Justice and equity
The subject of justice is worth discussing from two viewpoints:
1 – From personal and individual angle
2 – From social and collective aspect.
As from the individual consideration when man has this divine and heavenly attribute making one strong from within it makes him graceful. Consequently it brings man near his Lord.
As for the collective angle, if this virtue spreads in a society of a nation it makes that society happy. Their world turns into paradise. Their life in this world will become like a life in paradise. Society will be full of rest and satisfaction and nobody will have any fear except that of his own offence or sin which he knows will make him suffer as a punishment.
We, before explaining the meaning of Adl, Justice Equity and Aadil just, quote here some verses and traditions mentioning justice:
Certainly We sent Our apostles with clear arguments, and sent down with them the Book and the balance that men may conduct themselves with equity.
2 – Say: My Lord has enjoined justice.
3 – And say: I believe in what Allah has revealed of the Book, and I am commanded to do justice between you.
4 – Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice and the doing of good to others.
5 – O you who believe! Be maintainers of justice, bearers of witness of Allah’s sake, though it may be against your own selves or your parents or near relatives; if he be rich or poor, Allah is nearer to them both in compassion; therefore do not follow your low desires, lest you deviate; and if you swerve or turn aside, then surely Allah is aware of what you do.
6 – And do not approach the property of the orphan except in the best manner until he attains his maturity, and give full measure and weight with justice — We do not impose on any soul a duty except to the extent of its ability; and when you speak, then be just though it be against a relative, and fulfil Allah’s covenant; this He has enjoined you with that you may be mindful.
7 – O you who believe! Be upright for Allah, bearers of witness with justice, and let not hatred of a people incite you not to act equitably; act equitably, that is nearer to piety, and he careful of your duty to Allah; surely Allah is Aware of what you do.
Now we invite your attention to some narrations:
1 – It is recorded in the will of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): I command you by this will to be just both in happiness and in indignation.
2 – Abi Malik says: I asked Imam Sajjad (a.s.) What is acceptable in all the religions? He said: Speaking the truth, a just order and keeping of promise.
3 – It is quoted from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): Justice is the sweetest water that can reach lips of a thirsty person. Equity is vast even if it is little when justice is meted out.
4 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: The most impartial just man is he who likes for others what he likes for himself and dislikes for people what the dislikes for himself.
5 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: The heavens and the earth are based on justice.
6 – When Ali (a.s.) attained caliphate, he said about the properties that were mismanaged during the rule of Usman: By God! If I get from what Usman has awarded and what has been unjustly given away from the public treasury to this and that, I will return it to whom it really belonged, even if that money was used for marrying women or for purchasing slave girls, because, justice brings ease and the one to whom justice is heavy, the bearing of injustice and oppression will be still heavier
7 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: The man who will be nearest to God on the Day of Judgement will be a just ruler and the one who will be farthest from Divine Mercy will be an unjust ruler.
8 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said: One hour spent in meting out justice is better than
seventy years of worship
9 – In one of his advices to Usman, Ali (a.s.) said: Beware! The greatest of all slaves in the sight of God is a just ruler who himself is rightly guided and who guided others rightly, who reinstates the know traditions Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), who destroys unrecognised innovations. The traditions are obvious and illumination having distinct signs. Innovations too are obvious and have identifications. The worst man in the sight of Allah is a tyrant ruler who himself is misguided and through him, others also are misguided. He removes the acceptable traditions and enlivens the discarded innovations. I have heard from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): A tyrant rule will be brought on the Day of Resurrection when he will have neither a helper with him nor any excuse. He will be thrown into fire. He will rotate in the hell-fire like the stone of a grinding mill. Then he will be dragged by chains in the Hell.
Now when you have seen some verses of the Holy Quran and some traditions narrations of the Holy family of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) your attention is drawn to a question and its answer:
1 – What is the meaning of Adl Justice?
As regards the first question:
We should know that justice has a very vast meaning which encircles all the good deeds of man, because, the reality of justice is such that it envelopes everything and puts everything where it really belongs.
In other words: Recognising the rights and to give and to return a right to whom it belongs. In the words of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): Justice puts everything in its real place and justice is a universal management.
Islamic jurisprudents too have defined it like this:
Justice is the strength and power or ability which enables man to do his duties and to refrain from the prohibited. This meaning too, actually, is a return to the earlier meaning.
2 – Is there a difference between Adl and Qist or not?
We should say that there is a difference between Adl Justice and Qist Equity. It is called Justice is when man gives everybody their right. The opposite of it is that he oppresses or does injustice to others and withholds their rights.
But Qist means not to give one ones right to another and in other words, he had no bias. Its opposite is to give ones right to another person .
The vast meaning of these two terms have been seen by you especially in the verses mentioned earlier. Yet it should be remembered that even though these two terms are used differently they have almost the same sense and it is the maintenance of moderation of equilibrium in everything and putting everything in its proper place.
Justice is one of the important foundations of Islam
Providing justice, to all is one of the most important problems of Islam, because, the issue of Adl, like the issue of Tawheed oneness of God, has far reaching influence in all the roots and branches of Islam. Just as any of the issues pertaining to belief, practice, individual, society, moral, economical are not separate from Tawheed and Oneness of Allah, similarly, you will not find any of them without the spirit of Adl justice and equity and fairplay.
Here are narrations in this regard:
1 – Yazeed bin hammad asked Imam Moosa bin Ja’far (a.s.): Is it permissible for me to follow stand behind in Namaz prayers a man whom I do not know? The Imam replied: Do not pray behind anyone unless you are satisfied about his Deen religion.
2 – In his letter to Mamoon, this is what Imam Reza (a.s.) wrote: No Namaz behind an offender.
Sign of Adalat
Abdullah bin Abi Yaghfoor says: I asked Imam Sadiq (a.s.): How a man’s justness is proved? So that his witness, in favour of or against the Muslim society, can be accepted? The Imam (a.s.) replied: A just man must be recognised by these attributes or qualities: he should be modest and chaste, he must be avoiding prohibited eating or earning and should refrain from passion. He can be recognised by not dirtying his hand and tongue in sin and by keeping away from big sins. God has promised chastisements like drinking, adultery, usury or interest, disobeying parents and fleeing from Jihad…
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) also said: Anyone who lives in a society and does not commit oppression or injustice, and enlightens them and does not tell untruth when informing them, and after giving promise, does not break it, is from those whose backbiting is prohibited. His manliness has perfected, his justness become obvious and brotherhood with him has become compulsory.
With two mentioning we end the discussion of Adl
1 – In an Islamic society it is better that all the followers of Islam should be just and be refraining from sins and deviations so that they may be happy and lucky and also guide the society toward humanity.
2 – No that by the Grace of God the Islamic state has been established in Iran through the blood of scarification of a hundred thousand martyrs and a hundred thousand disabled and injured and embarrassment to hundreds of thousands of families and loss of milliards of tomans, it is a must for the entire nation, especially for those in charge of administration, to know that if they refract from justice and equity and fairness in their words and deeds and if they follow their desires and passions they will trample on the blood of the martyrs and it would be such a great sin that surely the Lord Almighty and this awakened nation will never overlook. In case justice and equity are not acted upon, then all must fear that day when, God forbid, this Islamic state may be taken away from us because the administration of this world will remain only on Justice. Hence The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: A state can remain standing on unbelief but not on injustice and oppression.
Our Islamic society, and especially, those in charge of administration must always act according to the precious words of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.). We remember some of them from Nahjul Balaghah:
1 – Do you command me that I should seek support by oppressing those over whom I have been placed? By Allah, I wont do so as long as the world goes on, and as long as one star leads another in the sky. Even if it were my property, I would have distributed it equally among them, then why not when the property is that of Allah. Beware; certainly that giving of wealth without any right for it is wastefulness and lavishness. It raises its doer in this world, but lowers him in the next world. It honours him before people, but disgraces him with Allah. If a man gives his property to those who have no right for it or do not deserve it, Allah deprives him of their gratefulness, and their love too would be for others. Then if he falls on bad days and needs their help, they would prove the worst comrades and ignoble friends.
And it is this justice and fairplay about which the well-known western writer and poet Carlyle has said: Ali got martyred in the altar of a mosque because of his overwhelming justice, equity and fairness.
2 – When Ali (a.s.) was asked why he wore rough clothes and ate dry food? He replied: Woe be to you, I am not like you. Certainly, Allah, the Sublime, has made it obligatory on true leaders that they should maintain themselves at the level of low people so that the poor do not cry over their poverty.
3 – Ali (a.s.) asks like this to Malik Ashtar, the governor of Egypt: Know the biggest thing which adds to the light of the eyes of the rulers is the establishment of justice in all the cities and the manifestation of their relation with the people. However, their love and affection does not become apparent except by their clean-heartedness toward the rulers. Their well-wishing is beneficial when they turn toward the rulers of their own wish, without any force from the government and if the lengthening of the rule is not detestable for the people.
