Shi'ite Jurists and Authors on Jurisprudence and Hadith
From Among The Companions.
The first and foremost among the companoins of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) who had acquried the knowledge of Jurisprudence was the Imam of the Shi'ites and their Chief Amir-ul-Muminin Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.).
Similarly Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra(A.S.) and her two sons Imam Hasan(A.S.) and Imam Husain(A.S.) were profoudly accomplished in this respect. What has resulted from their talks about the religious studies is sufficient to fill volumes. It would suffice to refer to the speeches made by her after the death of her holy father,the Holy Prophet of Islam(S.A.W.) which contain a lot of material about the philosophy of Sharia and religious injunctions. Mushaf Fatimah or the Book of Fatimah as well as that Imam Hasan and his father Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib were the first to wrote about such knowledge.
Then comes the name of Ibn Abbas who is usually called the Jurist of the Community. He is always referred to in the matters relating to the traditions, jurisprudence and religious injunctions. He died in 67 A.H.
Next to come are Salman Farsi and Abu Dhar Ghaffari. They were the first to collect the traditions and classify them under different headings. When we discussed as to who was the first to write a book in Islam, we quoted from Ibn Shahr Ashub that the pioneer in this respect was Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.) who was followed by Salman, Abu Dhar, Asbagh bin Nabatah, Abdullah bin Abi Rafe' and Imam Zainul Abidin (who wrote As-Sahifah Al-Kamilah) respectively.
To Salman is attributed a book of traditions named as Al-Jathalique. Ash-Shaikh has said in his Al-Fahrist,"He has reported about Al-Jathalique the Byzantian who was sent by the Byzantian King to Madinah after the death of the Holy Prophet. "Ash-Shaikh has then given the authorities and evidence to authentictiy of the book. According to Ma'alim-ul-Ulama' Salman reported about Al-Jathalique in this book.
Similatly, Abu Dhar has a book like Al-Khutbah to his credit in which he explained the situation after the death of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). Ash-Shaikh in Al-Fahrist and Ibn Shahr Ashub in Al-Ma'alim have said that Jundub bin Junadah, Abu Dhar Ghaffari has a Khutbah to his credit in which he explained the situation and things after the death of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). Ash-Shaikh has also mentioned the authority to the authentictiy of this statement. Abu Dhar died in 31 A.H. while Salman passed away in 35 A.H.
Abu Rafe' Ibrahim or Aslam, who was a freed slave of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) is also counted among such scholars. An-Najashi has said while discussing the first group of the Shi'ite writers, »Abu Rafe' was in Makkah in the past and then he migrated to Madinah where he remained attached to the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and saw what the latter saw and did. Then he became a companion of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.) after the death of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). He was among the best of the Shi'ites, participated in all the battles on the side of Imam Ali(A.S.) and was in charge of the treasury during his Caliphate in Kufa.
An-Najashi further says that Abu Rafe' was the author of a book containing Sunan, injunctions and different problems. Then he mentions the authorities for his statement leading back to Muhammad bin Ubaidullah bin Abi Rafe' to his father and then to his grandfather Abi Rafe' and then to Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.). An-Najashi then gives an idea of the book discussing it chapter by chapter, which As-Salat (Prayers). Fasting, Hajj, Zakat and miscellaneous problems.
He was therefore the first one to collect the Traditions and classify them under various headings. However, who collected all the traditions for the first time belonged to the third century as has been mentioned in Tadrib-ur-Rawi by As-Suyuti. Ibn Hajar however, says that the task of collecting the tradition was undertaken for the time by Muhammad ibn Shahab Zahri under the orders of Umar bin Abdul Aziz, who became a caliph in 98 A.H. and died in 111 A.H.
According to the report of Ibn Hajar, Abu Rafe' died in the early phase of the caliphate of Imam Ali(A.S.) in 35 A.H.
From the Tabi'ites and their Followers.
Dhahabi, who is not a Shi'ite, has said in his book Mizan-ul-I'tedal that the Shi'ism spread among the Tabi'ites and their followers to a very great extent. He has said during the life-account of Aban bin Taghlab, on the authority of persons like Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ibn Mu'in and Abu Hatim,
"One may ask how the trust could be reposed in those who created new things (in religion). The answer to this question is that Bid'ah (innovation) is two small hitting like exaggerated Shi'ism or Shi'ism without exageration. It does not affect, because Shi'ism was very much common among the Tabi'ites are their followers despite their religiousness, piety and truthfulness. If we reject the Traditions and reports given by such persons (because of their being Shi'ites) , then most of the sayings of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) will have to be discarded, which will of course be a bigger Bid'ah....."
