Famous Shi'ite Jurists and Traditionalists
1. Hafiz Muhammad bin Abdullah Dabiy Naishapuri.
He is usually known as Al-Hahim or Ibn-ul-Bai'a. According to Tadhkiratul Huffaz, he was a great Hafiz, a leading Traditionalist and author.
The author of Tadhkirah then quotes Abdul Ghafir as having said, « Al-Hakim was the leader of the Traditionalists in his age and knew the Tradition upto a point of perfection. I have myself heard my teachers and Shaikhs saying that the most prominent people of his age used to give him precedence over themselves, admitted his superiority and recognized his position of respect. Then he (my Shaikh) exaggerated in his praise and reverence and said that his words were nothing as compared to the excellence and superiority of Naishapuri. He further said that whosoever thinks over his books and his manner of treating the subject in his Amali and his insight into the subject of the Tradition would not heap recognizing his merits and admit him to be superior to all his predecessors and successors and that he makes it impossible for anyone to reach the intellectual height where he was. He lived in perpetual and his age never saw a man like him.
According to the evidence and testimony of As-Sam'ani he was a Shi'ite. He died in 405 A.H.
2. Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin An-Nu'man Al-Ya'rabi Al-Qahtani Al-Baghdadi.
He is known as Al-Mufid as well as Ibn-ul-Mu'allim. He was the Shi'ite Jurist of his age and their master scholastic, debator and scholar in the fields of Usul, Jurisprudence, Traditions, Rijal, Exegesis etc. He has more than two hundred books to his credit including Al-Muqni'ah Fil Figh. He died in 413 A.H.
3.Murtada Ali bin al-Husain.
He was a student of Al-Mufid. Allamah has said in Al-Khulasah that he was a versatile genius, equally proficient in various fields of knowledge including Jurisprudence. Most of his writings have nothing to compare with in the past. On Jurisprudence, he has three well-known books:
i) An-Nasiriyyat which is a commentary on Masa'il by his grand-father An-Nasir;
ii) Al-Intisar which distinguishes the Shi'ites from others;
He died in 436 A.H.
4. Abul Fateh Muhammad bin Ali bin Uthman al-Karakaji.
He is the author of Kanz-ul-Fawaid. He died in 449 A.H.
5. Shaikh Tusi, Muhammad bin al-Hasan.
He is known as Shaikh-ut-Ta'ifah and the Jurist of the Shi'ites. He was a teacher and trainer of many a scholar and has books on various branches of religious studies, which are quite well-known. He was a pupil of Al-Murtada. His books include:
In the last mentioned book, he has given a survey of different issues of Jurisprudence which are mentioned in various books written by Muslims. People have been making use of this book since its publication.
He died in 460 A.H.
6. Sadid-ud-Din Mahmud Ali Al-Humsi Ar-Razi Al-Hilli.
He was the teacher of Fakhr-ud-Din Razi who is a famous Exegesist and commentator of the Holy Qur'an. He is one of the top-ranking Shi'ite Jurists and has his contribution on the ussie of bequest. He died during the sixth century.
7. Muntajib-ud-Din Ali bin Ubaidullah bin al-Hasan bin Babuyah.
He is the writer of Al-Fahrist. He also wrote a book on the virtues and excellence of Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali(A.S.) which is known as Al-Arba'in 'Anil Arba'in. He died after 585 A.H.
8. Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Azdi al-Andulasi al-Gharnati.
Adh-Dhahabi has testified his being a Shi'ite in Tadhkiratul-Huffaz and has said that he wrote a Dictionary, obviously in Al-Hadith, in three volumes, had contributed a lot to knowledge and was quite well versed in Jurisprudence. He died in 663 A.H.
9. Hasan bin Ali bin Dawud al-Hilli.
He is the author of book on Rijal and has many others to his credit relating Jurisprudence, both in prose and verse.
He died during the seventh century.
10. Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Muhammad bin al-Hasan Tusi.
