Good Manners and the Islamic Behaviour
Scholars of morality have divided moral issues into two categories:
1 – Morals in the common meaning as discussed in earlier pages
2 – Morals in the particular meaning that includes good manners and Islamic behaviour.
It is obvious that one of the ways of advancing the noble Holy aims of Islam in an Islamic society is correct behaviour. The great Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.s.), addressing the sons of Abdul Muttalib says: You can never gather people around you with your wealth, so treat them with a smile face.
In order to understand to the extent Islam given importance to good behaviour we point out to some of the verses and traditions:
Thus it is due to mercy from Allah that you deal with them gently, and had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you
And when the ignorant address them, they say: Peace.
And most surely you conform yourself to sublime morality.
From this series of verses we learn that the Islamic society too must, like their leaders, attract people towards them and Islam.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is recorded to have said: I have been appointed to carry the greatness of man to perfection.
He has also said: The weightiest of all deeds in the balance of deeds is nice behaviour and manners.
Imam Baqir (a.s.) says: Most perfect from the viewpoint of Faith are those who are good mannered.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: the Faithful Mo-min, on the Day of Judgement, does not present to Allah anything more dear to Allah than good behaviour with people, except the obligatory duties.
Similarly the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) says: Nearest to on the Day of Qiyamat, among you will be the one who had the best morals and who had behaved most nicely with his family members.
And Imam Baqir (a.s.) has said: Meeting your brother with a smiling face and removing his trouble is a good deed.
Therefore, in Islamic programmes, orders have been issued for good and nice human behaviour and on the other hand, words have been said regarding good conduct even in wars. Here are some:
And speak to them kind words.
And you shall speak to men good words
Kind speech and forgiveness is better than charity followed by injury; and Allah is Self-sufficient, Forbearing.
And let those fear who, should they leave behind them weakly offspring, would fear on their account, so let them be careful of their duty to Allah, and let them speak right words.
Imam Baqir (a.s.) has, while explaining the verse qooloo linnaasi husnaa says: O our Shias! Be our beauty! And do not deviate to make us feel ashamed and speak nicely with people and restrain your tongues from foul language and futile talks.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said in this connection: Decorate or beautify yourselves with good behaviour because the residence of nice people in Paradise and beware! Of bad-natured people as they will burn in Hellfire.
Similarly he has also said: Bad behaviour vitiates human deeds just as vinegar spoils honey.
Now that you perused some verses and traditions your attention is being drawn to two other topics too:
A: Good behaviour and a warn human attitude is desired and expected from ever one but it is all the more so in case of the friends of the progeny of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) as the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and his family members were the ideals in this matter of nice behaviour and good nature and, hence, we, their followers, should also be a decoration for them and should never act in a way which may make them disgusted:
B: The well-wishers of our society and the office-hearers of the Islamic Republic and the heads of families should strive to guide our society toward Islamic attitude and to behave mildly and soberly with the ignorant. They must nor get disappointed in the matter of their improvement even if they talk harshly and sarcastically because virtues and good morals do have roots in human nature and it is essential for a gardener to nourish moral plants in a proper manner. Treasures of virtues are hidden in their hearts and expert people want to take out these treasures, because, nature has taught them what a perfect man should possess. Materialism has covered it with a curtain. Therefore a sympathetic teacher wants to remove that barrier and to make man remember what he has forgotten. How nice are the words of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) in this regard: Remind them of the forgotten bounties… and dig out the pearls of intelligence which are lying hidden in their nature. The Prophets and men of God, before being teachers of the newcomers, are the nourishers of those virtues which are hidden in the heart of humanity and therefore the responsibility of such sympathisers are very crucial and grave. So they must tolerate harsh and hard things and behave nicely with the ignorant.
O Lord! Guide us all so that we may have the virtues and morals of Your Apostles and of our Imams to become their true followers.
Self-restraint and Piety
Abstinence, self-restraint (Wara) and piety (Taqwa) are among those most important virtues about which we see many verses and narrations.
Definition of Taqwa
Taqwa is that pure state of the human heart that controls man’s deeds and creates harmony between the internal forces and external acts of man. It connects man with Allah and lifts up the curtains between the material world and the super natural.
Defining Taqwa, Raaghib says: Wiqaya is to protect a thing from anything that wants to harm it and Taqwa means to keep the soul safe from danger. What is meant by this that, sometimes, as per the law of using words grammar, sabab (cause) is used in place of Moosa bbab causer and sometimes the vice versa. Khauf is used for Taqwa and Taqwa for Khauf. In the terminology of Shariat religion Taqwa means to protect the heart from whatever drags man toward a sin. It should be understood that religious and Divine Taqwa means man must save himself from what the religion or principle of a Muslims way of life, has called sin or deviation or impiety or unclean and should never indulge in it.
This safeguarding or protection is possible in two ways:
Man, with a view to protect himself from sins and impurities and in order to run away from such things, keeps himself at a safe distance from the environment of sin, makes efforts to keep himself healthy and hence away from the atmosphere of illness and from the microbes which spread diseases.
Man installs in his heart such power whereby he get spiritual and moral protection. For instance, if he falls or happens to be in an environment that supplies means for sinning and disobedience, that power protects his soul from that disease, as if he had vaccinated himself.
Here we discuss that second kind of Piety which is also understood from various verses of the Holy Quran:
And make provision, for surely the provision is the guarding of oneself, and be careful of your duty to Me, O men of understanding.
Yea, whoever fulfils his promise and guards against evil —then surely Allah loves those who guard against evil.
O you who believe! be careful of your duty to Allah with the care which is due to Him, and do not die unless you are Muslims.
Some of the great commentators, while explaining this ayat have said: that the demand of Taqwa is the highest and loftiest grade of piety that includes refraining from all kinds of sin and disobedience and deviation from truth. Hence, while explaining Haqq-e-tuqaatuhu, Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: Piety is that you obey Allah constantly and never disobey and never indulge in a sin, always remember Him and never forget Him and be thankful to Him for His bounties and never remain ungrateful to Him.
And this verse does not differ from the above verse Fattaqullah mas ta tatum Be pious to the extent you can, because, after all, this order, like all other orders, is related with the ability of man.