Now this is a testimony of a great traditionalist to the effect that the Shi'ites distinguished themselves among the Tabi'ites and their followers in guarding the sayings of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). Had others also done the same and reported the traditions as they did, the rejection of their reports would not amount to giving up the major portion of the traditions.
The fact is that the Four Sunni Imams and leading Sunni traditionalists received a lot from the Shi'ite Jurists. Imam Abu Hanifah, for example, received knowledge from Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.).
Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Sam'an al-Madani al-Aslami (an ally of Banu Aslam) was the teacher of Imam Shafi'i and was a Shi'ite.
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal got his training and education at the hands of Muhammad bin Fudail bin Ghazwan Dabiyy who was a Shi'ite.
Ubaidullah bin Abi Musa al-'Absi al-Kufi was the teacher and Shaikh of Imam Bukhari. He was also a Shi'ite as evidenced by As-Sam'ani in Al-Ansab, Adh-Dhahbi in Al-Mukhtasir, Mizan-ul-I'tidal and Tadhkiratul Huffaz, the author of Duwal-ul-Islam, Ibn-ul-Athir in Al-Ansab, Abu Da'ud, Ibn Sa'd, Ibn Habban, Ya'qub bin Sufyan, Abu Muslim al-Baghdadi, Al-Hafiz, Ibn Ul-Qane', As-Saji and others.
Shi'ite Books of Traditions Numbered 6600.
The earlier Shi'ite belonging to the Ithna 'Ashari Shia group who were contemporaries to the Holy Imam(A.S.), from Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.) to the time of Imam Hasan Askari(A.S.), compiled 6600 books of the traditions through the agency of Holy Imams(A.S.) from the Ahlul Bayt(A.S.).
These books are mentioned in those relating to Rijal (biographies) and have been recorded by As-Shaikh Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin Hurr Aamili belonging to thirteenth century, in the fourth note of his book Wasa'il ash-Shia. He got the names of these books from the accounts of their authors scattered in various other books. He collected what the authors of Rijal had recorded and the number came upto 6600.
Four Hundreds Books of Usul
Among these 6600 books, 400 were distinguished for their treatment of Usul which are known to the Shi'ite as Al-Usul-ul-Arba'a Mi'ah. Ash-Shaikh Al-Mufid has said, "The Imamite composed four hundred books which are named as Usul during the period from the life-time of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.) to that Imam Hasan Askari(A.S.). The meaning of Usul they say is that these books belong to the origin (Asl).
Similarly, Tabrisi has said in A'lam-ul-Wara that four hundred books were compiled from the replies given by Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). These books are known as Usul and have been reported by his companions and the companions of his father Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.). According to Muhaqqiq, the author of Al-Mu'tabar, that the number of books compiled from the replies given by Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) to various questions is four hundred, which are named as Usul.
What Al-Mufid has said,as referred to above, indicates that Four Hundred Usul have been reported from all the Holy Imams(A.S.), while what At-Tabrisi, Al-Muhaqqiq and Ash- Shahid have said, shows that these books were solely reported from Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). It is possoble to compromise between this. There might be Usul based upon the reports of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) and another collection based upon the reports of all the Holy Imams(A.S.).
Now we shall deal with individuals as below; starting those from the Tabi'ites:
1. Ali bin Abi Rafe':
He was a freed slave of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and a companion of Amir-ul-M'minin Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.). He was the secretary and treasurer of the latter. An-Najashi has said during his discussion of the first group of the Shi'ite authors, after giving an account of Abi Rafe' who had himself a book on Sunan, religious injunctions and problem,»Ibn Abi Rafe' wrote another book. His full name is Ali bin Abi Rafe'. He was a Tabi'ite and one of the chosen Shi'ites. He was a companion of Amir-ul-Mu'minin and his secretary.
He gathered a lot and collected a book on the various branches of jurisprudence. Keeping this statement in view we can say that Ali bin Abi Rafe' was the pioneer of writing a book on jurisprudence and classifying the subjects under various headings. As-Suyuti has said in Al-Awa'il that the first one to write a book on jurisprudence after the first century was Abu Hanifah. But Ali bin Rafe' was during the time of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.), that is during first half of the first century or long before the birth of Abu Hanifah. He died during the first century.