4 – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) wrote this to Aswad bin Qutba, commander of the Halwaan army in Iran: After glorifying Allah and praising the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) let it be known to you that if a ruler develops different inclinations and favours about different people over whom he rules, then his treatment with them will not be on the basis of equity and impartiality. And this will not allow him to be just and fair to all. But so far as justice and equity are concerned your treatment of all should be fair and unprejudiced. Remember that nothing can compensate for tyranny and oppression. Keep yourself away from what you consider bad and evil in others. Try your best to fulfill the obligations laid down by Allah upon you and keep on hoping for His Reward and fear His Wrath because this world is a place for trials and tests and whoever wastes his time here will repent in the Hereafter. Remember that nothing will ever make you independent of the Blessings of Allah and He has made it incumbent upon you to have complete control over your own self, that you, to the best of your ability, protect and guard the people over whom you rule. In this way you will benefit more than others whom you benefit.
5 – Some of the words of wisdom uttered by Ali (a.s.) after people paid allegiance to him: By God! I will snatch the right of the oppressed from the oppressor. I will pull the bridle of the tyrant until I drag him to the watering trough of rights even if he dislikes it.
6 – When people asked Imam Ali (a.s.) whether justice is higher or generosity? He replied: Justice puts everything in its appropriate place but generosity lifts it higher than its course. Justice is a universal law but generosity has a special aspect. Therefore, justice is more noble and higher than generosity.
Fear and Hope
The scholars of morals, before discussing fear, divide His quality into two kinds, viz. desirable and censurable both of them too have various types: They have divided the disagreeable fear into four categories:
Fear of a thing about which man knows that it is going to happen but it is in man’s power to stop.
Fear of an event which again is not in the control of man but there is a possibility of its happening or not happening.
Fear of a happening which is in the power of man but he has not yet found its means.
Fear due to baseless imaginations while man knows that such a thing cannot happen.
As regards the first and second category, that is, in the matters that are not in human control, man must not fear because in such case fear or fright is meaningless and what man should do is, after making predictable arrangements, submit to the Will of Allah.
And in the third case also when means is in the hand of man one should remain alert so that he may not have to be frightened.
In the case of the fourth, man must fight with imaginary thought and strengthen his intellectual power. The more the power of intelligence the less that of imaginations. In this way fear can be removed from man’s mind.
The scholars of ethics, after the said divisions, divide and fear of death generally in six kinds. Here we make it into two:
1 – Sometimes man is afraid of death because he thinks that he perishes with hi death or the state of death makes him sorrowful and the thought of death gives him a shock, whereas he should know that this grand universe has not been created uselessly or aimlessly but that the creation of this magnificent world is for his perfection. The Quranic verses address man in this way:
Do you think that We have created you aimlessly and that you will not return to Us on the Day of Judgement?
Therefore man must know that he has an everlasting existence and it was this faith and certainty that made brave slaves of God lovers of death and martyrdom as Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) says:
By God! The familiarity and fondness of the son of Abu Talib for death is more than the affection of a child for its mother’s breast.
As mentioned in Mathnawi: After dying as an inorganic existence I became a renowned one, then died to be an animal, then died and became man. Then why should I fear that I will be decreased by death? Again I will die to get wings of an angel, and then I will fly high. Thus I will be what you cannot be.
2 – Sometimes man fears Gods anger and chastisement. We should realise that kind of fear is indeed desirable. Occasionally our fear is due our own misdeeds because Allah never punishes anyone except due to that person’s sins and oppressions and unjust deeds.
In other words, man’s fear is from the Divine Court of Justice. Hence says the Holy Quran: So this Day no soul shall be dealt with unjustly in the least; and you shall not be rewarded aught but that which you did.
And at another place say: Whoever brings good, he shall have better that it, and whoever brings evil, those who do evil shall not be rewarded for aught except what they did.
However, we should remember that we can remedy or recompense if we have done wrong and as asserted by the Holy Quran the doors of repentance Tawbah are wide open and we can do things whereby we can earn Gods pardon.
And in both the above mentioned cases if the fear of man is regarding the fate of his children and his survivors, then too doubtlessly, it is also due to weakness of Faith because the Lord Almighty is the best of their Protector and it is He Who directs all affairs to the benefit of theirs and of the society.
The best fear
It is the fear of man due to Grandeur of the Creator. It is even if one has done nothing wrong sin because he knows that The highest good points of the Pious people are the lowest points of the Muqarrabeen those esteemed who are nearest to God. Such a man, thus, remains ashamed of himself. This is the fear which was in the hearts of the Prophets and Walis and great Ulamah. Now we invite your attention to some Verses and Traditions:
1 – It is only the Shaitan that causes you to fear from his friends, but do not fear them, and fear Me if you are believers.
2 – Say: Surely I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the chastisement of a grievous day.
3 – What! Will you not fight a people who broke their oaths and aimed at the expulsion of the Apostle, and they attacked you first; do you fear them? But Allah is most deserving that you should fear Him, if you are believers.
4 – And those who join that which Allah has bidden to be joined and have awe of their Lord and fear the evil reckoning.
5 – And most certainly We will settle you in the land after them; this is for him who fears standing in My presence and who fears My threat.
6 – Men whom neither merchandise nor selling diverts from the remembrance of Allah and the keeping up of prayer and the giving of poor-rate; they fear a day in which the hearts and eyes shall turn about.
7 – And he who obeys Allah and His Apostle, and fears Allah, and is careful of his duty to Him, these it is that are the achievers.
8 – Those of His servants only who are possessed of knowledge fear Allah
9 – Except what Allah pleases, surely He knows the manifest, and what is hidden. And We will make your way smooth to a state of ease. Therefore do remind, surely reminding does profit. He who fears will mind.
10 – And as for him who fears to stand in the presence of his Lord and forbids the soul from low desires, then surely the garden — that is the abode.
These were some of the verses that describe the topic of fear. Now we invite your attention to some of the narrations:
1 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Addressing Ishaaq bin Ammar he said: Fear God as if you see him and if you do not see Him, He does see you. If you believe that He does not see you than you have become a Kafir and if you know that He sees you and yet you disobey Him openly then you have imagined Him to be the lowest ones because no slave ever disobeys his master like that.
2 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Whoever knew God, feared Him and who feared Allah pulls out his heart from the material world.
3 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Verily a part of worship is the fear of God. Allah says: Those of His servants only who are possessed of knowledge fear Allah!
Also the Lord Al-mighty says: Therefore fear not the people and ear Me.
Again Allah Almighty says: and whoever is careful of his duty to Allah, He will make for him an outlet.
And Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Love of status and fame has no place in fearful souls. So one who fears Allah does not love leadership government and fame.
4 – Someone asked Imam Sadiq (a.s.) about Almighty’s Words: He replied: the one who knows that Allah sees him and hears what he says and that he has full knowledge of whatever good or bad he does, and the same knowledge prevents him from evil deeds, is the one who fears from the High Grandeur of God and who has bridled his soul from desires.
5 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: A faithful person lives between two fears: About sins which he committed and does not know what devastation devastating sins he has brought upon him. So, every morning at every minute he is fearful and nothing but fear improves him as due to it he repents over past thin sins and tries to be obedient and worshipper in the future … and a Faithful does not get up in the morning but in a state of fearfulness and only fear improves him.
6 –The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) says: Whoever is able to do evil or a passionate thing and does not commit it for fear of Allah Almighty, God prohibits the Hell-fire from him and gives him protection and security and saves him on the Day of Resurrection from calamities in the form of deeds as he has been promised is His Book the one who fears from standing before God, for him are two gardens.
7 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: one who leaves sinning for fear of Allah Almighty, God makes him happy on the Day of Resurrection.
8 – It is also recorded from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): A faithful person fears none but Allah and speaks nothing about Allah but the truth, that is, he never attributes indecencies to His Holy Self.
9 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who becomes more knowledgeable about his God fears Him more.
10 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Whoever fears Allah, God makes everything afraid of him, and the one who does not fear Allah, God makes him afraid of everything.
11 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: No one is secure except the one who fears Allah.
Now we invite your attention to some questions and answers:
A – Is there a difference between Khashiyat and Khauf? Or are both nearer to one another in their meaning? Some have said: Khashiyat is a khauf that is linked with respect and with knowledge and certainty. And hence the Holy Quran is considered this state of mind especially as that of the knowledgeable persons: Those of His servants only who are possessor of knowledge fear Allah.
By paying attention to the use of the word Khashiyat in the Holy Quran in many verses, it becomes clear that Khashiyat has been used in the same meaning conveyed by Khauf and that they are synonymous.
Question: Is the fear of Allah anything except the fear of accountability and punishments from Him?
Answer: Fear of God is not necessarily always in the meaning of accountability before Him and of His chastisement. Rather, His High Status and the serious thought of man’s duty toward Allah as His slave worshipper even without a thought of His anger and chastisement automatically create in the mind and heart of a really faithful man a condition of fearfulness and fright. Fear as a result of faith in Allah and the awareness of His Grandeur and the thought of accountability before Him combine in a faithful person .
Perhaps there is a hint toward this in verse 28 of Surah Faatir.
And the fear which the Prophets and the Imam (a.s.) and the midnight weeping of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) reveal the same meaning as described above. But in case of ordinary people it refers to the divine chastisement because every wise person knows that he must fear the consequent chastisement of his own misdeeds as the Holy Quran says:
1 – So this day no soul shall be dealt with unjustly in the least; and you shall not be rewarded aught but that which you did.