O you who believe! Be upright for Allah, bearers of witness with justice, and let not hatred of a people incite you not to act equitably; act equitably, that is nearer to piety, and he careful of your duty to Allah; surely Allah is Aware of what you do.
It is reported that Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Their cryings should not deceive you, because, really piety is in the hearts.
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) has said: Piety is the top of morals.
It is mentioned in the will of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) for Ali (a.s.): O Ali! The one who does not have three things has nothing: 1- Piety that prevents him from sinning, 2-Good behaviour that results in nice relations with people and 3- Tolerance which removes the ignorance or the ignorant.
We learn from these ayat and similar other narrations that Taqwa and abstinence are virtues of the soul, not merely refraining from sin and disobedience, though that too is desirable in its limits. But piety is beyond it and the virtues mentioned in case of the pious do not include the first kind.
Difference between Taqwa and Wara
The late Allamah Majlisi (r.a.) says: Perhaps what Taqwa means is to refrain from sinning and the meaning of wara is to leave even the doubtful. Under this description and below this definition the position of wara is higher than that of Taqwa and it can be said that taw has some stages which we shall discuss in the following talks, God willing.
Yaqoob bin Saif says: I heard from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): Almighty Allah does not take out a slave from the disrespect of sin to the honour of taw except by making him needless without wealth, and beloved without family and acquainted without company.
Amr bin Saeed says: I approached Imam Sadiq (a.s.) and said: I come to you only once after some years so kindly tell me some words of advice on which I may act. The Imam said: I admonish you to have fear of Allah and to have Wara and effort. Know that an effort. Know that an effort without wara gives no benefit.
It is recorded that Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has said: Make taqwa your habit and protect your religion with abstinence.
Similarly he has also said: It is essential that you, without speaking, invite others to Islam through fear of God, and abstinence and endeavour and truthfulness in talk and trustworthiness and good behaviour with neighbour and with everybody that is, your attitude, O Shias! Must be such that your opponents may incline toward your creed and be adoration for us and do not make us feel ashamed. You should also lengthen your bowing rukoo of prostrations, because, when one of you makes a long rukoo and sajdah, satan, from behind, cries out: Alas, this person obeyed and I rebelled!
Kheesama says: Before proceeding on a journey I went to Imam Sadiq (a.s.) to say him good bye, when he said: Convey my salaams to our friends and advise them to fear Allah and announce that we do not make them needless affluent without God but with the help of good deeds and our recommendation intercession does not reach without abstinence and verily, the most sorrowful person on the Day of Judgement is a man who praises justice but acts against it.
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) says: O servants of God! I advise you to fear Allah which Taqwa is both a provision and a baggage, and so also a shelter. Provision makes man reach his destination and a shelter protects him from dangers.
O servants of God! Fear of Allah???? away from doing the prohibited and makes their hearts a place of precaution in such a way that they remain awake in nights talking with their Lord Creator and they fast during hot days.
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: Thanks for every bounty is a refrain from what Allah has prohibited.
Consequences of Taqwa
Clear-sightedness as a result of Piety
O you who believe! If you are careful of your duty to Allah, He will grant you a distinction
A light which will make it possible for you to distinguish truth from untruth.
…and whoever is careful of his duty to Allah, He will make for him an outlet, And give him sustenance from whence he thinks not…
…and whoever is careful of his duty to Allah, He will make easy for him his affair.
…and he careful of your duty to Allah, Allah teaches you…
These short yet meaningful sentences describe one of the most important fate-forming man problems of man and it is that, on the path that man traverses for attaining success, there always are some by away and pitfalls. If he does not remain careful about them and does not avoid them he falls down in such a way that no sign of him is left. So it becomes easy for man if he recognises what is truth and what is untruth, good and bad, friend and foe, useful and harmful and of fortune and misfortune.
The difficulty is that, in many of such cases, man becomes doubtful. He thinks untruth to be truth, selects foe instead of friend walks is a bye lane instead of on the right path.
We understand from the Holy Quran that this way of seeing eases our problems as curtains for lust, greed, passion, selfishness and excessive love of wealth, wife and children, position and status hinder our intelligence. This darkness can be removed only by the light of Taqwa.
Secondly, we know that every perfection, wherever it may be, is the reflection of a light of the Lord. The more man gets near to Allah, the more powerful reflection he will receive, from that Fountainhead of all perfection. Accordingly, all knowledge and wisdom sprout from that main Source of knowledge and wisdom. When man, in the light of Taqwa, gets nearness to Him by avoiding sin and thus mixes his insignificant drop of his existence with the unfathomable ocean, he acquires a big booty of awareness and wisdom. So, in the course of human history, we find men and women who were pious. In them we see such an extraordinary knowledge and wisdom that it is impossible to acquire through common avenues of education. They were able to recognise a number of calamities that were rooted in the folds of chaotic social conditions. They saw the heinous faces of enemies through thousands of deceptive veils. As a proof of this we give here some narrations:
A believer sees with the light of God!
Beware of the intelligence of a Faithful.
Be cautious of the guess and imagination of the faithful because the Lord Almighty makes their tongues tell only the Truth
It is recorded from the innocent Imams (a.s.): Assist us by means of Wara. Verily the one of you who meets his Lord when he possess wara gets ease from God because the Lord Almighty has said: the one who obeys Allah and His Apostle on the Day of Judgement will be the neighbour of one on whom Allah will have completed His bounty and they are the Messengers and the Truthfuls and Martyrs and the Pious and indeed they are the good friends.
Admonition and Counsel Proves Effective for the Pious
Though guidance and advice is the means of walking straight for all, only god-fearing people benefit from it. The Holy Quran has hinted at this on many occasions:
Alif Lam Mim. This Book, there is no doubt in it, is a guide to those who guard against evil.
This is a clear statement for men, and a guidance and an admonition to those who guard against evil.
And We reveal of the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to the believers, and it adds only to the perdition of the unjust.
Of course, the Holy Quran has been revealed for the guidance of entire mankind. Yet the reason of calling it a guide for the Godfearing and the Believers is that they submit to the Truth and follow it and hence according to it attain a higher degree of guidance for them.