2. Ubaidullah bin Abi Rafe'.
He compiled a book on the judgments of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.). This book has mentioned by Ash-Shaikh in Al-Fahrist. He has also quoted the authorities who are Muhammad bin Ubaidullah bin Abi Rafe' from his father Ubaidullah bin Abi Rafe' who got from his father Abi Rafe' who in turn received it directly from Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.). He is also among the pioneers who wrote on jurisprudence. We have already briefly discussed Abi Rafe' and his two sons.Ubaidullah Bin Abi Rafe' died during the mid-first century.
3. Asbagh bin Nabatah Tabi'i.
Accrding to An-Najashi, he was a very close friend and companion of Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.) and lived after his death An-Najashi has reported about his oath given to Al-Ashtar and his will to his son Muhammad, along with the authorities in support of these two documents.
He wrote a book about novelties of the judgments and orders given by Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.). This book has been reported by Muhammad bin Ali bin Ibrahim bin Hashim al-Qummi from his father and grandfather who received it from Muhammad bin Walid who in turn got it from Muhammad bin al-Furat. The latter received it from the author -- Asbagh bin Nabatah himself. He died during the mid-first century.
4. Rabi'ah bin Sami'.
An-Najashi has described him in the begining of his book as belonging to the first group of the Shi'ite writers. He has also mentioned that Rabi'ah compiled a book on Zakat-un-Ni'am which was narrated to him by Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.). He has also quoted the authorities in support of this statement. Rabi'ah died during the first century.
5. Yu'la bin Murrah Tabi'i.
He compiled a booklet which was narrated to him by Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.). An-Najashi has mentioned about it in his book. He died during the first century.
6. Al-Harith al-A'war al-Hamdani Tabi'i
He was one of the companions of Imam Ali (A.S.). He compiled a book in which reported those matters which Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.) told the Jew. Shaikh Tusi has mentioned the authorities for this book in his Al-Fahrist. He died during the first century.
7. Maitham bin Yahya Tammar al-Kufi
He was one of the closest companions of Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.) with whom he used to share his secrets. He composed a book on the traditions from which Shaikh Tusi, Al-Kishi and At-Tabari (in Bisharat-ul-Mustafa) usually quoted. He was martyred in 60 A.H.
8. Abdullah bin al-Hurr al-Ja'fi al-Kufi
He was the famous poet, who is also known as Ash-Sha'ir ul-Fatik. has been mentioned by An-Najashi as belonging to the first group of the Shi'ite authors. He compiled a book in which he reports what he got from Amir-ul-Muminin Imam Ali(A.S.).He died during reign of Al-Mukhtar around 66 A.H.
9. Abu Sadiq Sulaim bin Qais al-Hilali
He was a companion of Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.). He has been mentioned by An-Najashi among the first group of the Shi'ite authors. He also mentions about his book along with its authorities. We have to add that Sulaim bin Qais reports in this book what he learnt from Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.) and other prominent companions of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). Ash-Shaikh Abu Abdullah Muhmmad bin Ibrahim bin Ja'far al-Katib-un-Nu'mani says in his Kitab-ul-Ghaibah, in which many traditions have been quoted through Sulaim bin Qais, as follows :
"All the Shi'ites who served the cause of knowledge and reported through the Holy Imams(A.S.) are unanimous on the point that the book of Sulaim bin Qais al-Hilali is one of the basic of Usul which have been reported by the scholars and traditionists carrying the traditions of Ahlul Bayt(A.S.). It is also the oldest of all because every tradition that has been collected in it, has directly been taken from the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.), Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.), Miqdad, Salman Farsi and Abu Dhar or those followed the path chosen by them who had seen the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.) and heard them, who are the origins to whom the Shi'ites refer and on whom they depend.He died in 75 A.H.
10. Imam Zainul Abidin Ali bin al-Husain(A.S.)
His Holiness was the Imam of his age and leader of the Muslims in the matters relating to jurisprudence and religious injunctions and guided them through his words and actions. He was martyred in 94 A.H.
11. Sa'id bin Musib Tabi'i
He was a companion of Imam Zainul Abidin(A.S.). It is also said about him that he was a companion of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.) and had participated in all the battles on his side. He reported from him and Ibn Abbas.
