded with my right, and you are standing between it and me. By God I swear, since the Prophet’s death up to now, I am pushed away from my right.”
hence, Imam Ali had nothing remained except keeping his right in caliphate and providing arguments before those who took it away from him provided that he should neither cause an opposition or rebellion, nor should he be the originator of a seditious matter used by the enemies of Islam. Consequently, he confined himself in his house till they compelled him to leave. He would have lost his arguments and could have not provided proofs for his group had he overdone in that situation. He, however, reserved the religion and his right in caliphate together. As long as he conceived that conserving Islam and defeating the enemies had been achieved only by affability and pacification, he took that way and favored ameliorating relations with the ruling authorities for conserving the nation, choosing the better for people, saving the religion, preferring the present to the future and performing the intellectual and legal duty of favoring the most important to the important in case of contrast between the two.
MYSTERY OF THE QURAISHIS’ REJECTING ALI’S LEADERSHIP
The mystery beyond the Quraishis’ rejecting Ali’s leadership is hiding in the political education of Quraish that is relying upon the contribution of positions of honor in the pre-Islamic period. Every Quraishi clan enjoyed an inevitable share of these positions. The Hashemite prophecy destroyed that political form totally. Hence, the Hashemites had that inescapable prophesy solely in spite of the Quraishis’ ultimate struggle for undermining it. During the Prophet’s lifetime, Imam Ali was divinely nominated as the leader and the successor since he was the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest for captaining the ship of Islam.
ANTICIPATING THE FALLING OF THE CRITICAL MATTER
Supposing the leadership of Ali falls in action, this shall means that the Hashemites seize the whole honor by joining leadership besides prophesy. By any criterion, this matter is unacceptable at all. Furthermore, it is required to stand against the occurrence of such an affair till the last breath. The other Quraishi clans embraced Islam and became equal to each other. Islam, however, eradicates whatever preceded it originally. So, what is the incentive beyond the Hashemites’ keeping distinguishability, preference and dedicated glorification?
THE FAIR PARTITIONING
The Hashemites did enjoy prophesy exclusively, none will partake them in this honor at all. They, however, are the brothers of the other Quraishi clans. What is the wrong if the other Quraishi clans have leadership exclusively and keep any Hashemite away from it? This is the best and the fairest sharing. Let the Hashemites enjoy prophesy alone, and let the other Quraishi clans enjoy leadership alone, too.
THE QURAISHI CLANS’ FORMING A TEAM
The entire Quraishi clans formed a united team since their aim was the same; preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy.
In Bani Sa’ideh’s Saqeefeh -shed-, Abu Bakr addressed at the Ansar: “I do advise you to accept one of these two men; Abu Ubeideh Bin Al-Jarrah or Omar, for caliphate. You may declare your fealty to any of them.” Omar replied: “God forbidden! Such a thing should never occur while you are among us…” Abu Ubeideh had surely the same situation. Those three Muhajirs had the same situation. They were forming a united team. Similarly, they all rejected the Ansar’s statement of swearing allegiance to Ali only.