But the unbelieving people are an obstinate group who are neither seeking the truth nor in case they know about it follow the truth. Rather they value their lust and passion above everything. Therefore, they not only remain deprived of the guidance of the Quran but it only multiplies their wretchedness. It is so because the temperament of their existence is deformed due to the effect of their denial and oppression and hypocrisy. Hence, whenever and wherever they come across the light of Truth they get up to fight with it and this encounter with truth only increase their dirtiness and strengthens the spirit of rebellion and insurgence within them.
For example, the Holy Quran can be compared with that helps the seeing person s walk on the straight path. But the blind do not get any benefit from it and remain only in the deviation of denial and hypocrisy. It means the main condition for getting guidance is readiness and worthiness.
The verses of the Holy Quran are like those life-giving drops of rain that enliven a pure land. But it does not benefit a salty land. Likewise in order to benefit from Quran it is necessary to first create readiness to accept it and, as a saying goes, besides the deed of the doer his ability is also required.
To summarise: For getting the benefit of any gift of life and creation, it is necessary to have readiness and a favourable background within man.
Islam Has Removed All Fanciful Prejudices
One of the most manifest features of Islam is that it has eliminated all imaginary privileges and distinctions like those of race and ancestry and lineage, wealth, position, colour of skin and country. The Holy Quran says: O you men! surely We have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other; surely the most honourable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful of his duty …
It is reported from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): O people! Beware that verily your Lord is one, be cautious that your father is one, remember that there is no superiority or preference of an Arab over a non-Arab and/or of a non-Arab over an Arab, or of black-skinned over a red-skinned or of a red-skinned over a black-skinned but on the basis of Taqwa. Truly the most valued among you in the sight of Allah is the one who is the most fearful of Him. Have I conveyed my message to you? The people said: Yes, messenger of Allah! Then he said: So those who are present here should convey it to those who are not here.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), with a view to put this principle into practice, married his cousin sister daughter of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib with Miqdaad bin Aswad who was black skinned, so that pride and prejudice based on race and lineage and beauty may go away from the Islamic society.
Somebody asked Isa (a.s.): who is superior? He took up two handfuls of earth and asked: which one is superior? Then said: you have been created from earth and most precious honourable among you is the one who is most God-fearing.
In Islam, distinction is based only on spiritual heights or status like knowledge, Faith and fear of God. The Holy Quran says: …Allah will exalt those of you who believe, and those who are given knowledge, in high degrees; and Allah is Aware of what you do.
And also says: …Say: Are those who know and those who do not know alike? Only the men of understanding are mindful.
About the distinction based on Taqwa it says: Shall We treat those who believe and do good like the mischief-makers in the earth? Or shall We make those who guard against evil like the wicked?
So also the Holy Quran says: The holders back from among the believers, not having any injury, and those who strive hard in Allah’s way with their property and their persons are not equal; Allah has made the strivers with their property and their persons to excel the holders back a high degree, and to each class Allah has promised good; and Allah shall grant to the strivers above the holders back a mighty reward.
In summary it can be said that is Islam, all external distinctions have been cancelled. Only the specialities in the matter of knowledge, Piety, and jihad are valuable.
Signs of Piety
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: There are some signs of the pious which make him or her distinct.
Truthfulness in talk.
Trustworthiness in every affair.
Fulfilment of promise.
No show of pride.
Maintenance of bonds of relationships.
Kindness toward the weak.
Less mixing with women.
Promotion and propagation of good deeds and virtues.
Good behaviour and nice attitude.
Awareness of issues making people closer to God.
And finally said: How lucky is this lot and what a nice place they are to get!
Ranks of Piety
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) is reported to have said that Taqwa has three degrees: 1 Piety for the sake of God in the matters desired by Him and it is most special Taqwa, 2 Piety in the matters which are doubtful and it is Special taqwa and 3 Piety due to fear of the Hell and its chastisement and it is giving up of or restraining oneself from the prohibited Haraam and this is Taqwa-e-Aam ordinary taqwa.
The late Naraqi, in his book, has written: Some scholars have divided Wara in four categories: 1 Piety and abstinence called Udool which means avoiding everything which makes man disobedient to God, 2 Wara and Taqwa of the pious and it means refraining even from the doubtful things, 3 the carefulness which prevents man from a thing which is likely to make one indulge in the prohibited Haraam though that thing, in itself is neither prohibited nor doubtful and 4 the wara of the Truthfuls and it is keeping away from everything which is not related to a Divine matter even if it is lawful or permitted.
We conclude this discussion with some words of the leader of the pious, Ali (a.s.) and pray to Allah to make us his true followers:
Ali (a.s.), in his letter to Usman bin Haneef Ansari, says: Beware! Every follower has a leader who should be followed and his light must be taken benefit of. Know that your leader has left this world only in two old clothes and who had taken only two pieces of breads for food but you do not have the ability to do like that. Yet assist me through piety, effort, cleanliness and walking on the true path. By God, I have not hoarded gold and silver from your world and have not heaped treasures of wealth and money and even for this clothing, I have not provided an alternate pair. I have not owned even a little measure of land. I have not eaten from this world more then a little and insignificant food. In my view this worldly life is of no more value than the bitter seed which grows on the branch of the oak tree…
As said by the Imam, we are certainly not able to live like him. Yet our like should have the likeness of his life. If the lust and greed and desire of the worldly beauties and gold and silver have overtaken our entire existence, we must understand that we have deviated from the path of that just leader, even though we consider ourselves to be his followers. We must realise that the aim of those who shed their blood for this Islamic Revolution was the revival of the Islamic laws and following of the ways and programmes of the innocent Imams (a.s.). So it is our duty and responsibility to pursue the aims of those martyrs and it is possible to attain only when we make it our goal to follow the ways of Imam Ali (a.s.) and his honourable son Imam Khomeini (r.a.) and put this ideal in practice. Otherwise it is likely that tomorrow, on the Day of Resurrection we may stand ashamed with our heads down before Almighty Allah and His Apostles and friends and the immortal martyrs.