Ibn Hajar has said in Tahdhib-ut- Tahdhib, on the basis of a report from Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.) taken through Ibn-ul-Madini, that the Imam said,"There is none among the Tabi'ites who has wider knowledge than he (Sa'id Bin Musib).
As to Ibn Hajar, he is one of those scholars who are trusted as the jurists. According Al-Mukhtasir of Adh-Dhahabi, he (Sa'id Bin Musib) was the Chief of the Tabi'ites, His arguments were thorough. He was a jurist who had fame and was on the top both in knowledge as well as actions. He died in 94 A.H.
12. Abu Abdur-Rahman Abdullah bin Habib Salmi
He was a close friend of Amir-ul-mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.). Ibn Qutaibah has said about him that jurisprudence (Al-Fiqh) has been taken from him. He died in 105 A.H.
13. Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.)
During his time, the number of Shi,ite reporters and writers increased. It also happened during the time of his son Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). Only Jabir bin Yazid Al-Ja'fi alone reported seventy thousand traditions from him which he narrated on the authority his ancestors and the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) himself. He was martyred in 113 A. H.
Among the Followers of the Followers (Tabi'it Tabi'in) and the latter generations, there were:
1. Jabir bin Yazid al-Ja'fi
He reporeted seventy thousand traditions. He used to say, "I have fifty thousand traditions out of which I have not reported all of them are from the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) through the agency of Ahlul Bayt(A.S.). It means that the thing which checked him from reporting those traditions might have been the fact that some weak-minded people could not bear them and would have belied him and this attitude would have spread to most people.He died in 127 A.H.
2. Al-Hafiz al-Muhaddith al-'Aabid Mansur bin Mu'tamar al-Kufi.
He died in 123 A.H.
3. Aban bin Taghlab
He compiled Kitab-ul-Fada'il which is counted among the basic and fundamental books (Usul of the Shi'ites. An-Najashi has said about him, " He was well versed in every branch of knowledge." He has included jurisprudence and traditions in his statement. Ash-Shaikh has said in his Al-Fahrist that he was a noble jurist. He reported thirty thousand traditions from Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) as already been mentioned. He died in 141 A.H.
4. Abu Abdullah Abdul Mu'minin bin al-Qasim bin Qais bin Qahad al-Ansari al-Kufi.
He died in 147 A.H.
5. Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.)
During his time, the number of people reporting from him as well as that of authors increased. No one from among the Ahlul Bayt(A.S.) has been so reported from as he, so much so that Hasan bin Ali al-Washa has said, "I met 900 Shaikhs in the Mosque of Kufa, every one of them saying, 'Ja'far bin Muhammad(A.S.) told me."
Only one reporter, Aban bin Taghlab, alone reported thirty thousand traditions from him. Al-Hafiz ibn-ul-'Uqdah prepared a special book in which very authentic reporters were included to report tradition through Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). The number of such reporters was 4000. Similarly, 400 books were compiled from the replies he gave to different questions. These 400 books are known Usul Arba Miah, as has already been mentioned.He was martyred in 148 A.H.
6. Sulaiman bin Mahran al-A'mash
Ibn Qutaibah has mentioned him in Al-Ma'arif as one of the
traditionalists and reciters. He has said that he was more occupied with the traditions and less with the rectation of the Holy Quran. At another place, Ibn Qutaibah has mentioned him as a Shi'ite. He died in 148 A.H.
7. Abn Ubaidah al-Hidha' Ziyad bin 'Isa.
He died before 148 A.H.
8. A'yun Family.
Ibn-un-Nadim has mentioned in his Al-Fahrist during his account of Shi'ite authors and traditionalists and their books that Zararah bin A'yun Bin Sanbas (or Sansan) whose name was 'Abd Rabbeh was one of the most prominent Shi'ite personalities insofar as jurisprudence, traditions, al-Kalam and adherence to the Shi'ite creed is concerned.
Similar was the case with his brother Hamran bin A'yun, his sons Hamza bin Hamran and Muhammad bin Hamran; Bakir bin A'yun and his son Abdullah bin Bakir, Abdur Rahman bin A'yun, Abdul Malik bin A'yun and his son Daris bin Abdul Malik (who was a companion of Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.), the sons of Zararah bin A'yun, al-Husain bin Zararah and al-Hasan bin Zararah (who were the compainons of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). Similarly, Ubaid bin Zararah reported traditions from Zararah bin A'yun.He died in 150 A.H.