People of Quraish, congregationally, stood against Abu Bakr’s decision of abdication. The divinely nominated leader referred to this congregational situation in his sayings: …the Quraishis retaliated me so heavily. They disconnected my relations and expropriated my brother’s mastery.” “O Allah! I seek Thy aid against people of Quraish. They disconnected my relations and demeaned my great position and agreed upon usurping an affair exclusively dedicated to me.” When Abu Bakr was arduously affected by his disease, he summoned Othman alone. “Write down:” Abu Bakr asked just before he was fainted. During these moments, Othman wrote: “I do nominate Omar Bin Al-Khattab as my successor to caliphate.” When Abu Bakr regained his consciousness, he ordered Othman to read what he had written down. “You would have been fitting for it had you written your own name instead.” said Abu Bakr. This indicated that it had been no difference at all between Omar and Othman since both were playing to the same team. In his final disease, Omar said: “Had Abu Ubeideh been alive, I would have nominated for the caliphate. Had Khalid Bin Al-Waleed been alive, I would have nominated for the caliphate. Had Salim, Abu Hutheifeh's slave, been alive, I would have nominated for the caliphate.” This indicated that there had been no difference between Abu Ubeideh and Khalid since both were belonging to the same party. Moreover, it was not unacceptable to elect Me’ath Bin Jabal, the Ansari, for occupying the position of leadership despite the fact that few years ago it was impracticable for the Ansar to be the leaders since leadership, as Al-Faruq adjudged, was restricted to the Prophet’s clan. Similarly, what was the wrong of granting a slave, such as Salim, Hutheifeh’s slave, the position of caliphate? The most important thing was that Ali or any Hashemite should never hold such a position. Had Ali been out of the picture of the six-member advisory board decided by Omar for electing the new caliph, affairs would not have been so complicated, and the other four members -since Talha was absent- would have immediately elected Othman.
Othman, however, was the first Muhajir, after Omar and Abu Ubeideh, who swore allegiance to Abu Bakr. He was also that clerk who wrote: “I do use Omar Bin Al-Khattab as my successor to caliphate.” Besides, he was the only candidate nominated by Omar in whose reign, Othman was named ‘the successor.’ Little study of Omar’s will reveals the fact that the winner would be none other than Othman.
Othman declared his readiness to concede caliphate to Talha who had just arrived after a journey. This matter was natural since the all were brothers of the same team and purpose. It was also unproblematic in case Abdullah Bin Omar was his father’s successor. They, in fact, advised Omar to nominate his son for caliphate since, according to their claim, he had enjoyed some attributes making him qualified enough for such a position. The entire Quraishis were a united team of the same degree of standing and purpose, which was preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy.
DEPRIVING THE HASHEMITES OF THEIR POLITICAL RIGHTS
Not only did the Quraishi clans stand against Ali’s enjoying the position of leadership, but also they deprived any Hashemite of enjoying any formal position. Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman had never used a Hashemite in a governmental position.
Abdurrahman Bin Awf said: “I declare my fealty to you provided that you should never place any Hashemite on people’s shoulders.” This means that he should not use any Hashemite for a governmental position. Ali immediately replied him: “What is the advantage you are to gain from such a provision. My duty is only exerting efforts for the good of Mohammed’s nation. I am to use any man, whether Hashemite or not, if I realize his firmness and sincerity.” “Nay, by God! I am not to declare it before you agree upon this provision.” insisted Abdurrahman. “By God, I will never agree upon this.” answered Ali.
WHAT IS THE IDEA OF DEFERRING THE HASHEMITES
What is the idea of deferring the Hashemites? This question was answered by Al-Faruq. He was hesitated in designating Ibn Abbas for a governmental position. As Ibn Abbas sought an explanation, Al-Faruq answered: “O Ibn Abbas! I am afraid that you will keep this position till my decease. You may, then, refer to yourselves for leadership. It is illicit for you to enjoy this position exclusively.”
This means that Al-Faruq aimed at being sure that caliphate -leadership- should not march towards Ali or any other Hashemite after his death. This is, in fact, the climax of adherence to the impracticability of the Hashemites’ joining leadership to prophesy slogan.
DISCLOSURE OF HIDDENS
As they distributed positions among them, the Quraishi clans decided not to give the Hashemites any role in the next leadership since they enjoyed prophesy alone. They, however, were perplexed whether they should bind all the others to this decision. Since they were tardy in embracing Islam, they were lacking the awareness of the method to be followed for applying this decision. In the midst of this perplexity, Omar Bin Al-Khattab, the loyal son of Quraish, took great steps in the way of expressing the Quraishis’ consciousness and applying their decision using legal argumentation. Hence, he was the most meritorious of the name ‘the faithful son of Quraish.’