Piety and the Pious
Piety is, originally, in the sense of disinclination and hence the opposite of inclination. Though these two terms zuhd and raghbat have not been used in the Holy Quran as a topic of moral grace and its opposite, they are repeatedly found in Nahjul Balaghah and in the words of the leaders of Islam, of course, the Holy Quran speaks of other terms instead of zuhd while condemning attachment with the world and it material manifestations, it does not go against what has been said, so far as the essence is concerned, in narrations about zuhd. In order to understand the real meaning of piety it is better to refer to the texts of the Islamic sources.
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: The entire piety has been covered by two terms in the Holy Quran. Almighty Allah says: So that you may not be sorrowful for what has passed and you may not be overjoyed by what is or is to be for you.
Abi Tufail says: I heard from Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): Zuhd means curtailing worldly ambitions and thankfulness for every bounty and to avoid what has been prohibited by Allah.
Also it has been noted from Ali (a.s.): O people! Zuhd means shortening of desires and gratitude for gifts and abstinence from sins then added if you are unable to acquire all these virtues, then beware that the prohibited thing does not overcome your wish and patience and that you may not forget to thank Allah for His bounties because, Almighty Allah has, removed all excuses and disposed of all pretexts through His clear scriptures.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has said: In this world piety does not mean to discard wealth and to deny what is permissible but it means you should not think that whatever is your possession wealth and power is safer than what is in with Allah.
These narrations clearly show that piety in the philosophy of Islam is never being aloof and separated from the world, but zuhd can be summarised in two sentences. First, if man loses something, he should not sit in sorrow,. Rather ignoring that loss, he should make efforts for a fruitful future. He must not waste away his energy in worrying about the past.
Secondly, as regards what he owns, he must not become so much attached to it that it may resemble slavery so that, in that way, you may safeguard your liberty and freedom. In other words, it can be said that abstinence in the world is opposed to lust for the world. The first is desired whereas the second censured.
Many books have been written in the matter of Hubb and zuhd of the world. For example we give below the contents of the book Tawaazun baine duniyaa wa aakhirat Balance between This World and the Hereafter:
The first section of this book which is in praise of the world has these titles.
Islam has ordered the earning of necessary requirements of the world.
The world and its gifts are good and desirable.
The worldly gifts are from the grace of the Lord.
Sometimes the worldly material gifts are rewards of the virtuous.
The world has been created for His servants and Allah likes it.
The world is a mercy of God.
The world is a divine blessing and beneficence.
Sometimes deprivation from worldly gifts is by way of punishment.
Poverty and destitution is considered undesirable.
Censure of the World
The second section of this book It has been written with the assistance of some teachers. Those who are interested can refer to it for details, contains the verses and the traditions condemning the world:
Worldly interests cause chastisement both Here and in the Hereafter.
This world is a fast fading and transitory thing.
The world is a deceptive abode.
This world and the Hereafter are opposed to one another.
This world is a playful activity.
This world causes leaving of and turning against the Hereafter.
This world is a trifling thing and it is advisable to turn away from it.
Poverty is desirable and admirable and like wise, piety and power to the extent of sufficiency.
Lust and greed for worldly things is undesirable and so also is accumulation of wealth.
This world is valueless compared to the Hereafter and spiritual perfection.
Section Three: is comprised of the verses and narrations explaining meaning of the world and piety and it also discusses the relation between the two:
The lust for the world is condemned, not the world itself.
An indulgence in world which makes one forgetful of the truth is undesirable and condemnable.
Revelry in the world is undesirable and indecent.
Giving preference to this world over the Hereafter is blameworthy.
Hoarding of wealth and being parsimonious is undesirable and abhorrent.
Selling away the Hereafter in exchange of this worldly life has been condemned and, it’s vice a versa, praised.
Extravagance over indulgence and squandering spending of wealth futilely and luxury extravagance and pomp are undesirable.
Refraining from spending money in what is blameworthy according to the divine commandments.
Reliance on and attachment with the world is censored.
The worldly involvement, if it is for the benefit of the Hereafter, is desirable and appreciable.
From the above narrations it becomes known that pious is one whose heart is not entangled in the material world and who also keeps away from the worldly adornments and luxuries.
Attributes or virtues of a Zahid
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) says: They were a group of people from this world but they did not live for it, that they lived in the world like those who did not belong to it. They acted on what they perceived and were ever cautious. They did not sit but with those who loved the Hereafter life after death. They knew that the worldly people give more importance to the death of the body but they understood that the death of the soul of the living was more significant.
Degrees of Piety
Ali bin Husain (a.s.) was asked: What is piety?
The Imam (a.s.) said: Piety is of ten kinds. Its highest degrees are the lowest stages of Reza Gods pleasure. Beware! Verily zuhd has been defined in a verse of the Holy Quran: Do not remain in sorrow over of what has passed and do not be overjoyed about what is to come.
The late Naraqi (r.a.) writes in Me’raj us-Saadah: Know that piety is of three categories: 1-Lower, 2- Medium and 3- High.
Verily the first and the lower kind is that man loves and likes the world but also keeps away from it through efforts and toiling exercises.
The second stage: As a whole appreciates and values the world but does not give preference to it over the Hereafter and thus discards love for the world.
Third stage: Does not focus attention on the world as an aim and, really, does not believe that it is precious.
Thereafter he has divided Zuhd in seven categories:
The obligatory piety: to give up what is prohibited by Allah.
The safe piety: to keep away from every doubtful thing.
Excellent piety: which also is divided into two kinds:
Refrains from desiring more than necessary even in the permitted but benefits from it only to the extent of need.
Gives up all that is like by the human heart even if essential that is he or she limits his worldly needs to the minimum.
Zuhde Maarefat (Piety with Insight): Gives up everything except Allah and disconnects himself or herself even from his or her life.
Zuhde Khaaifeen (Piety of the Afraid): This is the best kind of piety wherein one does not desire anything except nearness to and pleasure of Allah nor does not desire anything except nearness to and pleasure of Allah nor does he think about the chastisement in Hell so as to seek protection there-from. He also does not long for the paradise so as to pray for the same. Rather all and all of his or her self is for meeting the Lord Almighty.