He wrote Fara'id An-Nasiriyyah and Sharh Usul-il-Kafi. He died in 673 A.H.
11. Abul Qasim Ja'far bin al- Hasan bin Yahya bin Sa'id al-Hilli.
He is commonly known as Al-Muhaqqiq. He was a Shi'ite Jurist of proverbial for thorough knowledge. The mujtahid get help from his books and his knowledge of Jurisprudence even our own days. He has written the following books on Jurisprudence:
He also wrote a commentary with explanation on An-Nihayah (of Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi). From among his own books, Ash-Shara'a and Al-Mukhtasar have so often been commented upon and explained.
He died in 676 A.H.
12. Yahya bin Ahmad bin Sa'id al-Hilli
He was a cousin of Al-Muhaqqiq and wrote Jami'ush Shara'a.
He died in 690 A.H.
13. Hasan bin Yusuf bin Ali bin al-Mutahhar al-Hilli.
He is usually known by the title of Al-Allamah. He has various books on Jurisprudence, some of which are:
i)Tadhkiratul Jami'ah, containing the opinions of the Sunnite Jurists.
ii) Al-Mukhtaliful Jami'a, containing the opinions of Shi'ite Jurists;
iii) Al-Muntahi-ul-Jami'a which contains the opinions both the groups;
iv) Nihayatul Ahkam Fi Ma'rifatil Ahkam Wat Tahrir wal Qawa'id which has been so often explained and commented upon by many top-ranking Shi'ite scholars;
v) Al-Irshad which has many commentaries;
vi) Al-Iidah Wat Tabsirah which is an abridgment of Al-Irshad.
He has many other books in explanation of the Traditions. He died in 726 A.H.
14. Muhammad bin al-Hasan.
He was the son Al-Allamah and is commonly known as Fakhr-ul-Muhaqqiqin. Among his books on Jurisprudence are Iidah-ul-Fawa'id Fi Halli Mushkilat-il-Qawa'id and Al-Fakhriyyah Fin Niyyah etc. He died during the eighth century.
15. Muhammad bin Makki al-'Aamili al-Jizzini al-Muttalabi.
He is commmonly known as Ash-Shahid-ul-Awwal.
He is the pride of Jabal 'Aamil. He combined in him the knowledge of Ma'qul and Manqul (Philosophical and rational as well as Reported). He is proverbially known for his insight and knowledge of Jurisprudence. He was the person about whom his teacher Fakh-ul-Muhaqqiqin said. «I benefitted from him more than he did from me.» He received certificates of studies from more than forty Sunnite scholars. He is a famous author whose books are well known, variegated and of excellent standard.
Among his books on Jurisprudece are:
He also collected forty authentic Traditions of the Prophet and explained their difficult points. He was beheaded in Damascus in dire cruelty on being a Shi'ite in 786 A.H.
16. Al-Miqdad bin Abdullah as-Sayyuri al-Hilli.
He is the author of a well-known book At-Tanqih Fil Fiqh. He died in 792 A.H.
17. Shams-ud-Din Muhammad bin Shuja' al-Qattan al-Ansari al-Hilli.
He was a pupil of Al-Miqdad As-Sayyuri and the author of Ma'alim-ud-Din Fi Fiqhi Aali Yasin. We gave got a manuscript copy of this written by the author himself. He died during the Ninth century.
18. Ahmad bin Fahd al-Hilli was a pupil of the pupils of Ash-Shahid.
He is the author of well known book on Jurisprudence, titled Al-Muhadhdhib ul-Bare'u. He wrote many others beside this. His death occurred in 871 A.H.
19.Shaikh Ali bin Abdul 'Aali al-Karaki.
He is also known as Al-Muhaqqiq-uth-Thani which title he shares with the author Ash-Shara'i' and there has been none else to have won this honour. He is the author of Jame'-ul-Maqasid which deals with Jurisprudece. He also wrote a treatise, titled Ar-Risalah al-Ja'fariyyah, on which innumerable commentaries have been written. It has been praised and commended by the Shi'ite scholars as a piece of thorough research. He was the master of his age in Iran during the Safavid Rule there. He died in 937 A.H.