Omar checked the Prophet against recording his will, stating that the man had been affected by his pains and that Book of Allah had been acceptably sufficient. From this cause, the Prophet’s will should be valueless and unneeded. Omar’s fellows adopted and insisted on this opinion so importunately that they accused the Prophet of senility. Furthermore, they quarreled against the adversary party. Without their absolute confidence of Omar and his certain knowledge of that will’s contents, this party would have never been to utter such an embarrassing statement. Owing to his cunning, Omar could realize that the Prophet had aimed at renewing and reminding of the leadership of Ali. Therefore, he prevented him from recording that will, using the excuse that he had been influenced by the pains he was suffering. Comparatively, Al-Faruq himself ruled of the flawlessness of Abu Bakr’s recording his will in the same circumstances. He himself recorded his will in the same circumstances. As a matter of fact, Abu Bakr and Omar, in their final diseases, had been suffering pains heavier than those suffered by the Prophet. The event of preventing the Prophet from recording his will is too authentic to be denied or vindicated. In a like fashion, the events of the wills of Abu Bakr and Omar are as clear as sunlight. They are regarded as the bases of the historical system of caliphate.
AL-FARUQ’S EXPRESSING THE REASONS
The following conversation occurred between Al-Faruq and Ibn Abbas:
Omar: How is your cousin?
Ibn Abbas: He is well. He is with his associates.
Omar: I do not mean Abdullah Bin Ja’far. I meant your head; the Prophet’s house.
Ibn Abbas: I left him striking heavily while reciting the Quran?
Omar: O Abdullah! I adjure you by blood of the sacrificed animals not to reveal the truth. Is he still caring for caliphate?
Ibn Abbas: Yes, he is.
Omar: Is he still claiming that the Prophet had nominated him for that position?
Ibn Abbas: Yes, he is. Besides, my father supported Ali’s claim of the Prophet’s nominating him for the position.
Omar: Well, the Prophet had assuredly referred to Ali in a form too exaggerated to prove an argument or provide an excuse. For a considerable period, he studied the scope of people’s accepting this matter. In his final disease, the Prophet did aim at referring to Ali by the name. But, I stopped against this.”
AL-FARUQ’S IMPRESSION ON THE IMPRACTICALITY OF THE HASHEMITES’ JOINING LEADERSHIP TO PROPHESY SLOGAN
Once, in his reign, Omar argued Ibn Abbas:
“O Ibn Abbas! Do you realize the reason beyond your people's neglecting your nominating for managing the Islamic state?” Evading the anticipated consequences, Ibn Abbas escaped from the answer. “Well, Ameerul-Mu'mineen! If I ignore the answer, you are definitely in full awareness of it.” commented Ibn Abbas. “Your people disliked the matter that you would have prophesy and authority altogether. Then you shall be unjust to your people. People of Quraish selected for themselves. Indeed, they succeeded as they opted for the right one.” expressed Omar. “O Ameerul-Mu'mineen!” Ibn Abbas worded, “May I speak provided that you shall not be irate?” “Yes, you may.” permitted Omar. Here, Ibn Abbas signified: “Regarding your saying (People of Quraish selected for themselves. Indeed, they succeeded as they opted for the right one.), they would have been right absolutely and without litigation if only they had clung to what God had opted for. Regarding your saying: (Your people disliked the matter that you would have prophesy and authority altogether.), God, the Exalted, described a people who disliked so. He said: (That is because they hated what Allah revealed, so he rendered their deeds null.)” “Far it is, Ibn Abbas!” replied Omar, “I have been informed of some news, but I do not like to discipline you about so that your status would not be lessened.” Ibn Abbas answered: “O Ameerul-Mu'mineen! My status at you must not have been lessened in case these new were true, otherwise, I am one of those who obviated the ill deeds from approaching towards their entities.” Omar said: “Well, I was informed of your claim that the general authority had been taken away from you, Mohammed's clan, due to envy, aggression and injustice.” “Respecting the injustice,” responded Ibn Abbas, “it had been realized by the level-headed, as well as the ill-minded. Respecting envy, Adam was envied, and we are his envied sons.” “Far it is. Far it is.” expressed Omar, “Your hearts, sons of Hashim, are filled in with an immovable envy.” Ibn Abbas answered: “Slow down, Ameerul-Mu'mineen! Do you impute such a description to hearts that God has (kept away uncleanness from them and purified them a thorough purification?)