2 – … those who do evil shall not be rewarded for aught except what they did.
3 – On the day that every soul shall find present what it has done of good and what it has done of evil, it shall wish that between it and that evil there were a long duration of time…
C – Is it absolute fear that is desired or it has any limits?
Answer: What can be derived from verses and traditions is as follows:
Fear is desired in case it does not make man disappointed. Hence the Holy Quran says: He said: And who despairs of the mercy of his Lord but the erring ones?
And also says: …and despair not of Allah’s mercy; surely none despairs of Allah’s mercy except the unbelieving people.
A faithful person is both fearful and hopeful
1 – Haaris along with his father Mugheerah asked Imam Sadiq (a.s.): What was the admonition will of Luqman to his son? He said: There were wonderful matters in that will and the most astonishing of all was that he told to his son: Fear Allah in such a way that if you bring forth all the good deeds of the human beings and the jinns, yet He will punish you and so also be so much hopeful of Him that even if you bring forth all the evils sins of men and jinns He will be kind to you. Then said: my father said: There is no Faithful salve unless there are two lights in his soul: Light of fear and Light of hope is such proportion that if this one is weight it not be heavier and if that is weighed it too will not be heavier.
2 –Hasan bin Abi Surah says: I heard from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): A faithful really does not become a faithful until he is both fearful and hopeful and he is not fearful and hopeful unless he acts in accordance with that fear and hope.
3 – It has been recorded from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): There is a group of people who commit sin and then say we are hopeful of of Gods Mercy and they entertain the same belief till their death and they do unto repent. Then said: These are liars; they are not hopeful of God and they do not fear His punishment, because, if a man is hopeful of something he seeks it and if one fears something he runs away from it.
Courtesy and Humility
Among all the virtues which lead man to perfection and which are high in the sight of Allah and which pleases people is the virtue of courtesy. We discuss it here in some parts:
Reality and the meaning of courtesy and humility
As to courtesy it means that man, not only does not think himself to be higher than others but imagines others to be better than himself. This virtue is the opposite of pride. Hence we said: pride is to think oneself better than others.
Of course, when man thinks others to be better than him, he should also never convert himself abject and servile. That is, he should not damage the honour bestowed upon him by Allah when He says: We have given an honourable status to the son of Adam.
In Islam, just as pride is considered repulsive, making oneself degraded excessively is also considered worse.
Islam maintains moderation in everything. Therefore, it is said in this regard that: And thus We have made you a medium just nation.
And in the words of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): Excessiveness and squandering is waywardness and moderation is the path desired.
Yes, Islam has, for its followers, prescribed moderation in all problems and attributes.
Signs of Humility
The Holy Quran introduces courteous men like this: And the servants of the Beneficent God are they who walk on the earth in humbleness, and when the ignorant address them, they say: peace. And they who pass the night prostrating themselves before their lord and standing. And they who say: O our lord! Turn away from us the punishment of hell, surely the punishment thereof is a lasting evil.
And again it says: Lowly before the believers mighty against the unbelievers.
And Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has reportedly said: It is courtesy that you are pleased with sitting down in a meeting and that you salute say salaam to whomsoever you meet and avoid dispute and quarrel even if you are right and you do not like to be praised for your piety or fear of God.
Two fine point from Hadith:
He is pleased to sit at a place which is below man’s his dignity that is which makes no difference from the spiritual viewpoint.
He does not like to be praised for his good deeds.
Allah! Help us so that we maybe become your worthy slaves.
Whose Humility is Better?
Humility and courtesy is good and desirable. Bu it is better if forthcoming from those who have an apparent or hidden spiritual personality. Hence it is reported from Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): How good is he who, due to overestimation of his own defects, overlooks the shortcomings of others and thus shows humility despite having no faults.
It is also recorded from Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) Decoration of a great person is his humility.
Again Ali (a.s.) said: How nice is the courtesy of the rich towards the poor for the pleasure of Allah and better than that is the pride of the poor over the wealthy for reliance on the lord of the universe.
Today one of the serious responsibilities and duties of the state officers is that they should know that the power and status which is now for them is the blood money of the millions of the best youths of this nation who have been martyred and it is a blessing of thousands who lost their body organs and who gave up worldly and material benefits for this Islamic revolution. Now it does not befit us to be arrogant or haughty while dealing with this martyr-producing nation. Rather it is necessary that we deal with them with humility and courtesy so that our revolution can be resorted to the entire world just as our Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the pious Imam (a.s.) invited people practically toward spirituality.
Humility is desirable from on the part of the wealthy. If a beggar shows humility, it is his habit.
Anyway, humility on the part of the higher ups is desirable. However, unfortunately, some of the people lose themselves in such a way that they do not distinguish between the head and the foot. May God protect us from the evil of desire and greed.
Verses and traditions Praising Courtesy
The Almighty commands His Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): And be kind to him who follows you of the believers.
At the time of his departing Ali (a.s.) said in his will: Maintain courtesy because courtesy is the biggest worship.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has said: In what the lord revealed to Dawood (a.s.) was that: O Dawood! As those nearest to me are the courteous so the farthest from Me are the haughty and proud.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: The one who shows humility for the sake of Allah, Allah makes him great.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has reportedly said: Luqman so admonished his son My dear son! Be courteous for the sake of truth so that you may become the most wise. Indeed, a wise man becomes low before the truth.
Forbearance and firmness
One of the salient virtues on which both the Holy Quran and the words of Holy Imams have put much emphasis and recommended is Patience. This term has appeared for about a hundred times in the Holy Quran and more than ten times it is reference to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). This word Patience as understood from the Quranic verses and the traditions and narrations means steadfastness and not the bearing ill-luck nor submission to unpalatable circumstances.
In order to be well acquainted with this term; in the beginning we invite your attention to some verses and narrations. Thereafter we shall explain their kinds:
1 - O you who believe! Seek assistance through patience and prayer; Surely Allah is with the patient
2 - And We will most certainly try you with somewhat of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits; and give good news to the patient, Who, when a misfortune befalls them, say: Surely we are Allah’s and to Him we shall surely return. Those are they on whom are blessings and mercy from their Lord, and those are the followers of the right course.
3 - O you who believe! Be patient and excel in patience and remain steadfast, and be careful of your duty to Allah, that you may be successful.
4 - And if you take your turn, then retaliate with the like of that with which you were afflicted; but if you are patient, it will certainly be best for those who are patient. And be patient and your patience is not but by the assistance of Allah, and grieve not for them, and do not distress yourself at what they plan.
5 – And We made of them Imams to guide by Our command when they were patient, and they were certain of Our communications.
6 – Moosa said to his people: Ask help from Allah and be patient; surely the land is Allah’s; He causes such of His servants to inherit it as He pleases, and the end is for those who guard against evil.
7 - And We made the people who were deemed weak to inherit the eastern lands and the western ones which We had blessed; and the good word of your Lord was fulfilled in the children of Israel because they bore up sufferings patiently; and We utterly destroyed what Firon and his people had wrought and what they built.
1 – Abi Baseer says: I heard from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): A free man is a free man under all circumstances. If he is in trouble he is patient, calamities do not break him even if he is imprisoned and overpowered and put in difficulties. Hence, imprisonment and slavery could not harm the honours Yusuf (a.s.). Darkness and fright of a well could not put him to loss until Allah made him His messenger and pitied the nation because of him. Patience and forbearance is like this. It always results in good. So be patient and tolerant so as to see its reward.
2 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Forbearance is for faith what a head is for a body. One who has no patience has no faith
3 – Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: One who does not cultivated patience for confronting the troubles of life becomes weak.
4 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Every Mo-min who remains patient while in trouble gets the rewards of a thousand martyrs.
5 – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) has reportedly said: A Muslim becomes perfect through three virtues: endeavour for faith and religion, moderation in lifestyles and forbearance while in difficulty.
6 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: Many a time, one hour of forbearance and patience brings a long happiness and how often an hour of lust results in a lengthy sorrow.
7 – It is reported from Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): O people! You have patience and forbearance in time of trouble. In truth,. One who has no patience has no religion.
8 – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) is reported to have said: Patience, good behaviour, fine attitude and forbearance is the character of Gods messengers.
9 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Verily a slave has his own place and status in the sight of Allah where he does not reach through his deeds. Then Allah puts him in some trouble either physically or monetarily or in a family related matter. Thereafter through patience he reaches that status.
10 – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) has said: The best worship is: patience, silence and wait for the arrival of Imam Mahdi (a.s.).
Ali (a.s.) said: Patience is a shield in times of pressure and empty handedness.
Kinds of patience
We learn from narrations that Patience is of three sorts. Some narrations have divided it into two kinds. These traditions fully explain the scope of forbearance. Here we invite your attention to two narrations:
A: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Patience is of three kinds: Forbearance in time of trouble, steadfastness for obedience and restraining oneself from sinning. So one who remains patient during difficulty until god gives him ease, God gives him 300 marks measure of distinction and the vastness between such two marks is equal to the distance between the earth and the sky. One who keeps firmness in obedience to Divine commandments gets such 600 marks or degrees and the distance two such degrees is equal to the distance between the innermost part of the globe of earth and the Throne of the lord. One who restrains himself from sin earns 900 measures, the distance between the said measures being from the centre of the earth to the end of the Throne.