But from what can be said after following the above narrations is that his world in itself is not against the Hereafter. It is the lust for worldly things which is against piety even if less. What testifies this is the lives of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Imam (a.s.).
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Wearing rough clothes and eating dry food is not piety. Curtailing of ambitions is piety.
The Philosophy of Piety
Whatever explanation is given about piety also makes for us it philosophy clear It can be said that it is disconnection and freedom from the clutches of wealth and status material power , because, it gives liberation to man. This liberation is such that nobody particularly leaders cannot attain their aims without it, as what mostly stagnates the leaders of the society in the middle of their path and renders them unsuccessful in gaining their goal is this very spirit of world-worship which overcomes them. If they become careless of material wealth and status and adopt upright devotion they can sweep aside all hindrances and can advance toward their goal.
Whenever we study the history of the lives of the priest and leaders of Islam, especially the noble lives of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Ali (a.s.) we see that those who were the enemies and opponents of Islam had, for luring and scuttling the collective thinking of Muslims, put forward material and worldly offers in order to deviate them from the right and straight path of Islam.
Those before whom such offers were constantly put were two groups:
Those who were not among the pious and God fearing and devout and intelligent Muslims and hence were liable to slip when confronted by such conspiracies and tricks.
Those who had advanced fully in understanding Islam to such an extent that even if the sun and the moon and the stars were put in their palms they would not show any inclination to them and/or if the government of the entire world less justice and Truth was offered to them they would not value them more than a pair of shoes. The perfect example of the second kind was Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) and those who were trained by him as they too had kicked off such offers and fought with the offerers very toughly.
Yes, one who really owns piety is never deceived by the adorations of fast-passing wealth and status because zuhd is always against beauty worship and power lust and a pious leader always endeavours to make money serve the poor in a correct manner. Similarly a pious society never feels inferior or contempt and leads life peacefully and easily.
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.), in his letter to Usman bin Haneef, governor of Basrah: Next, O son of Haneef! I have come to know that a rich man in Basrah invited you for a dinner and you too accepted it happily and went there. There came to you different colourful food one after another in attractive plates and vessels. I do not think you should have accepted that invitation because the reedy and the poor could not go there and only rich had gathered there O son of Haneef! Ponder seriously on whatever you eat whether it is permissible Halaal or prohibited Haraam. Then if you have any doubt about a things permissibility spit it out and devour only that wherein there is no doubt at all.
O son of Haneef! Be cautious and remember that every follower has a leader whom he should follow. He must learn wisdom from him. And you O son of Haneef! Know that your leader Imam has, in his life, sufficed only with these two worn out clothes and two pieces of bread. And if you are unable to be like that then, at least, assist your Imam in the path of piety and modesty and in going straight….
…Do not think that I am unable to obtain the worldly tasty things. By Allah! If I so desire, I can provide for myself pure honey and the pulp of wheat and silk clothes for my food and dress. But, woe unto me if I am overpowered by lust and greed and if I indulge in passion and desire so as to select tasty eatables. Maybe when I eat tasty and colourful things when, in Hijaz or Yamama, there is someone who does not have even a piece of bread and perhaps he has never gone to be with a full belly?
Is it proper for me to fill my stomach and go to bed when, around me, there may be hungry and weak people? Should it be as a poet has said: It should be a sufficient calamity for you if you sleep with a full belly and around you are empty stomachs in thin bodies!
Should it be enough for me that people call me Amirul Mo-mineen when I am not like them in their hardships?
Yes, it is obvious that, if the people in a society are pious and honest, there will be no opposition or it will be the least and, consequently, all will live in peace and happily away from all kinds of injustice and oppression and encroachment of the rights of one another.
Who is Zahid ?
Zahid or pious is one who has the ability to live luxuriously for himself but does not do so. One who has such ability and does not live luxuriously cannot be considered pious.
Also Zahid is one who, when he gets such wealth, spends all of it in the path of Allah for His sake and in no other way like love of power and status and praise for himself.
Definition of piety in the words of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.): The best piety is to hide your piety.
Some great personalities have mentioned three distinct signs of a Zahid:
Does not become joyful due to whatever he gents gets from worldly things and also does not turn sorrowful when it goes out of his hand. As the Lord Almighty says in the Holy Quran: So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has given you.
His praise and his criticism Bouquets and brickbats are same for him.
His heart must always be full of love of Allah and not of anything else a as two affections do not join in one heart.
Lastly the love for worldly things must not pierce he soul of man. Rather man must ride on the world as a ship rides water. So long as the ship is riding on water it swims safely but drowns if water enters it. Similarly if the worldly love creeps in the soul it drowns man in ignorance and waywardness and drives him away from Allah. It is exactly like that ship which continues the voyage until it remains on the surface of water and so long as there is no hole in it. But if and when a hole appears in it and the water gets into it drowns.
Relation between worship and perfection
Among all things in this world it is only man who has the best ability to attain perfection. His life started from non-existence and it continues toward the endless and his process of perfection does not halt so long as he moves on the straight path.
During this journey it is only worship, as the highest school of thought, that trains his thoughts and enlightens him guiding him toward the endless. It Godworship washes out all dust and dirt from his heart and soul and removes the curtain of ignorance from his eyes. According to his ability it inculcates high noble virtues in him and strengthens the spirit of faith inside him making him realise his responsibilities.
Thus it is not possible for man to be needless of this noble and great and guiding school of thought. Those who think that a time can come when man will not need this worship have either some other meaning of perfection in their mind which is different from ours or they have not understood the meaning of worship.
In this connection, we summaries below what the great scholar Allamah Tabatabai (r.a.) has written in his commentary Al Meezaan:-
All that is in this world moves toward perfection. Among this the perfection of man takes place in the heart midst of the society and hence he is born social. The society assures man’s perfection if it has organised rules and regulations and if people discipline their affair in the light of those rules which must command their respect, and if people refrain from tug of war and if their respective responsibilities and rights are well defined and, in other words, if the human society becomes pious and competent so that people may be able to reach their final goal. If the society becomes corrupt people lag behind in their journey toward perfection. These rules and regulations will be effective and impressive if they are obtained from the divine source of the heavenly revelation.