THE EXAGGERATION IN LOYALTY TO THE SLOGAN
In addition to working for effecting the impracticality of the Hashemites’ joining leadership to prophecy slogan all over his lifetime, Al-Faruq spared no efforts for making the application of this slogan operative even after his death. He worked hard for preventing Ali or any Hashemite from having an advanced governmental position after his death in the same way he had used for casting the Hashemites, disregarding their capability and fitness, out of the governmental circle. The provision of ostracizing the Hashemites, including the strong and the honest, from official positions was not proceeded by Abdurrahman Bin Awf. It was a literal implementation of Al-Faruq’s will he had recorded while he was in his final hours. We are, here, to review excerpted items of Al-Mas’udi’s narrative:
Omar summoned Abdullah Bin Abbas for designating him for the governorship of Hims immediately after the decease of the governor. He, however, canceled this decision; “O Ibn Abbas! I am afraid that you will keep this position till my decease. You may, then, refer to yourselves for leadership. It is illicit for you to enjoy this position exclusively.”
Al-Faruq, therewith, intended to be sure that after his decease no governor would call for and support the idea of the Hashemites’ leadership of the Islamic state. Forthwith, he instituted the provision of ostracizing the Hashemites, including the strong and the honest, from official positions. This is indeed the ultimate loyalty to the impracticality of the Hashemites’ joining leadership to prophecy slogan, that none of the Quraishi clans could attain. This provision, however, was imposed upon the Hashemites only.
WAS THE SLOGAN ALLAH’S ORDER?
From all of the sides, this slogan was extremely Jahilite. Neither Allah nor did His Apostle order of such a matter. It is not admitted by the Islamic doctrine as well. On the contrary, this slogan is thoroughly contrasted to the divinely words and deeds. It is contrasted to doctrinal texts appertained to nominating Ali Bin Abi Talib as the leader and the Prophet’s successor. These texts have been previously provided and debated. It is also contrasted to the doctrinal texts regarding asserting on adhering to the Prophet’s progeny as considered as one of the two weighty things. Likewise, it is contrasted to the texts relating estimating the Prophet’s progeny as ship of safety, security against discrepancies, the religious and the political leaders of this nation. For maintaining this truth, Allah, the Elevated, ruled of seeking God’s blessings and mercy upon Mohammed and his progeny as a pillar part of the obligatory prayers.
WHAT FOR WAS AL-FARUQ, THEN, ADHERENT AND SINCERE TO THE SLOGAN?
For answering this question, it is to say that Al-Faruq perceived granting the Hashemites prophesy exclusively and keeping leadership to the other Quraishi clans, exclusively too, had been the absolute fairness. He also believed that Quraishi people had been surely right when they opted for this contribution. He believed that the Hashemites would have been extremely unjust to the other Quraishi clans had they joined leadership to prophesy. Injustice, however, is opposite to Islamic regulations. Regarding Ali, in addition to his being middle-aged, he is unqualified to being the Muslims’ leader after the Prophet. In due course, Al-Faruq adopted this slogan due to his caring for Islam in addition to the previous factors.
AL-FARUQ’S SITUATIONS TOWARDS THE DIVINELY NOMINATED LEADER AND THE PROPHET’S HOUSEHOLD
During the entire stages of his life, Al-Faruq was greatly caring for Islam. He understood that the Prophet’s will would be forming an eminent danger against Islam and Muslims; therefore, he himself opposed that noble Prophet’s idea and could gather a good deal of supporters. They opposed so exaggeratedly that they accused the Prophet of speaking out of senility!!