20. Ash-Shaikh Ali bin Abdul 'Aali al-'Aamili al-Maisi.
He is known as Muhaqqiq-ul-Maisi. His treatise of Jurisprudence, titled Ar-Risalsah al-Maisiyyah which is very well known work of his. He was the teacher of Shahid Thani. He died in 933 A.H. and was buried in Siddiq, near Tebnin (Lebanon).
21. Shaikh Ibrahim Al-Qati'i was the author of Al-Munaqidat.
He died in the eighth century.
22. Ash-Shaikh Zain-ud-Din bin Ali al-'Aamili al-Juba'i.
He is called Ash-Shahid-uth-Thani. He was the author of a large number of useful books which are still in vogue. Most prominent of such books id Al-Masalik which received great fame and which was much used by people. He was the first one to write on the Manners and Methods of Education and Learning.
He was also the first among the Shi'ites to write about Dirayat-ul-Hadith (judging the validity of a Tradition of Prophet by means of rational thinking) a separate independent and comprehensive book on this branch of knowledge, although some people had taken a lead over him in originating such kind of a writing. Among such books the first one to come out was Ash-Shuruh-ul-Mazjiyyah. It was not well known among the people.
So he wrote Shuruh-ul-Lum'at-id-Dimishqiyyah, Alfiyyah Fil Fiqh, An-Nafliyyah and Ad-Dirayah. All these books were written in order to give a distinction to the Shi'ite in comparison with the other sects. He also Treatises like Asrar-us-Salate, Khasa'is-ul-Jum'ah, Kashf-ur-Raibah Fi Ahkam-il-Ghaibah, Musakkin-ul-Fu'ad Fi Faqd-il-Ahibbat-i-Wal Awlad, Al-Habwah, Mirath-uz-Zawjah etc. All these books were the foremost in their fields. He martyred on his way to Islambul (Istanbul) for being a Shi'ite and his head was taken to that city. This happened in 966 A.H.
23. Shaikh Husain bin Abdus Samad al-'Aamili al-Harithi al-Hamdani.
He was the father of Shaikh Baha'i and one of the prominent Shi'tie Traditionalists and Jurists. He wrote a commentary and explanation to forty selected Traditons of the Prophet. He died in 984 A.H.
24. Shaikh Hasan bin Zain-ud-Din Shahid-uth-Thani.
He is the author of Al-Ma'alim Fil Fiqh and Muntaqal Jaman Fi Ahadith-is-Sihah-i-Wal Husan. He died in 1011 A.H.
25. Shaikh Muhammad bin Shaikh Hasan (the Author of Al-Ma'alim).
He wrote commentaries on Al-Istibsar and At-Tahdhid as well as on his father's book Al-Ithna' 'Ashariyyah. He also wrote commentaries on Usul-ul-Kafi, Al-Faqih, Al-Mukhtalaf Al-Madarik etc. He died in 1030 A.H.
26. Shaikh Baha-ud-Din Muhammad bin al-Husain al-'Aamili.
He was a Jurist and a Traditionalist as well as a versatile scholar. He was appointed as Shaikh-ul-Islam during the reign the Safavid Emperor Shah Abbas. But he gave up that post and travelled around for thirty years in the garb of dervishes. He wrote an explanation and commentary on forty selected Traditions of the Prophet as well as Al-Habl-ul-Matin and Al-Jami'ul Abbassi which deal with the fields of the Traditions and Jurisprudence. He died in 1031 A.H.
27. Shaikh Hasan bin Ali bin Hasan bin Ahmad al-'Aamili al-Hanini.
He has been mentioned in Amal-ul-Aamil as a Jurist and Traditionalist who was reliable, honest and of great value.
He died in 1035 A.H.
28. Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Mir Damad al-Isfahani.