We should also know that the worship-related rules form a part of the programme for individual and social perfection of man. Thus it becomes clear that so long as the human society remains strong the divine duties too will remain forceful and that ignoring of responsibilities results in ignoring of rules which results in the spread of corruption in society.
It is also worth noticing that good deeds and Godworship is the fountainhead of graceful human virtues. When good deeds are done to a sufficient extent it makes the spirit stronger and again that increased ability of the soul increases good deeds and extended Godworship.
This makes it clear that the words of those are meaningless who say that the aim of duty is to make man perfect and hence when man reaches perfection the need of duty and responsibility too ends. This I nothing but deception because as soon as man discards duties the society turns towards anarchy and corruption. How then in such a society, can a perfect man live and if he despite having graceful virtues, gives up worship it becomes contradictory! Just think.
And your Lord has commanded that you shall not serve any but Him…
And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me.
And you Lord says: Call upon Me, I will answer you; surely those who are too proud for My service shall soon enter Hell abased.
And whoever disdains His service and is proud, He will gather them all together to Himself.
Say: I am only commanded that I should serve Allah and not associate anything with Him.
It is recorded from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that Allah Almighty said: O My righteous slaves! Enjoy the bounty of My worship in this world. You will get its reward in the Hereafter.
Hazrat Sadiq (a.s.) quotes the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): The best of men is he who admires worship, then embraces it and then loves it from the depths of his heart and enacts it through his limbs and reserves himself for it God-worship. Such a person cares not whether his life is hard or easy.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Worshippers are of three categories 1- Those who worship Allah due to His fear and this is the worship of slaves, 2- Those who worship to get reward from Him and this is the service of the servants and 3- Those who worship Allah because of their heartfelt love of Him and this is the service of the free and this last is the worship of the best and it is the most precious worship.
It is recorded from Imam Ali (a.s.): My Lord! I did not worship you for fear of Hell nor for a desire of Paradise. Rather I found you worthy of worship So I worshipped you. This subject is also there is the Dua-e-Kumail: So, pardon me O Worthy of Worship and O My Lord and My Master Suppose I bear your chastisement, but how will I be able to bear my distance from you?
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said: Worship Allah in such a manner as you see Him and if you do not see Him, He sees you.
Below this hadith, Imam Khomeini (r.a.) writes: This hadith points to engrossment of heart and mind in God twice, one in the Lord Almighty’s inherent lustre or Him Holy Names and secondly in His lustrous actions. Once the worshipper sees himself in the presence of the Lord Almighty and, of course, at that time, he takes full care of the discipline and orderliness in this respect about addressing the Lord, quite naturally.
Peace and tranquillity under the shade of worship
The clamour of the material world has spread so much that its lustre has invited the attraction of everybody who is careless about God. It has deviated men both physically and mentally and turned them into its slaves. As a result of forgetting God, and of excessive attention to matter, makes man’s heart gradually black and unclean. It makes his spiritual like hard and dark. In this condition man becomes motiveless and a felling which is futile turns his entire life foolishly futile. In such circumstances the only thing that can provide peace and relieve man from worries, fears and enhances his attention toward Allah and for an intimate talk with Him through heart. When this talk worship takes place in isolation and away from public attention it gives more joy to man. As the Holy Quran says about the midnight prayer:
And during a part of the night, pray Tahajjud beyond what is incumbent on you; maybe your Lord will raise you to a position of great glory.
Also in the beginning of Islam the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) nourished the souls of Muslims who action as per the said schedule involving spirit and raised their personalities to such a high position that as if they were no more the earlier fellows. In other words, he created new men in a new form with a new essence who became unwavering, courageous, faithful, pious and honest and…
And perhaps, the glorious position mentioned in the above quoted verse is perhaps, in the same meaning s described above, though some narrations say it means shaft or intercession. Also it is quite like that Muqaame Mehmood the glorious position in extreme nearness the Allah as has been said by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in a hadith that: I have a status in relation to God which neither the nearest angel nor any Prophet can ever endure.
Worship raises man to a position wherein his hands and eyes and tongue become divine. In a hadith related from Imam Baqir (a.s.) it is mentioned: The Lord Almighty has said: None of My slaves ever nears Me so much that I love him but though deeds I have made obligatory for him and surely my slave comes so near to Me through voluntary good deeds that I befriend him and when I this happens I become an ear for him by which he hears and an eye by which he sees and a tongue by which he talks and a hand by which he attacks and when he calls Me, I answer and if he request from Me, I grant.
Under the effect of worship and prayer man gets such a rise that, as said in the Holy Quran: Only they believe in Our communications who, when they are reminded of them, fall down making obeisance and celebrate the praise of their Lord, and they are not proud. Their sides draw away from their beds, they call upon their Lord in fear and in hope, and they spend benevolently out of what We have given them. So no soul knows what is hidden for them of that which will refresh the eyes; a reward for what they did. Is he then who is a believer like him who is a transgressor? They are not equal. As for those who believe and do good, the gardens are their abiding-place; an entertainment for what they did.
Some Points Regarding Worship
Worship is not limited to chantings and recitations but obeying all the orders of Allah revealed to His Messenger, be they compulsory or non-obligatory, is considered worship. Rather, according to some of the narrations, the most worshipping and the best worshippers and those who perform their duties which are obligatory.
Ali bin Husain (a.s.) said: The greatest worshipper is he who carries out his obligations.
Also it is recorded from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) Do whatever Allah has made obligatory for you so that you may be among the most pious.
Imam Sajjad (a.s.) says in this connection: Whoever carries out the obligatory deeds is the best among people.
Hence, on the basis of this, we should not cheat ourselves and should not give up what has been made obligatory for us like jihad, ordering the good and stopping the evil… and should not keep ourselves busy in merely some sorts of recitations and chantings and prayers. We must realise that the fundamental base religion is based on fulfilment of duties obligations and on refraining from the impermissible. Performing voluntary good deeds and giving up the undesirable things is like beautifying religion. Beautification can be carried out when the foundation is sound.