9. Abu Hamza Thamali Thabit bin Dinar
He is known for his reporting. He was a companion of Imam Zainul Abidin, Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.) and Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.).
He remained alive for a short while during the period of Imam Musa Al-Kazim(A.S.). He died in 150 A.H.
10. Muhammad bin Muslim Ta'ifi
He was one the prominent Shi'ite jurists and traditionalists. He died in 150 A.H.
11. Abu Basir Yahya bin al-Qasim al-Asadi
He reported traditions from Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.), Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) and Imam Musa Al-Kazim(A.S.). He died in 150 or 151 A.H.
12. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yassar
He was an author of Seerat (biography of the Holy Prophet) and Maghazi (accounts of battles). Ibn-ul-Madini' has said, "Reporting of the traditions of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) rests upon twelve persons and (Muhammad bin Ishaq) he is one of them." Al-Khatib has testified his being a Shi'ite in Tarikh-e-Baghdad.He died in 150 A.H.
13. Abu Ali Ubaidullah bin Ali Abi Shu'bah
An-Najashi says," Abi Shu'bah family is counted among the Shi'ites. Their grand-father Abu Shu'bah reported traditions from Imam Hasan(A.S.) and Imam Husain(A.S.). All of them were trusted in what they said and were referred to. Ubaidullah was the eldest and their most prominent figure. He is the author of a book about which it is said that Ubaidullah gave it to Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) who revised it.Al-Barqi has said in his Rijal that Ubaidullah wrote a book which was the first one among the Shi'ites.He died during the mid-second century hijrah.
14. Ma'wiyah bin 'Ammar Dahani
He is the author of a number of books on jurisprudence and traditions which have been mentioned by Ash-Shaikh Tusi in Al-Fahrist and by An-Najashi with their authorities. He died in 175 A.H.
15. Imam Musa Al-Kazim(A.S.)
His companions composed books in various branches of religious studies which they based upon the knowledge they received from him. The Shi'ites have quoted them along-with their authorities going back to the original reporter and prominent persons have included them in collections. He was martyred in prison in Baghdad by Abbasid caliph in 183 A.H.
16. Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Abi Yahya al-Madani
He who was a freed slave of Aslam bin Afsa the Shaikh of Imam Ash-Shafi'i. He was a companion of Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.)
and Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). Ash-Shaikh has said in Al-Fahrist that he wrote a book in a number of chapters relating to Halal and Haram.He reported traditions from Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). He died in 184 A.H.
17. Muhammad bin Qais al-Bajli
He wrote a book which he has reported from Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.). He was not living during life of Imam but belonged to the period of Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.) and Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). An-Najashi says that he is the author of a well-known book on Al-Qadaya' (Judgments). Similarly, Ash-Shaikh has said in his Al-Fahrist that Muhammad bin Qais composed a book on the judgments of Imam Ali (A.S.). He died in 151 A.H.
18. Nasr bin Nasir al-Bahrani
He is one of the oldest reporters of the traditions. He has reported from Jabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari through his father.
19. Hafiz al-Muhaddith Abu Abdur-Rahman Muhammad bin Fudail bin Ghazwan ad-Dabiy
He was the teacher of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal. He died in 195 A.H.
20. Yusus bin Abdur-Rahman
He was an ally of Yaqtin family and a companion of Imam Musa Al-Kazim(A.S.). Ibn-un-Nadim has said in his Al-Fahrist,"He was the scholar of his age. He wrote and compiled many books on Shi'ism." Ibn-un-Nadim has mentioned his books on jurisprudence and the traditions. He died in 208 A.H.
21. Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Abi Nasr al-Bizintini
He has been mentioned by Ibn-un-Nadim as one of the Shi'ite jurists and traditionists. He has also named his books.He died in 221 A.H.
They are eighteen persons from among the companions and friends of various Imams who became famous in the field of Jurisprudence and the Traditions during the period extending from the late first century to the early third century.
These persons were called by this name because, as Al-Kishi has claimed, there is a general concurrence of opinions among the Shi'ites to accept it as correct what they correct, to affirm their ideas and to believe in them in matter relating to Jurisprudence. Six of them were the companions of Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.) and Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) while the remaining number had six companions of Imam Musa Kazim(A.S.) and Imam Reza(A.S.) among them. We shall describe them here as Al-Kishi has done.