He was a contemporary of Al-Baha'i and a Jurist who was profound in both the rational and reported branches of knowledge ('Aqliyyah wan Naqliyyah). He died in 1041 A.H.
29. Sadr-ud-Din Shirazi.
He is usually called as Mulla Sadra. He wrote a commentary on Usul-ul-Kafi. He died around 1060 A.H.
30. Mawla Muhammad Taqi al-Isfahani.
He is known as Al-Majlisi Al-Awwal. He was the first person to undertake the work of propagation of the Traditions of the Prophet and connected studies during the Safavid Period. He wrote two commentaries on Al-Faqih. He died in 1070 A.H.
31. Mulla Muhsin Al-Kashani.
He is the author Al-Wafi on the Traditions and Al-Mafatih on Jurisprudence. He has many other prominent books.
He died in 1091 A.H.
32. Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin al-Hurr al-'Aamili.
He is the author of Al-Wasa'il dealing with the Traditions which is very much relied upon by the Shi'ite Jurists. He died in 1104 A.H.
33. Sayyid Hashim bin Sulaiman al-Bahrani.
He was a very profound Traditionalist and the author of many books. He died in 1107 A.H.
34.Allamah al-Majlisi Muhammad Baqir bin Muhammad Taqi al-Isfahani.
He is the author of famous book Bihar-ul-Anwar which is in hundred volumes.He also wrote a commentary on Al-Kafi, titled Mirat-ul-'Uqul, as well as commentaries on At-Tahdhib and other books of Traditions. He died in 1110 A.H.
35. Mawla Abdullah bin Nur-ullah al-Bahrani.
He was a contemporary of Al-Majlisi and author of Al-'Awalim which deals with the Traditions and spreads over 100 volumes. He died in the early eleventh century.
36. Sayyid Ne'matullah bin Abdullah al-Jaza'iri.
He was a pupil of Al-Majlisi and wrote Al-Anwar-un-Nu'maniyah which deals with the Tradition in addition to other books. He died in 1112 A.H.
37. Sayyid Nur-ud-Din bin Ne'matullah al-Jaza'iri.
He was the son of Sayyid Ne'matullah mentioned above and a Jurist-Traditionalist. He died in 1158 A.H.
38. Shaikh Yusuf bin Ahmad bin Ibrahim Darazi al-Ha'iri.
He wrote a book on Jurisprudence title Al-Hada'iq which is a unique book of its kind. He also wrote Ad-Durah An-Najafiyyah and other book. He died in 1187 A.H.
39. Sayyid Abul Hasan Musa bin Haider al-Husaini al-'Aamili.
He was a Jurist-Traditionalist and his school had about 400 students. He died in 1194 A.H.
40. Aqa Muhammad Baqir bin Muhammad Akmal al-Bihbahani.
He was the teacher of many scholars of repute and was one of the prominent figures among the scholars of the Traditions and Jurisprudence, as well as other studies. He died in 1208 A.H.
41. Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi Tabataba'i.
He was a pupil of Aqa Muhammad Baqir and known as Bahr-ul-Ulum and Murabbiy-ul-Fuqaha'. He is the author of a book on Jurisprudence known as Al-Masabih. He also composed a unique poem on this subject. The author of Miftah-ul-Karamah wrote a commentary on Al-Wafi with the help of the notes given by At-Tabataba'i during his discussion on Al-Wafi. He died in 1212 A.H.
42.Shaikh Asadullah bin Isma'il Shushtari al-Kazimi.
He was one of the most figures of his age in the fields of Jurisprudence and Usul. Two of books on Jurisprudence namely, Al-Maqabis and Al-Wasa'il have been printed. He had the eyes of a genius and was greatly followed by his successors. He died in 1220 A.H.
43. Sayyid Muhammad al-Jawwad bin Muhammad al-Husaini al-Aamili.
He was a pupil of Bahr-ul-'Ulum and himself the teacher of the author Al-Jawahir. He wrote Muftah-ul-Karamah Fi Sharh-i- Qawa'id-il-Allamah which is a unique work in the field of Jurisprudence so far as the collection of different opinions and finding their agreements are concerned. He wrote also Sharh-ul-Wafi and Hawashiy-Ur-Rawdah. He died in 1226 A.H.