Man must not do anything which may make him tired of worship. Rather he must adopt the middle path so that he may continue to worship with ease and with happiness. It is reported that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said: Truly this religion is both sound and dignified. So enter it in a gentle manner and do not impose Gods worship with aversion so that it may not be like over burdened rider who is unable either to travel or to ride his horse stops in the way due to over speed in riding.
It has also been reported from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): Do not consider worship or prayer distasteful and forcible.
It is often observed that clean hearted youths of our society with profound love for Allah give up all the tasteful things of their lives and turn toward centres of worship or toward social service but with scant attention to the revolutionary spirit. But due to absence of correct programme and as a result of not having followed the orders of the sinless Imams (a.s.) develop such a delusion in themselves that they show a sort of non-commitment to the Islamic issues.
Let us try to have endurance and continuity in our worship. It should not be that we worship once so much as to become tired. It is recorded from Ali bin Husain (a.s.): I like a deed that continues even if it is little.
Also Imam Baqir (a.s.) has said: Nothing is more dearer to Allah than a continuous good deed.
Man must take care to ensure that while worshipping he does not develop self-conceit This matter has been discussed at page_____ of this books volume one because no matter how much he prays or worships he is unable to do enough regarding even a single divine bounty.
Hazrat Moosa bin Ja’far (a.s.) is reported to have said this to some of his sons: O my child! Remember that you should make effort and endeavour but not to kill yourself for a shortcoming in prayer or worship because then it is no proper worship as it should be.
When man intends to do a good deed he must make haste in doing it. In this connection Quran says: And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord.
It also says: And everyone has a direction to which he should turn, therefore hasten to do good works.
And it is recorded from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that his father said, When you intend to do a good deed make haste to perform it as you do not knew what would happen thereafter, that is incidents may hinder it.
Also the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said: Truly Allah likes a good deed which is done hastily.
We must know that the condition for the acceptance of all good deeds is faith and Wilayat. Hence the Holy Quran says: Therefore whoever shall do of good deeds and he is a believer, there shall be no denying of his exertion, and surely We will write It down for him.
And so also: And whoever desires the hereafter and strives for it as he ought to strive and he is a believer; as for these, their striving shall surely be accepted.
There are many narrations stating that a man’s efforts without Wilayat have no value. For example you can refer to the book p. 11, volume: 1.
The Importance of Thinking
One of the principles of the Holy Quran is an invitation for thinking and pondering: pondering over the creation of God so as to follow the secrets of its creation, thinking about our conditions and deeds for doing our duty, contemplating in the history and life of earlier people so as to understand the Divine laws and commandments for the socials life of mankind.
In other words, in the schedule of Islam, so that the nature and intelligence of man may awake, an emphatic order has been given for thinking and contemplating. Islam has given much importance to this. Here we suffice to quote some verses and some narrations:
Do they not reflect within themselves: Allah did not create the heavens and the earth and what is between them two but with truth, and for an appointed term? And most surely most of the people are unbelievers of the meeting of their Lord.
Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand. Those who remember Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: Our Lord! Thou has not created this in vain! Glory be to Thee; save us then from the chastisement of the fire.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said:??? worship is pondering constantly about the Lord Almighty Allah and His Power.
Muammar says he heard from Imam Reza (a.s.): It is no worship to indulge more and more in praying and fasting Rather it is ponder over Almighty Allah’s command.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has said: Most of the worship of Abu Zar was contemplating and taking admonition therefrom.
Again Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: One hour’s contemplation is better than worship of one year. Intelligent people are aware of this.
Some points regarding reason
The subject of reasoning is one of those subjects which have been mooted about the creation of this universe and the creation of man as we have seen in the above quoted ayats . This thing is pointed out in the following verse also: Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day, and the ships that run in the sea with that which profits men, and the water that Allah sends down from the cloud, then gives life with it to the earth after its death and spreads in it all kinds of animals, and the changing of the winds and the clouds made subservient between the heaven and the earth, there are signs for a people who understand.
The Lord of the Universe has, in this verse, invited attention to some issues
The creation of the skies and the earth. Only in the galaxy which is a part of our solar system and which is considered to be one of the thousand of the galaxies in the outer space there are millions of bright suns and bright stars. Moreover, according to calculations of space experts, in between them there are millions of inhabitative planets with milliards of living things therein.
Outcome of the day and the night with a distinct regularity.
Regular winds that blow over the surface of oceans perennially thereby making ships move.
Order has been given to think over the life-giving and the blessed drops of rain.
Reminds the reader of the winds that blow on earth besides oceans.
The Quran orders us to ponder over the folded clouds over our head that move constantly and keep hanging against the law of gravity millions of tons of pure water and move in every direction.
Thinking about the Hereafter life after death.
Someone asked Imam Sadiq (a.s.) what is the reality behind saying that one hour of thought is better than one your of worship? He replied: So that man may look at his ruined houses and the abodes they have lost and take admonition from their end.
Man must also think about the powerful men who had oppressed people for a long time and take lesson from their fateful end.
Indeed there have been examples before you; therefore travel in the earth and see what was the end of the rejecters.
And also says the Holy Quran: So those are their houses fallen down because they were unjust, most surely there is a sign in this for a people who know.
Love and eagerness for Allah
Hubb the root of Muhabbat means inclination toward a thing and being interested therein. Hubb is a branch of knowledge and familiarity. Familiarity or knowledge or acquaintance is gained sometimes through apparent senses and sometimes through the internal sight of the heart. The latter recognition is more impressive than the former.
Love for Allah means lifting up of the veil from the heart in such a way that whatever one looks at one finds therein the beauty of God. Rather he sees, through the inner eye, beyond the material or physical world.
Signs of love of Allah
The Holy Quran says: Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. In the verse following, the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is mentioned as a sign of love for Allah.
O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion, then Allah will bring a people, He shall love them and they shall love Him, lowly before the believers, mighty against the unbelievers, they shall strive hard in Allah’s way and shall not fear the censure of any censurer; this is Allah’s Face, He gives it to whom He pleases, and Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.
The above ayat describes some of the virtues of the lovers of God as given below:
A: Lowly and kind before the Faithful and hard, though and mighty against the enemies and the oppressors.