Al-Kishi, who is one of the third century scholars, has given the names in his book of Rijal as given below:
Jurists from among the companions of Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.) and Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.)
There is general agreement among the Shi ites to the effect that the following companions of Imam Muhammad Baqir(A.S.) and Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) should be considered as correct and that they are jurists in the real sense. According to this opinion the most accurate and efficient jurists from among the ancients were these persons:
ii) Ma'ruf bin Kharbudh
iv) Abu Basir al-Asadi
v) Al-Fudail bin Yassar
vi) Muhammad bin Muslim Ta'iffi
According to another version, Abu Basir al-Muradi has been mentioned in place of Abu Basir al-Asadi. His full name was Laith bin Al-Bakhtari.
Jurists from among the companions of Imam Ja'far Sadiq.
In addition to the six mentioned above, there is a general agreement about the following six persons to consider as correct what they correct, affirm what they say and accept them to be Jurists:
i) Jamil bin Durraj ;
ii) Abdullah ibn Maskan
iii) Abdullah bin Bakir ;
iv) Hammad bin 'Isa
v) Hammad bin Uthman ;
vi) Aban bin Uthman.
It has been said that in the opinion of Abu Ishaq al-Faqih, whose name is Tha'labah bin Maimun that the most efficient and accomplished among these six was Jamil bin Durraj who was the youngest of the companions of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.).
Jurists among the companions of Imam Musa Kazim(A.S.)
and Imam Reza(A.S.).
All have agreed upon the fact that there are six more persons, in addition to those already described above, who should be accepted as jurists and whose opinions should be affirmed. These are :
i) Yunus bin Abdur-Rahman;
ii) Safwan bin Yahya Bayya' Sabari ;
iii) Muhammad bin Abi 'Umair ;
iv) Abdullah bin al-Mughirah ;
v) Hasan bin Mahbub ;
vi) Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Abi Nasr.
Some people have given the name of Hasan Ali bin Fiddal in place of Hasan bin Mahbub. Some other have given the name of Faddalah bin Ayub in place of Hasan bin Mahbub. Another group replaces the name of Faddalah bin Ayub by that Uthman bin 'Isa.
They all agree on the names of Yunus bin Abdur Rahman and Safwan bin Yahya.
Having given this note on the Ashab-ul-Ijma', we continue our discussion of other jurists who came later. They are :
1. Imam Ali bin Musa Ar-Reza(A.S.).
When he passed by Neishabour on his way to Khurasan, he was met by Abu Zar'ah ar-Razi and Muhammad bin Aslam Tusi, who were from among the greatest Muslim scholars of their age. They were accompanied by a huge procession of scholars and the Traditionalists. They requested him to tell them some Traditions. He therefore dictated to them while riding a Tradition of 'golden links'
1. At that a count was made of the people who had pens and inkpots and were writing that Tradition. They were twenty thousand.
According to another version. their number came up to twenty five thousand less one. The persons who were taking the dictation were Abi Zara'ah and Muhammad bin Aslam.
Ibn-ul-Athir has mentioned Imam Reza(A.S.) in Jam-ul-Usul as the Mujaddid (renovator) of the Imamite creed in the early second century. Imam Reza(A.S.) was martyred in 203 A.H.
2. Muhammad bin Mas'ud al-Ayyashi.
Ibn-un-Nadim has said that he was a Shi'ite jurist and distinguished himself in the field of knowledge during his age. He wrote more than two hundred treatises on various branches of knowledge including jurisprudence and the Traditions. He died during the third century.
3. Muhammad bin Umar al-Waaqidi.
According to Ibn-un-Nadim. He had Shi'ite tendencies and was well aware of the differences of opinion among the people in matters relating to the Traditions, Jurisprudence and religious injunctions. He wrote a book Kitab-ul-Ikhtilaf dealing with the differences between the people of Kufa and Madinah on various issues of Jurisprudence. He died in 207 A.H.
4. Safwan bin Yayha al-Bajli.
An-Najashi says that he wrote thirty books as said by our friends. He mentions a book among his writing dealing with the order of writing of the books on jurisprudence.
He died in 210 A.H.
5. Abu Muhammad Abdullah bin al-Mughirah al-Bajli al-Kufi.
According to An-Najashi's report, he wrote thirty books including one on Jurisprudence. He died during the third century.