Al-Faruq arranged for the question of electing a caliph. He inspected the events so accurately till he achieved triumph by nominating the new caliph while the Quraishis, the Prophet’s household and the divinely nominated leader were absent. This was intended for caring for the good of Islam and Muslims’ unity. It was also purposed for preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy, so that they would not be unjust to their people. Al-Faruq, naturally, hated injustice and inequity.
Al-Faruq should not be lenient to those whomever tried to injure security and unity of the state and the nation. These two matters, pursuant to his conception, were the most elevated among all considerations. It would not be problematic for him to set fire in Fatima’s house and its dwellers if this house, according to his belief, formed any sort of danger against security and unity of the state and the nation. Law, however, is prevailing upon everyone, including Fatima, the daughter of Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). Al-Faruq intended to set that house and its occupants on fire after he had fetched firewood. He vacated that idea only after the opposers had left that house. In spite of the above, it was Al-Faruq who suggested to As-Siddiq to see Az-Zahra and offer her apology.
He was brave enough to face any individual, including the divinely nominated leader, that retarded from swearing allegiance to the new authority. When Ali objected declaring his fealty to Abu Bakr, Al-Faruq threatened of assassinating him if he was to keep that attitude, although he addressed at that who tried to degrade Ali: “This is my master and your master, and the master of every male and female believer.” Furthermore, he was wont to refer to Ali in great deal of questions. He used to say: “O Allah! I seek Thy protection against any quandary from which Abul-Hassan is remote.”
All these facts have been debated in this survey and in our survey called ‘An-Nidhamus-Siyasi Fil-Islam’.
It was also Al-Faruq himself who instituted the provision of ostracizing any Hashemite, including the strong and the honest, from enjoying any governmental position. He assumed that the Hashemites should never join leadership to prophesy so that they would not be unjust to the other Quraishi clans.
From another side, Al-Belathiri, in his Futouhul-Buldan, mentions that Al-Faruq was wont to prefer Mohammed’s household to others, including himself, in questions regarding distributions of gifts and imports of the state.
Al-Faruq had his own course and style in understanding the religion. He enjoyed audacity in declaring his course, even that he had followed in facing the Prophet, commonly. The event of the calamity -as Ibn Abbas named- is a good example.
He also opposed the Holy Quran, even. For instance, according to the following Quranic text; (Alms are only for the poor and the needy, and the officials appointed over them, and those whose hearts are made to incline to truth and the ransoming of captives and those in debts and in the way of Allah and the wayfarer, an ordinance from Allah; and Allah is Knowing, Wise.), these classes are to be dedicately benefiting the alms. Like any other divinely obligation, this dedication is an obligation. Al-Faruq, however, perceived the unnecessity of the heart-inclined share since such class had not been meritorious. So, he presumed that defraying this share to such a group had been reckoned with squandering since Allah had backed Islam and maintained His religion. Therefore, he, simply, issued a decision of canceling this share. He, in fact, deprived such individuals of the right God had already determined. He did realize that the Prophet had not ceased defraying this share to such persons although the conquest and God’s triumph were achieved. The one-fifth rate (Khums) is another example on Omar’s inferring in questions determined by the Quran. Regarding the Mut’a -short-termed marriage- of the ritual pilgrimage, this matter was legislated by the Prophet till it was canceled by Al-Faruq. In the reigns of the Prophet and Abu Bakr, the times of divorce were separated. When Omar came to power he issued this verdict: “The Muslims are prompting this question. The divorce, hence, should be thrice.” Since then, the form of the (legal) divorce was changed into this new one: “You are divorced thrice.” Many other questions appertained were issued by Al-Faruq.