B: Asbagh quotes Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): Forbearance is of two types: Patience in difficulties which is good and nice and better that that is the patience of restraining yourself from a thing which God has prohibited for you. And remembrances also are of two kinds: Remembrance of Almighty Allah in time of trouble and better than that remembrance is which prevents you from doing what God had made forbidden for you.
The point which is remarkable here is that the mention of the word Patience and Zikr in these narration is to mean steadfastness and attention toward Almighty Allah and not mere oral or vocal utterance nor to mean bearing ill-luck. We should understand that these two Traditions are not contradictory because the second also includes obedience to Allah.
Now that you have studied the ayats and traditions regarding Patience it has become fully clear that Patience as mentioned in them means steadfastness and firmness. The Holy Quran says: As for those who say, our lord is Allah, then continue in the right way, the angels descend upon them, saying,: Fear not, nor be grieved, and receive good news of the garden which you were promise.
And again says: Continue then in the right way as you are commanded, as also he who has turned to Allah with you, and be not inordinate O men!, surely He sees what you do.
Raagib says: In fact steadfastness is itself hidden in the true belief and schedule. So the Holy Quran uses the word Mustaqeem, from Istiqamat meaning firmness when it says: Ehdenassiraatal Mustaqeem (And know that this is my path, the Right one.)
So firmness must be in the True straight path and he tells Muslims:???
Just as the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) displayed firmness, in his mission of propagation and teaching and fighting and struggle so also you must also be.
In a famous Hadith of Ibne Abbas we read: No verse more hard and more difficult was ever revealed to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) than this ayat and hence when the companions asked him: why old age has come upon you so soon, he replied: Surah Waaqiah and Surah Hud made me old.
In another narrations we read:
When the above ayat was revealed the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Girdle your loins, girdle your loins as it is time for action and struggle. Thereafter the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was never observed smiling.
In this verse there are four commands:
1 – order to be firm.
2 – The firmness must always have the divine motive only and it should always be far away from every kind of doubt of the devil and the attainment of the biggest collection and political power should also be only for Allah’s sake.
3 – Responsible leader is he who returns to the true path and also leads others toward the same.
4 – To lead the struggle in the course of truth and justice and to block all kinds of rebellion and excessiveness because many a time people show off firmness for attaining the aim but they are unable to care for justice and equity and hence fall a pray to excessiveness and insurgence, beyond limits.
In order to nourish ourselves with steadfastness and patience, after studying the related verses and narrations, look at these four points:
A – We should delve deep into the history of the men of God and Godly persons and bring before our eyes how the messengers of Allah and their close companions fought with their lives in the path of belief and bore all kinds of difficulties and restlessness until they attained their aim.
B – Man must remember that this world earthly life is to pass away very soon and, therefore, if he shows forbearance, he will get eternal reward in the forthcoming unending life.
C – Man should know that becoming impatient gives no benefit but only makes the enemies happy over it and the reward is lost. As said by the Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.):
If you bear with patience whatever is destined for you will reach you and you will be rewarded and if you show impatience even then what was to befall you will befall without any reward for you.
D – If one trains his soul and strengthens his spirit problems become easy for him: Surah Ankaboot: 69, Insharaah:6
Reliance and Trust in Allah
Verses and Narrations about Reliance
And if you are slain in the way of Allah or you die, certainly forgiveness from Allah and mercy is better than what they amass.
And if indeed you die or you are slain, certainly to Allah shall you be gathered together.
Thus it is due to mercy from Allah that you deal with them gently, and had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you; pardon them therefore and ask pardon for them, and take counsel with them in the affair; so when you have decided, then place your trust in Allah; surely Allah loves those who trust If Allah assists you, then there is none that can overcome you, and if He forsakes you, who is there then that can assist you after Him? And on Allah should the believers rely.
And they say: Obedience. But when they go out from your presence, a party of them decide by night upon doing otherwise than what you say; and Allah writes down what they decide by night, therefore turn aside from them and trust in Allah, and Allah is sufficient as a protector.
Say; nothing will afflict us save what Allah has ordained for us; He is our patron; and on Allah let the believers rely.
Certainly an Apostle has come to you from among yourselves; grievous to him is your falling into distress, excessively solicitous respecting you; to the believers he is compassionate,
But if they turn back, say: Allah is sufficient for me, there is no god but He; on Him do I rely, and He is the Lord of mighty power.
And Moosa said: O my people! If you believe in Allah, then rely on Him alone if you submit to Allah.
So they said: On Allah we rely: O our Lord! Make us not subject to the persecution of the unjust people:
And do Thou deliver us by Thy mercy from the unbelieving people.
Their apostles said to them: We are nothing but mortals like yourselves, but Allah bestows His favours on whom He pleases of His servants, and it is not for us that we should bring you an authority except by Allah’s permission; and on Allah should the believers rely.
And what reason have we that we should not rely on Allah? And He has indeed guided us in our ways; and certainly we would bear with patience your persecution of us; and on Allah should the reliant rely.
And give him sustenance from whence he thinks not; and whoever trusts in Allah, He is sufficient for him; surely Allah attains His purpose; Allah indeed has appointed a measure for everything.
1 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Needlessness and honour keep moving, when the palace of reliance on Allah is decorated they come to reside therein.
2 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) is recorded to have said: Everyone had been given three things, from three things they have not been prevented: whoever is given prayer, he is given response; whoever is given thankfulness, is given more and whoever is given reliance on Allah has been given sufficiency. Then he said: Have you read in Allah Almighty’s Book: And whoever Trusts in Allah, He is sufficient for him and He has said: If you are grateful I would certainly give you more and He said: call upon Me, I will answer you.
3 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: If you will rely on Allah in reality and fully. Allah will give you provision just as a bird flies out empty stomach in the morn and return full bellied at night.
4 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who wants to be the strongest of all men must trust only in Allah.
5 – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) is reported to have said: Whoever trusts Allah He gives him happiness and the one who relies on Allah, He suffices for all of his affairs.
6 – Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: One who puts his trust in Allah is never defeated and the one who relies on Allah never fails.
7 – It is recorded from Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): Faith has four pillars: Reliance on Allah, Entrusting affairs to Allah, being pleased with Allah’s decision and submission to commands of Allah.
Reliance and its meaning
Reliance originally is from WA KAA LAT means selecting a pleader and we know that a good pleader or advocate is he who has at least four qualities: enough awareness, honesty, ability, and sympathy.
And man’s reliance on Allah means his trust in Allah and his entrusting all of his affairs to the lord of the worlds.
In other words, man’s coming out of every might and power and his faith in the might and power of only one God and this perfect reliance is not achieved unless man reaches a station where he realises that there is operating force in the universe except only One God and he understands that there is no movement and strength but b the will of Allah and that He alone is knower of everything that takes place in the worlds and that he intends nothing but good of His slaves. And one who does not have such belief, surely cannot rely fully on Allah and those who are not such and are weak hearted or have inadequate certainty should endeavour to make these two qualities complete and as said by the wise and virtuous: Reliance is the direct fruit of active belief in the oneness of God because, as we have said, from the viewpoint of a believer in only One God each and every movement, effort, and struggle and so also each and every phenomenon which takes place in the world, finally is related to the first cause, that is Allah himself. Therefore a believer in the Oneness of Allah believes that every power and every victory is from only One Allah.
Question: Does not Tawassul contradict faith in the reality of Reliance?
Answer: Definitely no, because Reliance does not mean that man must ignore the ways and means created by god in this material world. It is mentioned in a tradition of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): When an Arab did not fasten the leg of his camel and left it unwatched, thinking it Reliance on Allah the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) told him: First fasten it and then rely.
And it is mentioned in the Holy Quran: O you who believe! Take your precaution, then go forth in detachments or go forth in a body.
Also: And when you are among them and keep up the prayer for them, let a party of them stand up with you, and let them take their arms; then when they have prostrated themselves let them go to your rear, and let another party who have not prayed come forward and pray with you, and let them take their precautions and their arms; for those who disbelieve desire that you may be careless of your arms and your luggage, so that they may then turn upon you with a sudden united attack.
But what is desired is that man must not encircle himself in the structure of the material world, relying totally on his physical strength and should keep his eye on the help and mercy of his lord. Such attention to Allah gives man peace of mind and an extraordinary spiritual strength that has profound effect while confronting troubles and difficulties. Secondly reliance on Allah has no other meaning except that when man faces hardships in his life and experience troubles from enemies and opponents and confronts confusions in his walk toward his aims for solving which he does not possesses required power he makes Allah his pleader or advocate and puts faith and reliance and trust in Him alone and, at the same time, does not give up his usual efforts, rather while doing so he also believes that the real effect is only with Allah because from the viewpoint of one who believes in Only One God all power and strength comes from Him alone. The point which is opposite to Reliance on God is relying on anyone or anything other than Him, that is, living dependently on others and being annexed to others and not standing by oneself. Hence we said: Reliance is the direct fruit result of Tawheed in action.