6. Abu Muhammad bin Ubaidullah bin Musa bin Abi Mukhtar al-Kufi al-'Absi.
Ash-Shaikh has mentioned his name among the personalities of the age of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). Adh-Dhahabi says in Al-Mukhtasir: «He is a Hafiz and one of the great figures so far as Shi'ism is concerned. He is dependable and trustworthy (in reporting of Traditions).
Ibn Hajar says, He is a Traditionalist of Kufa, a Hafiz of the Quran, great worshipper but a Shi'ite. Ibn Qutaibah has mentioned him in Al-Ma'arif among the Traditionalists and the Reciters of the Quran who was more inclined towards the Traditions.His being a Shi'ite has been affirmed by Ibn-ul-Athir and As-Sam'ani in Kitab-ul-Ansab and others.
He died in 213 A.H.
7. Imam Muhammad bin Ali Taqi al-Jawad(A.S.).
He asked the Qadi-ul-Qudat Yahya bin Aktham certain questions on Jurisprudence in the presence of Al-Mamun and made him completely cornered, in replying them.
He was martyred in 220 A.H.
8. Abu Ali al-Hasan bin Mahbub Sarrad.
Ash-Shaik has said in Al-Fahrist that he wrote a book Kitab-ul-Mashaikhah in which he discussed punishments,blood-money, obligations, marriages and divorces. Ibn-un-Nadim has added one more topic, i,e. emancipation. He died in 224 A.H.
9. Imam Ali bin Muhammad Naqi al-Hadi(A.S.)
The tenth holy Imam of Shi'ites was martyred in 254 A.H.
10. Imam al-Hasan al-Askari bin Imam Ali al-Hadi(A.S.)
The eleventh holy Imam of Shi'ites was martyred in 260 A.H.
11. Fadl bin Shadhan Naishapuri.
Ash-Shaikh has mentioned him in his Al-Fahrist as a jurist. An-Najashi says, <>Al-Kajji has said that he wrote 180 books. He died in 260 A.H.
12. Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad bin Shirah al-Kashani.
According to An-Najashi, he compiled a book Kitab-ul-Jame' dealing with Jurisprudence. He has also given the authorities supporting this statement. He died during the third century.
13. Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Kitab al-Barqi.
He wrote a book in which he discussed the Traditions, their causes and contents etc. He died in 274 A.H.
14. Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Sa'id Ath-Thaqafi Al-Kufi Al-Isfahani.
Ash-Shaikh and An-Najashi both have mentioned among his works two books of Jurisprudence"Al-Jame' Al-Kabir and Al-Jame' As-Saghir. An-Najashi says that the reason why he left Kufa was that he had written a book in praise of the Ahlul Bait(A.S.) titled Kitab-ul-Ma'rifah. The Kufites respected him very much. They suggested to him that he should give up the idea of taking that book out. He asked them, <>He was told that it was Isfahan. He took an oath that he would not read it to anyone except in that city. His oath was the result of his confidence in the accuracy in what he had reported. He therefore left for Isfahan and reported his work in that city. He died in 283 A.H.
15. Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Habbun al-Hajjari al-Andulsi.
According to Tadhkiratul Huffaz, he was a Hafiz and Traditionalist from Andulus and was among the great personalities of his age, but he was a Shi'ite. He died in 205 A.H.
16. Hasan bin Abi 'Aquil al-'Ammani.
He was the first one to polish up the science of Jurisprudence, divided it into various chapters as we find to-day, used his understanding and separated discussion from the Usul and Furu' (secondary principles). He wrote a book on Jurisprudence titled Al-Mutamassik Bihabli Aalir Rasul. It has been praised, as well as its author, by leading Shi'ite scholars like Al-Mufid, Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi, Ibn Idris and others. He died in the beginning of the fourth century.
17. Muhammad bin Ya'qub al-Kulaini.
He is the author of Al-Kafi Fil Hadith which he completed in twenty years. An-Najashi has said that he is the most dependable of all and consistent in reporting the Traditions. Ash-Shaikh has said in Al-Fahrist,<>Ibn-ul-Athir has described him Jame'-ul-Usul as the renovator of the Imamite creed in the early third century. He died in 328 A.H.