Like a cyclone, Al-Faruq pushed himself forwardly in uttering whatsoever he thought the right, destroying anything standing in his way, and neglecting anything that may face. The supreme word in the reign of Abu Bakr was his. This was by the reason that the previous had owed him the position he was occupying. Omar could have been the caliph, instead of As-Siddiq, had he wanted. Naturally, he had the supreme word in his reign since he was the caliph. At the entire Quraishi clans, Omar’s word was the prevalent. They cognized that he had been the only one who had the ability of preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy. For the Umayids, Omar’s words were highly respectful. It was he who assigned Yazeed Bin Abi Sufian and Muawiya, his brother, as the governors of Syria. Practically, it was also he who delivered caliphate to Othman, the Umayid. Hence, Omar’s reverence found its way easy in the hearts of Quraishi people. It extended to the society of Muslims. “The factor that helped in establishing this reverence was the fact that Omar had never been engaged in a personal craving.” Sharafuddin Al-Amili says.
ON THE INTERSECTION OF COURSES
COLLAPSES
The Prophet was still bed-ridden when the ground was quaked and moved under the believers’ feet. A series of consecutive collapses started just after the Prophet’s decease. Necessarily, each collapse should be followed by another. Thus, the ultimate one shall be indisputably occurring. The hour at which this ultimate collapse shall occur is known by God alone. This series of collapses was originated when they prevented the Prophet from recording his will. Before the Prophet was put in his tomb, those who stood against recording his will had finished the matter and held fast on power while neither people of Quraish, the Prophet’s household, their head nor were the majority of Muslims present. All those classes were faced by the actuality of an integral government wearing dress of legality so thoroughly.
THE RULING AUTHORITY AND THE OPPOSITION
The ruling authorities came forth as if they were real rulers in whose hands were mastery and power. They held fast on that position. Their fellows swore allegiance to them and submitted to their sovereignty and authority. Thus, they were seen as the actual rulers and the prevalent of a real power.
On the other hand, the divinely nominated leader found himself alone with the Quran that is turning wherever he turns, the right that is turning wherever he turns, the divinely issued decision of his being the guide, the divinely issued decision of his rightfulness to explicate when people are engaged in discrepancies after the Prophet, his being a witness like the Prophet on the Day of Resurrection and his being enjoying the entire standings enjoyed by prophets except prophesy. With all these specifications, the divinely nominated leader found himself alone. He was abandoned to practice any of his authorities. None was listening to him. He became not more than an ordinary citizen with no supporters except the Prophet’s honorable progeny and the Hashemites who were fatigued by their battling the Arab. These were the essential components of the opposition. It was not expected from such an opposition to do so much. At any rate, they were elected and supported by God for explicating the reality of this religion.
TWO CHOICES BEFORE THE OPPOSITION
The opposition had either to mollify or to challenge. If fact, challenge was seen as a categorical suicide owing to the situations people were engaged in. Due to such a challenge, the religion might have been injured totally, the divinely nominated leader assassinated and the blessed household of the Prophet massacred. Thus, the divinely nominated leader preferred the most important to the important. He himself took the way of pacification while he worked hard for advising and showing the religion.
TWO CHOICES BEFORE THE NATION
As if they saw a nightmare, people, after the Prophet’s decease, woke up terrified as they faced these two things:
1. A ruling authority and an actual power led and directed by the band who were the most remarkable viziers of the Prophet. They were declaring their being the right.
2. An impotent opposition led and directed by the genuine Prophet’s successor, supported by the Prophet’s household and the Hashemites who spent twenty three years of confrontation against the Arab. They were also declaring their being the right.