Philosophy of Reliance
From that has been mentioned above so far it can be derived that:
First: Reliance on Allah becomes the cause of man’s steadfastness during hard difficulties and serious events in his life. And it was due to the same that when Muslims, in the battle field of Uhud got a hard beating and the enemies, after leaving that field, again returned from halfway to attack Muslims with a final blow, and this news reached the Muslims, Quran says that those who were fully faithful, in this dangerous hour, when they had already lost one of their active and useful division, not only did not became frightened but, by resorting to Reliance and relying on power and assistance of faith, obtained an added firmness and victorious enemy, on hearing about this renewed readiness of Muslims withdrew speedily.
Examples of such firmness in the shade of Reliance are seen in a number of Quranic verses. One of them is ayat 122 of chapter Aale Imran which says: When two parties from among you had determined that they should show cowardice, and Allah was the guardian of them both, and in Allah should the believers trust.
And in ayat 12 of Surah Ibrahim there is a mention of Reliance accompanied by patience and forbearance in the face of enemy attacks.
And in the verse 159 of Aale Imran, for performing important tasks, first advice for consultation and then firm decision and then reliance on Allah has been advocated.
So much so that the Holy Quran says: at the moment of satanic doubt raising whisperings, only those can remain steadfast and be freed from the devils clutches are those who possess faith and Reliance: Surely he has no authority over those who believe and rely on their lord.
From these collection of verses it can be derived that what is meant by Reliance is that, when confronted by difficulties and their severity, man must not experience disdain and weakness but, relying on the endless power and might of Allah, consider himself victorious and successful. And thus Reliance and hope is the last energetic thing that causes increase in firmness and steadfastness.
Had Reliance meant hiding in a corner and keeping hand on hand hopelessly, then it would have been meaningless to relate these virtues to the Holy warriors and their like as has been done in Holy Quran.
And if somebody imagines that paying attention to the world of causes and to natural and physical causes and means is against the spirit of Reliance, then he is making a serious mistake because separating the effects of natural causes from the will of Allah is a kind of Shirk polytheism. Is it not a factual truth that natural whatever elements are there in nature are only from Him and everything happens as per and according to His will? Yes, if we think that the elements are independent of Allah’s will then that view is against the spirit of Reliance.
Secondly no doubt our fate, so far as it is related with our works and effort, it is in our hands and the Quranic verses have also mentioned this explicitly: And that man shall have nothing but what he strives for.
And also states: Every soul is held in pledge for what it earns.
But beyond the circle of our effort and striving, and when things are out of the bounds of our ability, only the hand of God is operative and so whatever has been destined as a demand of the law of causation which ends at the knowledge and wisdom of the Almighty Allah will happen. Ultimately, God worshipping and faithful people who believe in the knowledge and wisdom and mercy of Allah, consider all the destinies as according to Best order and in the interest of men and that everyone gets in proportion of the worthiness earned by him.
Grades of the Confidents (Mutawakkileen)
Just as real reliance depends upon certainty, the grades of reliance are also proportionate with the certainty. The more man’s certainty regarding the Almighty, the higher becomes his grade in reliance on Him. For more understanding we mention here some sayings:
1 – Ali bin Suwaid says: I asked Moosa bin Ja’far (a.s.) about Allah’s word: And whoever trusts in Allah, He is sufficient for him, he said: Reliance on Allah has grades. One of them is that you rely on Him in every matter and be pleased with whatever He decides for you and know that He never hesitates in providing you any good and grace and that every decision is from Him so leave every affair to His will and rely and put trust only in Him.
2 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I asked Jibraeel what is Reliance? He said: Knowledge of the truth that the creation neither gives profit or loss nor can provide or prevent. It is necessary to take away your eye from the creation. When a servant becomes such that he does not do anything for anyone but Allah and hopes from none but Allah, it is the reality of Reliance.
3 – A man asked Imam Reza (a.s.): What is the limit of Reliance? He replied: not to fear anyone except only one God relying on Him alone.
The Way to Gain Reliance needs two things
To look at the discussions, both intellectual and natural, about the creator of the universe and to delve deeper and deeper in the might and Height of the lord until, through it, enhances his spirit of seeking God and he gains certainty that, in the universe, none but He is effective and that all affairs depend on His will.
One should rise higher than the logical and natural debates and pursue his knowledge through spiritual journey until he reaches a station where he sees nothing but Allah. So a group of people from the viewpoint of logic or perhaps they did not know the philosophy of the known philosophers. Yet, with their knowledge of certainty they reached the stage of visible certainty. It is here that all the problems of man get solved and he sees nothing but God and it makes for him no difference whether he gets ease or difficulty and becomes sure that whatever happens to him is for his ultimate good.
Imam Moosa bin Ja’far (a.s.) said: For a faithful is provided every good. If they cut him into pieces by a scissors it is good for him; and if he becomes the owner of the east and the west then also it is good for him
Peace of Mind in the shade of Reliance on and Trust in Allah
If one perfects his faith and relies on and trusts in Allah, the source of unending strength, he never gets frightened and hence He says: Now surely the friends of Allah they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve.
Or that: Those who believe and do not mix up their faith with inequity, those are they who shall have the security and they are those who go aright.
And in a third verse says: Those who believe and whose hearts are set as rest by the remembrance of Allah; now surely by Allah’s remembrance are the hearts set at rest.
Hearts Get rest by Remembrance of Allah
Restlessness and worry has always been one of the biggest calamities of man and is and the tolls taken by them are fully noticeable in man’s individual as well as collective life.
The human history is full of the sorrowful scenes wherein man has done everything to get peace of mind and has traversed every valley for it and also submitted to all sorts of addictions.
But the Holy Quran, in one short yet meaningful verse, shown the most satisfactory and the nearest path to peace of mind and says: Surely, by Allah’s remembrance are the hearts set at rest. Surely, by Allah’s remembrance are the hearts set at rest.
How to Remove the Causes of Restlessness and Worry?
1 – Sometimes restlessness and worry is caused by the thought of a dark and unclear future. But faith in the lord of the universe and reliance of Him gives peace of mind.
2 – A sorrowful past also takes away rest from man or the worries about the sins committed by him in the past due to faults or mistakes. But by keeping in mind that Allah is the acceptor of repentance and pardoner of sins and merciful and kind gives man restfulness.
3 – Weakness and inability of man while facing natural causes and sometimes in front of hoards of inner and outer enemies makes man worry. But when he remembers Allah and takes resort to His might and mercy that is the biggest of al powers before which nothing can ever stand, his heart experiences peace.
4 – Sometimes the cause of worry is the feeling of ones life being hollow and aimless. But the one who has faith in Allah and who is aware of his road to perfection and who realises that the universe has not been created aimlessly acquires peace and tranquillity of mind and heart.
5 – Sometimes man bears hardships and offers services and yet nobody appreciated it that makes him sorrowful and restless. But when he knows and feels that all of his activities and services were and are for the One who is aware of each and every thing he gets satisfied.
Be Fearful of this State
Sometimes when man is in a dangerous situation he remembers Allah and puts his trust in Him but when the trouble is over he becomes neglectful.
So when they ride in the ships they call upon Allah, being sincerely obedient to Him, but when He brings them safe to the land, lo! They associated others with Him.
The Quran also says: And there are those of them who made a covenant with Allah: if He gives us out of His grace, we will certainly give alms and we will certainly be of the good. But when He gave them out of His grace, they became niggardly of it and they turned back and they withdrew. So He made hypocrisy to follow as consequence into their hearts till the day when they shall meet Him because they failed to perform towards Allah what they had promised with Him and because they told lies.
And this is the condition wherein man of us are found. When we suffer from an ailment or poverty or are being oppressed by tyrants and hypocrites we turn toward god but when the difficulty ends we forget Allah altogether just as the people of Moosa (a.s.) did, that whenever their trouble ended they indulged in their previous obstinacy. May God make us look at none but He Who alone is needless.
Contentment, submission and Authorisation
Now after we have discussed the issue of reliance, we briefly refer to three things which have been mentioned in books relating to reliance: contentedness, submission and Authorisation.
Here also, with a view to, making it clear we mention some related ayats and traditions and hereafter we shall pay attention to the meaning of these terms and the philosophy underlying them:
1 – Fighting is enjoined on you, and is an object of dislike to you; and it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allah knows, while you do not know.
Great commentators write on this subject under discussion of this verse that this ayat points to a root principles in the laws related to creation and religion of Allah and which nourishes the spirit of discipline and submissiveness in the souls of people. It is that people should not, in the face of the Divine laws, make their own inquiry and research on the basis of their judgement, because, doubtlessly, their knowledge, from every aspect, is limited and insignificant and, in the matter of the unknown things like a drop of water in comparison with an ocean. Therefore the laws based on the Divine knowledge, is knowledge that is, from every aspect, limitless, in no circumstance it should be confronted. Rather it is must that it should be realised that all of them are for their own benefit, be they the laws related to Shariat like jihad and Zakat… or to creation pertaining to nature and the accidents taking place without man’s will in his life and which, for any reason, not escapable, like death and calamities befalling friends and relatives or about things which are hidden and would take place in future etc…
2 – Those to whom the people said: Surely men have gathered against you, therefore fear them, but this increased their faith, and they said: Allah is sufficient for us and most excellent is the Protector. So they returned with favour from Allah.