B: Jihad in the way of Allah is permanently in their schedule.
C: They never care for anyone’s objection or opposition while carrying out the orders of Allah.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) is recorded to have said: One who sins does not love Allah. Then he recited the couplet: You disobey the Lord while making a show of love for Him? By your life! This is a strange thing! Were you true in loving Him you would have certainly obeyed Him because one follows whom one loves.
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: One who likes to know his position in the sight of God should check what is the position of the Lord in his sight? So, verily, Allah loves the one who gives preference to the Hereafter over this world. And Allah has no position in the eyes of the one who gives preference to the world over the Hereafter.
Husain bin Saif says he heard Imam Sadiq (a.s.) saying: Man’s faith in Allah does not become pure until God becomes dearer to him than his life, his father, his mother, his children, his wife, his wealth and all people.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: It was a part of revelation of Prophet Moosa (a.s.) O son of Imran! He told a lie who thinks that he loves Me and goes to sleep at night. Does he not know that every friend likes to retire with his friend? O son of Imran! I am aware of My friends. They become different at night, as if they have been uprooted from their place. Requital almost comes before their eyes. Then they address Me as if they see Me and they talk to Me from the near. O son of Imran! Seek from Me lowliness of your heart and of your body and of tears from your eyes in the darkness of night and call me. They really you will find He near you, answering.
How to earn love of Allah
A: Through the knowledge of finding out the eternal and everlasting Might of Allah.
B: Cleansing the soul of worldly material attachments.
C: Paying attention to the Holy favours of Almighty Allah.
It should be remembered that the heart is like a vessel. If there is air in it water cannot remain therein. This fact is explained in narrations like this: God has not given two hearts to a man.
So long as our heart is attached to the worldly affairs there is no room for Almighty Lord. In the words of Imam Sadiq (a.s.): The human heart is the abode of the Lord. So do not let it to any other than God.
In conclusion, If in the course of life, when we have to adopt either God or the world, we give preference or priority to the world, then we should know that we do not love Allah. Not only this we become the subject mater of the verse: Say: If your fathers and your sons and your brethren and your mates and your kinsfolk and property which you have acquired, and the slackness of trade which you fear and dwellings which you like, are dearer to you than Allah and His Apostle and striving in His way, then wait till Allah brings about His command: and Allah does not guide the transgressing people.
D: Paying attention to the lives and manners of the Holy Imams (a.s.) and great men of religion. Since half of the worship of the innocent Imams (a.s.) was in the form of night prayers and this their talk with the Lord used to be in solitude and as, fortunately, these prayers have till today lasted for us, which we recite as supplications, we give here some of their phrases as a gift:
In the famous and popular Dua-e-Kumail we read: Then suppose, My Allah, my Master, my Protector and my Lord, that I am able to endure Your chastisement, how can I endure separation from You?
Imam Husain (a.s.) appeals in his Dua-e-Arafa: My Lord! It is you Whose kindness removed the kindness of all others from the heart of Your friends in such a way that they do not love anyone except You and seek shelter in none but You.
And also says: O you High! Who made the mouths of Your friends the sweetness of Your love till they cling to Your Court.
Imam Sajjad (a.s.), in his Munaajaat-e-Inkiliya, cries: By Thy Honour! And by Thy esteem! I love you so much that the sweetness of Your love is retained on my heart and I have habituated myself with its tidings. I consider it far from Your justice that You will close the door of Your mercy for one who considers himself Your friend.
In another supplication he says: My Lord! Make me one of those in whose hearts the tree of your love has born fruits and the fire of Your friendship is raging in the centres of their souls.
And at another place: My Lord! Make me one of the those who won Your nearness and selected your friendship and whom You made the admirers of Your vision and whom You made contented at Your decisions and to whom You gifted Your mercy and gave them Your pleasure and whom You prevented from being away from You.
The late Faiz, in Haqaiq, discussing love, quotes Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) that Almighty Allah has a distinct drink. When His friends taste it they become ecstatic and when they become intoxicated they become joyful and when they rejoice they become clean of swooning and clattering and when they become clean they melt and when they melt they become pure and when they become pure they become desirous and when they desire they find Allah and when they find Allah they join Him and when they join Him they find no distance between them and their beloved as we read in the supplication of mid-Shabaan: At the end of this discussion we should remember that among the ranks of love for Almighty Allah is the love for His religion and His Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the sinless Imams (a.s.). In a number of traditions it is said clearly that religion is nothing but love. Thereafter this verse is quoted: Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you.
What is desired through these traditions is that the spirit of the reality of religion is the same faith and love for Allah. That love and admiration which enlightens the entire being of man and affects each and every limb of his body. Its apparent lustre is obedience to the commands of Allah. In other words, it is the natural effect of love that attracts man towards the beloved and His pleasure. Of course, it is possible that, in cases of weak love, the radiance does not go beyond the heart. Truly such love does not deserve to be called love. A cardinal love positively joins the lover with the beloved and makes him endeavour in a fruitful manner.
The proof of this claim is clear, because, the love and liking of a person for something is surely because of the fact that he has found perfection and excellence in the latter. Man never lives and admires a thing which is mightless. Thus the love of man for God is because He is the fountainhead of all kinds of excellence and perfection. Doubtlessly all the schedules and programmes of such a Being are also perfect. In such circumstances how is it possible that one who loves perfection lags behind in fulfilling Divine orders. If he so lags behind, it shows that he lacks the knowledge of love and admiration. In this matter we also find several narrations:
One who dies when he is the friend of the progeny of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) leaves this world like a martyr and the one who dies while being the friend of the progeny of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is pardoned, and know that one who dies with the friendship of the Aale Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) at his heart dies the death of a Mo-min Faithful and he also has left this world with the ultimate degree of faith.
Hence the Imams (a.s.) also have addressed their friends in this way:
Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: O Shias of the progeny of Muhammad! There is no kinship between us and God and we have no plea over God and nearness to God is not gained except by following the divine commandments. Our friendship will benefit only those who obey Allah. One who does not obey god will not get any benefit from our friendship.
Now that here ends the description of some virtues, which enable man to reach excellence our next discussion, will be regarding mean vices.