44. Shaikh Ja'far ibn Shaikh Khidr al-Janaji Najafi.
He was a student of Bahr-ul-'Ulum and a wonder of his age in respect to his deep insight in Jurisprudence. He is the author of Kashf-ul Ghita 'Ann Mahasin-ish-Shari'at-il Gharra', and Sharh-ul-Qawa'id. He died in 1228 A.H.
45. Sayyid Husain ibn Sayyid Abul Hasan Musa al-Husaini al-Aamili.
He was one of the most prominent scholars and Jurists of his age. He died in 1230 A.H.
46.Sayyid Muhsin al-A'riji.
He was called Khatib-ul-Uama' and was also known as Al-Muhaqqiq-ul-Kazimi. He wrote, beside other books, Al-Wasa'il Fil Fiqh. He died in 1231 A.H.
47. Shaikh Muhammad Ali al-A'sam Najafi.
He was one of the Jurists of his age and a pupil of Bahr-ul-Ulum. He died in 1234 A.H.
48. Shaikh Musa bin Shaikh Ja'far Najafi al-Janaji.
He was the Jurist of his age. He died in 1241 A.H.
49. Shaikh Husain bin Muhammad bin Najaf Ali Tabrizi Najafi.
He was one of the prominent Jurists of his age and among its most pious people. He died in 1247 A.H.
50. Shaikh Hasan al-Qubaisi.
He was one of Jurists of his age. He died in 1258 A.H.
51. Shaikh Ali bin Ibrahim al-Aamili al-Kawtarani.
He was one of the prominent scholars of Jabal 'Aamil during his age. He wrote the commentary of the poem of Bahr-ul-'Ulum. He died in 1260 A.H.
52. Shaikh Muhammad Hasan bin Baqir Najafi.
He is the author of a famous book of Jurisprudece, namely, Jawahir-ul-Kalam which is considered to be one of the miracles of its age is relied upon by scholars even in our own times. He died in 1266 A.H.
53.Hafiz Shaikh Muhsin bin Khanfar An-Najafi.
He was one of the prominent scholars of his age. His sudent Sayyid Muhammad al-Hindi has said in his Nazm-ul-Laal that he (Al-Hafiz) used to be very punctilious about the text of the Traditions and used to pick up minor changes in the texts found in Al-Wasa'il. He died in 1270 A.H.
54.Shaikh Murtada bin Muhammad Amin al-Ansari.
He was a prominent Jurist of his age and the author of a number of well-known books on Jurisprudence like Al-Makasib. He died in 1281 A.H.
55. Shaikh Radi ibn Shaikh Muhammad Najafi.
He was a prominent Jurist in his age. He died in 1290 A.H.
56. Sayyid Husain Kohkumri Najafi.
He is also known as Sayyid Husain Turk. He was prominent figure of his age in the field of Jurisprudence. He died in 1299A.H.
57. Shaikh Nuh bin Qasim Najafi.
He was one of the Jurists of his time. He died in 1300 A.H.
58. Sayyid Mahdi Qazwini al-Hili.
He was one of the top ranking Jurist of his age. He died in 1300 A.H.
59.Shaikh Abdullah bin Ali Aal Ne'mah al-'Aamili al-Juba'i.
He was the Jurist of Jabal 'Aamil in his age. He died in 1303 A.H.
60. Shaikh Muhammad bin Ali Aal 'Izzud-Din al-'Aamili.
He was one of the prominent Jurists, teachers and pious people of his age. He died in 1303 A.H.
61.Shaikh Musa bin Amin Aal Shararah al-'Aamili.
He was a Jurist as well as a teacher. He wrote a poem on the subject of Inheritance. He died in 1304 A.H.