3 – And of them there are those who blame you with respect to the alms; so if they are given from it they are pleased, and if they are not given from it, lo! They are full of rage. And if they were content with what Allah and His Apostle gave them, and had said: Allah is sufficient for us; Allah will soon give us more out of His grace and His Apostle too; surely to Allah do we make our petition.
4 – And I entrust my affair to Allah, Surely Allah sees the servants. So Allah protected him from the evil consequences of what they planned, and the most evil punishment overtook Firon’s people.
And now some narrations in this connection:
1 - Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: The most sublime worship of Allah is patience and steadfastness and submission before His commandment, be it to ones like or dislike.
2 – Also Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: The wisest man in the eyes of Allah is most contented and pleased with Him.
3 – It is recorded from Imam Baqir (a.s.): Among the creations of Allah, the one who is most contented with Allah is the one who knows the Almighty Allah. Whoever rests content with the will of Allah meets with the Divine decision and Allah enhances his reward and everyone who dislikes Allah’s decision, Allah’s will subjects him and Allah destroys his reward.
4 – Someone asked Imam Sadiq (a.s.): From what signs it can be known that a man is faithful? He replied: Submission to Allah and to rest content with whatever befalls him from Allah happiness or unhappiness.
5 – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: One who remains pleased with whatever Allah destines for him remains in a peaceful state of mind.
6 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: One who leaves his affair with Allah is in permanent peace and rest and abundance and such entruster is really the possessor of the highest will and courage as is mentioned in a Hadith of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): I am happy with what Allah has destined for me and I have entrusted my affairs to my creator. He was good for me in the past and so will He be henceforth.
7 – Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: I have no fear about getting up next morning in a condition of being poor or ill or rich from my viewpoint it makes no difference because Almighty Allah says: I do not decide anything for him except what is good for him.
8 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked a group of his companions: Who are you?
They said: We are Mo-mineen. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: What is the sign of your faith? They replied: We remain patient in trial and are thankful in times of happiness and ease and we are content at Divine decisions. He said: These are really faithful.
What is Razaa (concurrence)?
Razaa is the opposite of Sakht. Reza means non-opposition and both from within and outwardly, with words and with deeds and Reza is a fruit of love and its demand. From this aspect everything which reaches from a friend and a beloved is welcome. The one who reaches this state feels that both poverty and wealth, rest and unrest, life and death, honour and insult, health and illness, existence and destruction are equal for him because he thinks them all only from Allah. It is mentioned in narrations that one of such contented person reached the age of seventy years and never said that: I wish it should be like this or like that.
Now pay attention to a question and its answer:
Question: Is it possible that a man remains in the same state of mind in all the aforesaid conditions or is it possible that while in a state of illness and poverty, he remains happy instead of becoming restless?
Answer: Yes. In some states of mind man does not fell pain or unrest. It happens so when he is extremely angry or in a condition of extraordinary love, because, when the heart attends to an important issue he does not feel anything about other things. It was so when an arrow had pierced the leg bone of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and it was unbearable to pull it out with force, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Be patient and wait until Ali (a.s.) gets up for offering his prayer. When he is engrossed in prayer, pull out the arrow and so did they and pulled out the arrow without any feeling being experienced by Ali (a.s.).
It should be understood that wounds and hits in battlefield are not felt by some people and we read in the events of Imam Husain (a.s.) that the more the noon of Aashoora was drawing near the more his face was getting brighter and happier because love of the beloved solves all the problems of man.
Question: does not Dua contradict the spirit of submission and contentedness?
Answer: Dua or supplication or asking from God is a thing that Allah has Himself desired for His slaves: Ask from me I will answer your prayer or I answer when one calls me.
And secondly, prayer or supplication itself cleans the soul and makes heart mild.
And thirdly, just as the lord Almighty has created apparent causes and taking shelter of one by the other is not against contentedness so also a flight from Qazaa to Qadr or trying to prevent some calamities with the help of spending in the path of Allah and Dua and supplication does not go against Rezaa as all these causes and effects return to Him.
The Philosophy of Rezaa and Tasleem
By analysing that ayats and traditions of Islam on this law as above, it is proved that at no place the meaning of it is to submit to oppressors, imperialists and colonialists or to give up oneself to disgrace as is imagined by some ignorants. Rather Rezaa and Tasleem, in reality, ask for some things:
A – Establishment of Islamic laws and constitution even if such rules, apparently are not to the liking or profit of man and one who does not have strong spirit or soul objects to such laws according to the depth of his thinking and this is not in conformity with faith and therefore we read in the above quoted traditions Knowledge of and about and acquaintance with Allah demands submission to Him and to be pleased with His laws.
B – Submission to truth and justice is a must even if it is unpalatable to man and we know that unless and until this spirit of Tasleem and Rezaa does not exist in a society and unless individuals do not rest content with their rights social justice is never established; rather everyone will object to justice and will go against it by disobeying rule of law 1- Another bright example of such submission is that in Surah Nisas verse 65, about the men who were displeased with the decision of the Holy Prophet, says:
Is this kind of submission and contentedness not a condition of establishment of social justice?
C – Steadfastness against the difficulties and hardships coming in the way of duty to exist and some people, seeing such troubles, become so discouraged that they return from half way. But nourishment of the spirit of Tasleem and Reza give such opportunity to man that he can bear such hardships without turning from his path and to pursue his efforts till the realisation of the aim. The verse that describes the condition of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in the battlefield of Uhud points to such Rezaa and Tasleem and Tafweez, that is, contentedness, submission and authorization or entrust in ones affairs to the Almighty.
D – Firmness removes all those difficulties and painful incidents which come in the life of everybody willy nilly and sometimes it revolutionises man in such a way that the connection of life is totally snapped.
Rezaa and Tasleem against such calamities, provide to man the spirit of patience and firmness and a determination to endeavor for a favourable future and helps wipe out the dust of disappointment and hopelessness from the tablet of his mind.
Thankfulness and Praise
One of the virtues showing faith and the knowledge about the Almighty Allah is Thankfulness.
The issue of thankfulness and its stages depends on the awareness about the real Benefactor. From this angle, if one wants to fulfil his duties he should delve deeper in the philosophy and Gnosticism so that he can perform his duties in a better manner.
The discussion regarding thankfulness also can be divided under four titles.
1 – Description of some verses and traditions about shukr
2 – The meaning of Shukr
3 - The stages of shukr.
1 – And when We appointed a time of forty nights with Moosa , then you took the calf for a god after him and you were unjust. Then We pardoned you after that so that you might give thanks.
2 – Say: Who is it that delivers you from the dangers of the land and the sea when you call upon Him openly humiliating yourselves, and in secret: If He delivers us from this, we should certainly be of the grateful ones. Say: Allah delivers you from them and from every distress, but again you set up others with Him.
3 – And certainly We have established you in the earth and made in it means of livelihood for you; little it is that you give thanks.
4 – And remember when you were few, deemed weak in the land, fearing lest people might carry you off by force, but He sheltered you and strengthened you with His aid and gave you of the good things that you may give thanks.
5 – And Allah has brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers —you did not know anything — and He gave you hearing and sight and hearts that you may give thanks.
6 – And surely your Lord is the Lord of grace to men, but most of them are not grateful.
7 – give thanks, O family of Dawood! And very few of My servants are grateful.
8 – And certainly We gave wisdom to Luqman, saying: Be grateful to Allah. And whoever is grateful, he is only grateful for his own soul; and whoever is ungrateful, then surely Allah is Self-sufficient, Praised.
Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was near Ayesha during a night of her turn. She said to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): O messenger of Allah! Why do you put yourself to agony when Allah has already pardoned your past and future sins? He replied: O Ayesha! Should I not be a thankful servant of Allah? And she added: the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) stood on the toes of his feet till Allah revealed this verse: We have not revealed the Quran to you that you may be put to agony.
2 – Ubaidullah al Waleed says: I heard from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that he said: There are three things due to which no loss occurs: Dua prayer at the time of difficulty, Begging pardon at the time of sinning and thankfulness at the time of comfort.
3 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: He said: One who gives thanks is given more. Almighty Allah says: If you thank me, I will enhance your affluence.
4 – It is recorded from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that he said: When you see others in trouble, thank God for being safe but in a way that they do not hear it silently so that they may not be grieved.
5 – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: Thankfulness for affluence increases provision.
6 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who does not thank Allah except in the matter of food and drink is, in fact less wise, and his chastisement is near.
7 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: The pressure of the grave, in case of a Mo-min, is due to the wasting of Gods favours.
8 – Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: Allah does not cut off affluence favour unless thankfulness is cut off.