18. Abdul Aziz bin Yayha al-Jaludi.
According to Ibn-un-Nadim, he is the author of Kitab-ul-Murshid Wal Mustarshid and Kitab-ul-Muta'ah, both dealing with Jurisprudence. An-Najashi has mentioned a number of books written by him and dealing with various topics of Jurisprudence and which he wrote on the basis of information collected from Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib(A.S.) and Ibn Abbas. He died after 330 A.H.
19. Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Sa'id al-Hafiz.
He is commonly known as Ibn 'Uqdah-Az-Zaidi. Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi has said, <
20. Muhammad bin Al-Askafi.
An-Najashi says, «He is the Shaikh of our friends and their senior. He has a very high position, and is much talked about.»
Ash-Shaikh has said in Al-Fahrist that he is high-ranking, trustworthy and has many reports to his credit. He died in 336 A.H.
21. Abu Ali Muhammad bin Washshah.
He was a freed slave of Abu Tamam Az-Zainabi. Adh-Dhahabi has mentioned him while giving an account of Ibn Abdul Birr in Tadhkiratul Huffaz. He died in 346 A.H.
22. Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Umar.
He is commonly known as Ibn-ul-Ja'abi. He was a teacher of Al-Mufid. Adh-Dhahabi has said about him in Tadhkiratul Huffaz that he has never met a person who memorized the Quran better than Ibn-ul-Ja'abi. He had committed to his memory 400,000 Traditions.He used to give the source and then the text of the Tradition. He quoted authorities and sources in numerous Traditions but never made a mistake. He lost a book-case containing 200,000 Traditions. He said to his slave, «Do not worry about it. There is not a single Tradition among them which is difficult for me to recollect both in text as well as in authorities. He was an expert in the knowledge of the causes of Traditions, of dependable and weak reporters, their dates and lif-accounts. This knowledge finished with him in his age. «Now there is none among the Muslims who can beat him in this respect.»
Ibn-un-Nadim has said that he was one of the greatest Shi'ite scholars. An-Najashi says that he was a great memorizer of the Traditions and a very profound scholar. Ash-Shaikh has mentioned him in his Al-Fahrist as one of those who were the memorizers and critics of the Traditions. He died in 355 A.H.
24. Muhammad bin Junaid.
According to the Rijal of Bahrul 'Ulum Tabataba'i, he and Ibn Abi 'Aquil were the leading figures of the seventh group and that Ibn Abi'Aquil was a step senior to him.
He wrote a book on jurisprudence which is titled as Tahdhib-ush-Shi'ah Li Ahkam-ish-Shari'ah. It spreads over twenty volumes, covering all the topics of Jurisprudence. It has been summarized under the title Al-Ahmadi Fil Fiqh-il-Muhammadi. He has been quoted by many scholars and greatest of the Shi'ite scholars have praised him and his book.
He died during the fourth century.
25. Al-Qadi Abu Hanifah an-Nu'man bin Muhammad al-Misri.
He was a Qadi under the Fatimiun of Egypt. He wrote Kitab-ul-Akhbar Fil Fiqh and Kitab-ul-Iqtisar Fil Fiqh. He has been mentioned by Amir Mukhtar al-Masbahi in his history, who has said about him, «In Jurisprudence, in religion and in nobility, he was superb.» Similarlv, Ibn Zawlaq says that he was extremely accomplished and was scholar who knew every part of Jurisprudence. Among his books, is a volume of the Traditions named Da'a'im-ul-Islam.
He died in 363 A.H.
26. Hasan bin Ali, Abu Muhammad al-Hajjal.
According to An-Najashi, he compiled a voluminous book Al-Jawame' Fi Abwab-ish-Shari'ah. He died during the fourth century.
27.Sudduq, Muhammad bin Ali bin Babawaih al-Qummi.
None among the scholars of Qum compares with him so far as his memory and wide knowledge is concerned. He was a Traditionalist as well as a Jurist. He wrote about three hundred books and treaties with varied subjects and novelty.
He wrote a book Man La Yahdiruhul Faqih on the pattern of Man La Yahdiruhul Talib. Another book is Kitab-ul-Tawhid which gives the Traditions on the issue of Tawhid.
Some other books are:
I) 'Ilal-ush-Shara'i' Lil Ahadith-ul-Mu'allaalah:
ii) Ma'anil Akhbar;
He died in 381 A.H.
Hasan al-Amin,Shorter Shi'ite Encyclopaedia