62. Mulla Muhammad Irawani Najafi.
He was one of prominent Jurists and teachers of his time.
He died in 1306 A.H.
63. Shaikh Muhammad Husain al-Kazimi Najafi.
He is the author of Hidayatul Anam Fi Sharh-i-Shara''il-Islam. He was a well-known Jurist, teacher and pious person of his age. He died in 1308 A.H.
64. Shaikh Muhammad Hasan bin Yasin al-Kazimi.
He was one of the prominent Jurists of his age. He died in 1308 A.H.
65.Shaikh Zainul Abidin Mazandarani Ha'iri.
He was one of the leading Jurists of his age and one of the
prominent people of his time. He died in 1309 A.H.
66.Sayyid Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi.
He got domiciled in Samara'. He was considered to be the leader of the Shi'ites during his age. He trained most of the Jurists of his time. He was the person who gave a Fatwa (religious verdict) declaring the use of tobacco as a prohibited act, when Shah Nasir-ud-Din gave a monopoly of tobacco to the British. This fatwa forced the British to cancel that monopoly. He died in 1312 A.H.
67.Shaikh Mirza Habibullah Rashti Najafi.
He was one of the top-ranking Jurists, teachers and pious persons of his age. He was a teacher of many a Jurist and the author of a large number of books, relating to Jurisprudence and other studies. He died in 1313 A.H.
68. Mirza Muhammad Hasan Ashtiani Tehrani.
He was one of the top-ranking scholars of Iran and the author of a number of books on Jurisprudence. He died in 1314 A.H.
69. Shaikh Aqa Reza bin Muhammad Hadi al-Hamadhani.
He is the author of Misbah-ul-Faqih. He was one of the prominent Jurists, teachers and pious persons of his age. He was greatly respected by the people both from among the Shi'ites as well as the Sunnites. He died in 1322 A.H.
70.Shaikh Hasan al-Mamaqani Najafi.
He was one of the prominent Jurists of his age and author of a number of books on Jurisprudence. He died in 1323 A.H.
71. Mulla Muhammad Sharabiani An-Najafi.
He was a Jurist and author of books on Jurisprudence. He died in 1323 A.H.
72. Shaikh Muhammad Taha Najaf Tabrizi Najafi.
He was one of the Jurists of his age and was counted among the most pious persons. He wrote a book on Jurisprudence titled Kitab-ul-Insaf. He died in 1323 A.H.
73. Shaikh Mulla Kazim al-Khurasani.
He taught and trained many scholars. Among his books on Jurisprudence is Sharh-ut-Tabsirah. He died in 1329 A.H.
74.Sayyid Hasan Ibrahim died in the year 1329 A.H.
75. Sayyid Najib-ud-Din Fadl Ullah died in 1336 A.H.
76. Sayyid Mahdi al-Haidari died in 1336 A.H.
77. Sayyid Kazim Tabataba'i al-Yazdi.
He was one of the most accomplished Jurists of his age as well as a teacher of great fame. One of his books Al-Urwatul Wuthqa is a remarkable book and got famous for its organisation and division of material in a number of sections. He also wrote Hashiyatul Makasib. He died in 1337 A.H.
78. Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi.
He was of the most prominent Jurists of his age. After the death of Al-Yazdi he became the leader of the Shi'ite Muslims in the world.
He died in 1338 A.H.
79. Shaikh Fath Ullah bin Muhammad Jawwad al-Isfahani.
He was known as Shari'at Mader and became the chief of the scholars after the death of Shirazi. He died in 1339 A.H.
80.Shaikh Mirza Husain Na'ini Najafi.
He was a teacher, head of the school as well as an author.
He died in 1355 A.H.
81 Sayyid Abul Hasan al-Isfahani Najafi.
He died in 1365 A.H.
82. Shaikh Abdul Karim al-Yazdi al-Qummi.
83. Sayyid Husain al-Burujerdi.
He died in 1380 A.H.
Hasan al-Amin,Shorter Shi'ite Encyclopaedia