Now when you have seen the ayat and Traditions, we invite your attention to their reality, and before the quoting of narrations it should be remembered that the thankfulness for every favour should be proportionate to it. The thankfulness for governance is justice, the gratitude for affluence is spending for helping the weak, and thankfulness for being safe is to work for the society and…
A – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: From what Allah had revealed to Moosa (a.s.) was also that: O Moosa ! Thank me in a worthy ways. Moosa (a.s.) said: what is that worthy way in which I should thank you? When whatever thank I offer is also a favour your bestowed by You? Allah said: O Moosa ! Now when you have realised that being thankful to me is also a blessing from me, you have worthily thanked Me in a way which is My worth.
Yes, If one really understands that this blessing is from Allah he has spent it in His path.
B – It is recorded from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) with reference to the verse: Yes, the one who thanks Allah and is grateful to Him and realises that it is a favour from Him and not from anyone else will be the one referred to in this verse.
C – It is recorded from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that he said: Appreciate nearness to favour. It was asked: what is nearness to favour? He said: Thankfulness to the Benefector and fulfilling his rights.
D – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: Thanks for every favour is refraining from what Allah has prohibited.
Stages of Gratitude Thankfulness- Shukr
1 – Realising that every blessing is from Allah and that he alone is the Benefactor and that all the means are also from Him and as per His will, one who Understands this has taken the first step and approached the highest stage. So it has been recorded from Moosa (a.s.) that he said in his supplication: O my lord! You created Adam by You Own might and You gave him a place in the paradise and you selected Hawwa as his wife, then how should I thank you? He received the words: know that this blessing is from me and that the recognition of this blessing is gratitude thankfulness.
And this understanding is higher than hallowing and greater than some of the stages of Tawheed. Since these two are the essential conditions of Marefat (knowing) and shanaakht (understanding) and as a fact, hallowing means recognising Allah’s being without any defect or shortcoming, and since Tawheed means realising that Holiness does not belong to anyone except Him and that Marefat means having certainty that all that is in the universe and every bounty given to man is from Him. Perhaps it is because of this that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who says laa illaha illal laah has twenty rewards and one who recites alhamdo lillah has thirty rewards.
Since subhaanallaah is word which announces Allah’s holiness. And laailaah lillalllaah his oneness and alhamdulillaah shows the recognition of Gods might and Beauty as the source of every bounty. Of course it goes without saying that the promise rewards do not accrue merely by oral utterance of these words. Understanding and acceptance too must accompany recitation.
2 – Happiness for a favour accompanied by a condition of courtesy and humility is another meaning of thankfulness or gratitude.
3 – Expression of thankfulness a praise of Allah is yet another meaning of thankfulness.
4 – Utilising the limbs and organs and wealth and status for pleasing the lord of the worlds and preventing them from causing displeasure of Allah is also a meaning of thankfulness.
In other words: Every favour which is used against the liking and the order of Allah is thankfulness opposite of Ungratefulness.
It is hoped that this collection, in the light of the patronage of Imam-e-Zamana, may I be sacrificed for him, and with the help of you, dear readers supplication, will also enrich the soul of the writer.
O chief! Distress has afflicted us and our family and we have brought scanty money, so give us full measure and be charitable to us; surely Allah rewards the charitable.
Fulfilment of promise from the view point of Islam
One of the virtues talked about in the Holy Quran is Keeping of the Promise or Covenant. It has been mentioned as one of the special and distinct features of the faithful Mo-mineen. Breaking of promise or breach of a covenant has been called therein as one of the habits of the polytheist Mushrikeen and hypocrite Munafeqeen.
Before we proceed to quote the relevant verses and traditions, we should know that not keeping the word or breaking of promise or trust is one of the offences that break the relation of confidence and trust in the society and thus its foundation. Fulfilling a promise, besides being an Islamic right, is also a human right.
In the words of the religious leaders we read that: there are three occasions when there should be on consideration of ones religion or good or evil, that is, all should be regarded equal be they gentlemen or evil doers, Muslims or unbelievers…. These three occasions are: Return of trust, fulfilment of covenant, and good behaviour with parents.
Keeping of promise is, some times. Related to man connection with god wherein breach of promise includes the natural, rational and religious us trusts.
And sometimes it involves people’s relations with one another.
Man’s Covenant with Allah
Here are some verses about man’s trust with God:
And those who break the covenant of Allah after its confirmation and cut as under that which Allah has ordered to be joined and make mischief in the land; as for those, upon them shall be curse and they shall have the evil issue of the abode.
And fulfil the covenant Allah when you have made a covenant, and do not break the oaths after making them fast, and you have indeed made Allah a surety for you; surely Allah knows what you do.
Commentators have given several meanings of the covenant of Allah but what is obvious is that it means those promises which men give to god and obviously the words given to the Holy messengers and the Imams are also the words given to God, and it includes the promises related with Faith, jihad etc.
And it should be stated that the religious commands issued through the Holy Prophet of Islam do contain a kind of the Divine orders and similarly rational obligations which are the outcome of the God-given faculty of thinking, intelligence, wisdom and too are linked with bye-covenant.
This is to say religious obligations and rational demands are covered by Ahdullah or the promise given to God.
He it is Who makes you travel by land and sea; until when you are in the ships, and they sail on with them in a pleasant breeze, and they rejoice, a violent wind overtakes them and the billows surge in on them from all sides, and they become certain that they are encompassed about, they pray to Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience: If Thou dost deliver us from this, we will most certainly be of the grateful ones. But when He delivers them, lo! they are unjustly rebellious in the earth.
Yes, many people make covenant with Allah during their bad days but when they are released from that trouble, they forget Allah. So we should pray to Allah so that He may not leave us to ourselves even for a moment.
Promise Keeping between Man and Man
The Holy Quran says in this connection: O you who believe! Fulfil the obligations.
Raagib says: Obligation is of three sorts: sometimes it is between man and God, sometimes man’s promise with himself and sometimes between man and the entire humanity.
Since Al has come ahead of the word Uqood and as according to grammar it denotes a common category and from one angle the sentence is fully unconditional it can be derived that this Holy verse includes all sorts of promises and covenants which must be fulfilled those between men and man’s promise to God and so also all the political, trade, family etc treaties or understandings.
And the Quran in another ayat says: and fulfil the promise; surely every promise shall be questioned about
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) writes in his letter to Malik Ashtar: From among the divine commandments, there is no subject like the keeping of promise, which is most unanimously agreed, despite other disagreements. Therefore even the idol worshippers of the days of ignorance were respecting the oath among them since they had understood the harms of oath breaking.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who does not keep his promise has no religion.
Similarly there is another narration from Imam Ali (a.s.): Almighty Allah does not accept anything from His slaves except a good deed and nothing except the fulfilment of oath is acceptable in His court.
And there is another narration from Salman Farsi that also has the same meaning: The destruction of this community will be caused by their breach of promises.
The Holy constitution of Islam had given importance to oath keeping to such an extent that even if a common soldier gives protection to a man or group of the enemy it is incumbent upon all Muslims to keep that promise.
A group of Islamic scholars is of the opinion that one of the matters which attracted the idol worshippers and polytheist to Islam in its earlier period was the same fulfilling of covenants and keeping oaths. In this connection, Hisham bin Saalim quotes Imam Sadiq (a.s.):
The promise of a Muslim to another Muslim is a vow for which there is no expiation it means if he breaks it, it cannot be compensated and, really, it is considered as a promise given to God. So the Holy Quran says: O group of the faithful! Why do you not do as you say? Be afraid of this deed of not doing what is said as it will cause a great Divine anger.
In traditions, keeping of oaths and promise is considered as one of the signs of faith, like faith in God and the Hereafter. Hence the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) says: Whoever has faith in Allah and the Day of Judgement must keep the promise whenever he makes it.
Hypocrisy and Breach of a Vow
Hypocrisy and double face is one of the worst qualities of man and the cause of breaching vows and ignoring promise. The Holy Prophet has said in this connection: There are three qualities and conditions which make a man hypocrite even if he fasts and prays and is a Muslim in his opinions:
1 Shows dishonesty when trusted,
2 Tells a lie while speaking and
3 Breaks a promise.
Again Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) says: Even if one undertakes something through a sign, he should fulfil it.
Are all the Promises Honourable?
If Islam has made a series of bonds and agreements as honourable, it has also ordered the breaking of some, for example relating to the enemy, when is felt that he is on the verge of dishonesty and breaching trust of agreement. In that case friendship must not be continued. Quranic proof of this is How can there be an agreement for the idolaters with Allah and with His Apostle when they continue to break trusts?
At another place it is mentioned: And if they break their oaths after their agreement and openly revile your religion, then fight the leaders of unbelief surely oaths are nothing so that they may desist.
On this ground, fulfilling an oath has been considered as one of the signs of the faithful and the wise and as one of the salient human virtue and Islam has consistently emphasised it and has ordered to ignore a promise given to the enemies of Allah even if they happen to be ones close relatives. Anyway, much more has been said in the matter of promise and covenant and its results and fruits. But we think this much is enough here.
Honesty is one of the prominent qualities of man and acquiring it is the virtue, which attracted common confidence and made deviated people and non-Muslims fall upon the shining lamp of Islam. It created a peaceful society and made people proceed on the path to progress. This aim cannot be attained but through action as commanded by Islam: Imam (a.s.) says: Call people through your deeds not by mere oral invitation.