DISCREPANCY OF PEOPLE
People, accordingly, were engaged in discrepancies and various parties, one of which (Sunnis) made approaches and showed fealty to the ruling authorities regarding them as the powerful competent custodians who represented unity of this nation. The year at which Muawiya overcame Ali and, hence, power defeated legality, was called ‘year of congruity’. The party that acceded to Muawiya were called Sunnis -people of the traditions-. This party, however, was of various sects and groups who showed variety in the scope of loyalty to the ruling authorities and finding excuses for their misdeeds. They also showed variety in the scope of their condolence to the opposition and understanding their situation. At any rate, they, finally, agreed upon the conception that the two parties; the ruling authorities and the opposition, were Sahaba that should be in the Paradise. They ruled of the capability of inference of the all. Correspondingly, they should be rewarded whether they were right or wrong. These sects and groups, however, welcomed this solution; therefore, their fate was connected to the ruling authorities’. Not for favoring them, these sects and groups attempted at saving the ruling authorities from any criticism so that they themselves should not be reproached in the same way. Because of their loyalty to them, they should naturally have a share of the ignominy faced to the rulers. Regarding headship of the Islamic state, this party agreed unanimously on bearing the slogan: “We are being with the prevailing.” Consequently, they were showing fealty to the prevailing party no matter what qualifications he had. The evidence they provided for excusing this course was Abdullah Bin Omar’s saying during the conflict of Al-Harra: “We are being with the prevailing.” This saying, however, was reckoned as a legal reliable ruling.
The other party were Shias. They are those who showed fealty only to the divinely nominated leader and the Prophet’ successor. They believed in the fact that the right and the Quran are pursuing this leader wherever he goes. Thus, they showed fealty to this leader and the Prophet’s household. They gave credence to the Prophet’s saying that the Quran is the prior weighty thing, and the Prophet’s household are the minor. They also believed that guidance -to the right path- is unattainable unless these two weighty things are adhered together. All over ages, they betook the head of the Prophet’s progeny as their leader and legal imam. They accede to those to whom the Imam acceded and oppose those whom are opposed by the Imam. Those heads attained twelve in number. Shias, however, committed themselves totally to the absolute legality disregarding circumstances and costs. Their grand aim is uniting the Islamic nation under the banner of the Imam, from the Prophet’s progeny, who shall be in charge of explicating and applying the divine doctrine rulings in order that he should transfer mankind from darkness to illumination by conveying the immaculate mission of Islam all over this world. Shias’ path, nonetheless, was always that of pains and misfortunes. These were the levy they should defray for attaining the divine satisfaction through the auspicious rank the Prophet had given to them exclusively. Whilst Allah revealed the Verse: (As for those who believe and do good, surely they are the best of men.), the Prophet addressed at Ali: “O Ali! They are you and your followers.”
Because of their being the opposition, Shias suspect the legality of every ruling authority except those whose chief is the head and the Imam of the Prophet’s progeny. Accordingly, a state of mistrust occurred between Shias and the ruling authorities. This state was so deepened that it was developed into a rivalry and antagonism that originated a reciprocal malice.
Individually and collectively, Shias aimed at proving tyranny and despotism of the ruling authorities. They claimed that those ruling authorities had usurped their power from its genuine people and imposed their rule upon this nation by means of strength and intensity. They also claimed that because of the ruling authorities’ fondness of reputation, predominance and favoring this world to the other, they deprived Muslims and mankind of enjoying the divine mastery. Since the ruling authorities confiscated their freedom, Shias used individual and veiled means for proving their viewpoints. They were constantly chased and disturbed by the ruling authorities.
On the other hand, the ruling powers who seized everything in that society, expropriated Shias’ franchise of providing their viewpoints, and accused them of being mutineers. Occasionally, Shias were charged of being apostates, dissidents, miscreants and even atheists. This ruling authorities’ viewpoint was provided so publicly before the entire sectors of society. The mass media, totally, were broadcasting these viewpoints, and the pro-rulers scholars intensified these misallegations illustrated by the ever ugliest pictures. Hence, cavity between Shias and other sects of the nation were ceaselessly augmented. The succeeding generations perceived the authenticity of these accusations clung to Shias by the ruling authorities; therefore, they went on repeating and playing on the same cord since they commit themselves to partisan imitation. All these and Shias were undertaking tolerance for the sake of Allah. They also took the course of endurance and composure believing that the day on which facts shall be revealed is not that far.

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