Some verses Regarding Honesty: Surely Allah commands you to make over trusts to their owners.
O you who believe! Be not unfaithful to Allah and the Apostle, nor be unfaithful to your trusts while you know.
It is understood from this verse that: Man, in addition to being dishonest to himself and to others, sometimes also does so with regard to God and His Apostle. This last kind of the dirty deed related to dishonesty toward God and His Prophet has been the target of severest condemnation. Here it is better to look at the circumstances leading to the revelation of this verse:
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: When the Apostle of Allah ordered the siege of the Jews belonging to Banu Quraysh, the order was carried and the group was under siege for twenty one nights. Finally they demanded that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) may send Abu Lubabah to them. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) conceded that request and sent Abu Lubabah to them. Banu Quraysh, on the issue whether or not it was advisable to accept the mediation of Saad bin Maaz consulted Abu Lubabah. Abu Lubabah pointed to his throat that meant that if they accepted it they might be killed.
Jibraeel (a.s.) informed the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) of this. Abu Lubabah says, he had not taken a few steps when he realised his dishonest and so he made the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) aware of the same.
Abu Lubabah became very much ashamed and repentant and so he fastened himself with rope to one of the pillars of the mosque of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and said:
By God! I will never take any food nor drink any water till death unless Allah accepts my repentance and I desist from this misdeed. For seven days and nights he remained hungry and thirsty, then fell unconscious on the ground… At last Allah accepted his repentance and the news reached himself from the pillar unless the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) himself unfastens the rope and finally the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did so…
After this event Abu Lubabah declare that, in order to complete his repentance, he would give up the house wherein he had committed the sin. But the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) prevented him from doing so and said: Give one third of your wealth in the path of Allah. That is enough.
And those who are keepers of their trusts and their covenant
As you have seen, honesty and keeping of trust is one of the Divine orders and is considered as one of the virtues of the faithful.
Some Traditions Relating to Trust
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who is not honest trustworthy has no religion faith.
Similarly The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who is dishonest in this world and does not return the trust to its owner and dies in this state has left the world being out of my ummah nation and is not considered as my follower and he will meet Allah making HIM angry and furious, that is, he will meet with Divine chastisement.
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: Keep distance from a dishonest person as, doubtlessly, dishonesty is one of the worst sins and a dishonest person will always remain in the fire of hell.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said: For recognising people, do not see only how much prayers do they perform or how much do they fast or how many times he has made hajj pilgrimage and how much donations he has made. Nor pay attention to his name and fame regarding his night worship. But keep in mind his truthfulness and honesty.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: The weight of man’s goodness is not in his bowings and prostrations during his lengthy worship because, these acts have become his habit in such a way that it they leave them they become restless, but the balance and measure is their truthfulness and honesty or trustworthiness.
Yes, so many are the people whose prayers and worships are no more than habitual routine and they think that through such spiritless rituals performed without realising the reality behind Divine commandments they will enter paradise. Those who imagine like this should know that such worship acting according to it is like soul in a body. If the soul is dead within a body, it is more than a corpse.
We read in the Holy Quran: Surely We offered the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to be unfaithful to it and feared from it, and man has turned unfaithful to it; surely he is unjust, ignorant.
Many traditions are found explaining the above verse which provide full evidence about the importance of trustworthiness as explained by the sinless Imams (a.s.).
In public talks when honesty is discussed mostly they imagine that it is related to merely wealth but it should be borne in mind that honesty, in the philosophy of the Holy Quran, has a very vast field which encircles all the social as well as moral aspects. For example, one of the trusts is the same Imamat and guidance which, in reality, is one of the most principled and the most life giving causes leading to wisdom and progress relating both to matter and spirit.
Imam and guidance is the principle, for bringing which up, Muslims, especially the Shias have sacrificed much blood.
With regard to the Quranic verse said: dishonesty toward Allah and His apostle is to disobey their orders and in amaanat dishonesty in trust is dishonesty regarding what has been obligatory by God.
And it is also there in a Hadith that: Talks is a special gathering is a trust.
It is also mentioned in yet another Hadith that: I, while saying something, a man looks around him so that others may not hear him his talk is also considered a trust.
On this basis, the Islamic state and its laws and all the sources of the Islamic sate and summarily, all the bounties of Almighty Allah like: mother, children… are trusts from God. Though some of the Divine ordinances are described as His law and some of the trusts of the Prophet as his Sunnah and the trusts of the faithful are called their secrets… At the end of this discussion let us pray to Allah so that He may make us Truthful and Trustworthy.
Modesty and Chastity
The meaning of IFFAT (modesty and chastity), according to dictionary is: Iffat is one of the human virtues that, bridles passion, the rebellious power.
And in another lexicon the meaning of IFFAT is: Modesty and chastity prevents or hold back from bad and undesirable deeds.
IFFAT and HAYAA chastity and modesty controls all the movements and pauses and talks and writings of man so that they may not do whatever they desire and so that they may not speak or write down whatever their heart wants.
The lesson of chastity and piety may be taken by us from the Holy Quran, that is the guide and a pattern for human beings. This is the Book that, from beginning to end, speaks with soberness and dignity. It must be said that one of its miracles is also that one cannot find in it any phrases which is repulsive, boring or far from modesty and so also there is nothing in it which can be related to a common, ignorant and untrained person.
Chastity and Modesty as Described by the Imams (a.s.)
It is reported from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that: Verily Allah likes a modest and chaste person and hates a foul tongued and oft begging person.
Also the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said: Three groups will enter paradise ahead of all, viz., first: A martyr as he the light house of history and provides light to society. Second: an obedient servant who listens to his master’s admonitions and orders and obeys him. Third: A man who has modest and chastity and who is also regular worshipper.
It is reported from Imam Ali (a.s.): One who wears the dress of modesty; people do not see his weaknesses.
Similarly Ali (a.s.) is reported to have said elsewhere: Modesty and chastity is the highest worship.
It is also the word of Ali (a.s.) that: One who talk too much, his mistakes increase and consequently the one whose mistakes increase his modesty decreases and the one who lacks modesty his piety become low and whose piety is low his soul dies and the one whose soul has died will enter Hell.
The fifth leader of the Shias, Imam Baqir (a.s.) says: No God worship is higher than the chastity of stomach and genitals.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Modesty and faith are connected with one another just like two things fastened by a rope and hence their existence depends on one another. So if one of them is gone the another also is lost.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: One who has no chastity has no faith.
At another place Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has said: When you see that someone does not ashamed while speaking wrong and hearing undesirable things then know that he is either an unlawful offspring or the devil is mixed with his embryo.
We bring the Hadith from Imam Kazim (a.s.): God has forbidden paradise for the one who does not hesitate to talk shamelessly or to behave immodestly.
What we understand from the collection of above traditions is that modesty and chastity is an attribute that stops man from doing bad and inhuman activities and also prevents him from speaking whatever comes to his mind.
It is seen in society that once in a while man is so much ashamed that he does not learn even religious problems. It is also considered as Hayaa. For example, somebody says so and so is modest, whereas Islam fights against such circumstances.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said: Modesty is of two kinds, modesty of wisdom the fruit of which is knowledge and the modesty of folly the fruit of which is ignorance
And at another place the Prophet of Islam has said: May Allah be kind to him who really maintains modesty toward Him that is he is modest on these four occasions:
Protects his head and whatever is in it like the eye, the ear, the tongue and the mind from sinning.
Belly and whatever is in it should be lawful or permissible,
Remembers his grave and its covering,
Always remembers the Day of Judgement and Resurrection.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: One who is hiding his face too much and always feels ashamed will remain ignorant and unwise.
This is because an excessively modest man does not ask for solution even essential problems and consequently remains ignorant.
Likewise, Misabaahus shariah quotes Imam Sadiq (a.s.): Haya is of five kinds: 1 - Keeping away from sin, 2 - Keeping distance from mistakes and faults, 3 - being ashamed of greatness, 4- Modesty in the matter of friendship and 5- Being ashamed of mastership. Those who have one of these attributes also have some stages.
Some Important points
Modesty is good for everyone but it is nicer and more befitting for women because we see that Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has divided modesty into ten wherein nine are for women and one for men.
Therefore ladies should give more importance to modesty and chastity and take more care because, this deed, is the basis of happiness in life. Many times it so happens that a little carelessness in modesty destroys the warm atmosphere and leaves a permanent dot on ones dress.
Those who tear off the curtain or veil of modesty and behave openly against modesty and spread sins in society have, from the viewpoint of Islam, no honour or respect at all and hence Islam, allows backbiting of such persons. So the Prophet of Islam has said: One who tears of the veil of modesty can be backbited.
The sympathisers and the office bearers of the Islamic state must remain very alert and they must see that important key posts and positions are given only to the pious and that this revolution is administered by those who, whenever any undesirable thought comes to their mind at once remember the pure blood profusely shed by the martyrs of Islam and immediately stop from doing any unwise deed and when ever they see the sacrifice of the deprived in the society feel ashamed as to why they do not pay their duties in a nice ways and…