The Sahabah and the Caliphate
Ibn Abbas's address on Khilafah
He said: Abu Hafs Umar b. Muhammad reported to me from Abu Abdillah Ja'far b. Muhammad al-Hasani, who reported from Isa b. Mehran, who reported from Hafs b. Umar al-Farra, who reported from Abu Muaz al-Khazzaz from Ubaidullah b. Ahmad al-Rab'ai, who said:
While Ibn Abbas addressed the people of Basrah, when he came face to face with them, he said: "O people who are lost and confused about its faith, if you had given precedence to him who Allah had preferred, and if you had kept back him who Allah had kept back, and if you had kept the inheritance and the authority where Allah had kept them, then the share (in inheritance) ordained by Allah would not have devolved upon distant relatives (leaving behind the actual heirs), nor would the Wali of Allah have been deprived; and no two persons would have ever differed about a divine order, nor would the Ummah enter into any disputations about any interpretation of the Book of Allah. So now, have a taste of the evil consequence earned by your disregard, and by your own hands. And those who do injustice shall soon come to know what punishment awaits them."
Mu'awiya's Discussion on Imamah and Khilafa with Abdullah b. Abbas
He said: Abu Ubaiydillah Muhammad b. Imran al-Marzbani reported to me from Muhammad b. Husain al-Jawhaeri, who reported from Ali b. Sulaiman who reported from al-Zubair b. Bakkaar, who reported from Ali b. Swaleh, who reported from Abdullah b. Mas'ab, from his father that Abdullah b. Abbas called upon Mua'wiya b. Abi Sufyan, who welcomed him, and then said:
"O Ibn Abbas, you people wish to restrict Imamat (to yourselves) the way you have been privileged with Prophethood? By Allah, these two will never go together. Your argument about the Caliphate has put people in doubt. You say: 'We are Ahlul Bait of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, then why should the succession to the Prophethood be outside us?' This creates suspicion, for it has a semblance of truth, and a touch of justice. But things are not the way you imagine. The Caliphate has to rotate in various tribes of Quraish according to the general will of the public and the consultation of the selected ones. And we do not find people saying: 'We wish we were ruled by Banu Hashim, for if they did, we would have been better off here and hereinfter.' And if you had stayed away from it yesterday the way you claim, you would have fought for it today. And By Allah, if you had acquired the rulership, O Banu Hashim, then the ill wind of A'd and the thunderbolt of Thamood would not have been worse killer of men than you."
So Ibn Abbas replied (May Allah bless him with mercy): "O Mu'awiya, when you said that we base our argument on the Prophethood to prove our eligibility for Caliphate, then, by Allah, it is of course as you say. For if the Prophethood does not provide eligibility to the succession (Caliphate), what else does?
And when you say that Caliphate and Prophethood do not combine for anyone, then what would say about the verse in which Allah, Most High, Says: 'Do they envy the people for the bounty that Allah has given them by His Grace. Yet We gave the family of Ibrahim the Book, and the Wisdom and We gave them a mighty sovereignty.' (al-Nisa V.54)
So, the Book is the Prophethood, the Wisdom is the Sunnah, the Traditions of the Prophet, and the sovereignty is the Caliphate. And we are the descendants of Ibrahim, and that is why the order remains applicable for us till the Day of Judgement.
As for your claim that our arguments are dubious, then that is not true. Our arguments are brighter than the sun, and more luminous than the moon. The Book of Allah is with us, and the Traditions of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, are within us. And you know that very well, but pride makes you turn away; and you hold your head in haughtiness because we killed your brother, your grandfather, your maternal uncle and your father's brother. Well, do not shed tears over the rotten bones, and upon the souls which are perished in hell-fire; and do not be vengeful for the blood spilled in the way of polytheism, made lawful by unbelief, and is debased by the religion (Islam).
And as for the people who refused to give us preference and turned away from granting us their consensus, be it clear that what they have lost from us is greater than what we have lost from them! In every matter, the truth is established and the untruth is dispelled when the result is obtained.
And as for your pride in this transitory kingdom to which you have ascended by trickery, (remember that even) Pharaoh had such kingdom before you, and Allah destroyed him. O Banu Umayya, what you hold under rule for a day, we may hold it for two days after you; and what you have for a month, we may have it for two months, and if for a year, then we may hold it for two years.
And when you said that if we were the authority, our rule would have been a worse killer of men than the ill wind of A'd and the thunderbolt of Thamood, that statement has been belied by Allah, the Most High, in the Qur'an: 'And We did not send you but as a mercy to all beings.' (al-Anbiya V. 107)
As we are the nearest inmates of the Prophet's household, our mercy over the creatures of Allah is evident; and the torment of your kingdom over the people is there for everyone to see. And after you have gone, the kingdom will be in the hands of your son and your brothers - and that will be a worse killer of people than the fatal wind. Then Allah will avenge through His devotees, and the final success is for the pious."
"Keep my cheek on the ground..." the last words of Umar
He said: Abu Bakr Muhammad b. al-Je'abi reported to me from Abul Husain al-Abbas b. al-Mughairah, who reported from Abu Bakr b. Mansoor al-Ramadi, who reported from Sulaiman b. Harb, who reported from Hammad b. Zaid, from Yahya b. Saeed, from Asim b. Ubaidullah, from Abdul Rahman b. Aban b. Uthman, from his father, from Uthman b. Affan who said:
I was the last to see Umar b. al-Khattab. I called upon him and saw his head on the lap of his son Abdullah, while he was weary. He told his son: "Keep my cheek on the ground." Abdullah refused, so he said: "Keep my cheek on the ground." Abdullah refused, so he said: "Keep my cheek on the ground, you motherless one." So he kept his (Umar's) cheek on the ground, and then Umar said: "O my mother! Woe to me, my mother! I am not forgiven (by Allah)." He went on saying that till he died.
Umar's comments about the Prophet's companions
He said: Abu Hafs Umar b. Muhammad al-Sayrafi reported to me from Abu al-Husain al-Abbas b. al-Mughairah al-Jawhari, who reported from Ahmad b. Mansur al-Ramadi Abu Bakr, who reported from Ahmad b. Swaleh, who reported from Anbasah, who reported from Yunus, from Ibn Shihab, from Ibn al-Mukhramah al-Kindi that:
Umar b. al-Khattab once arrived at an assembly where Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be upon him, and Uthman and Abdul Rehman and Talha and al-Zubair were present. So Umar said: "Does everyone of you aspire to becoming a leader after I have gone?" Al-Zubair replied: "Everyone of us aspires, and believes to be fit for it. What is that you disapprove?" Umar said: "May I not tell you what I think about you?" They remained silent. (Again) Umar said: "May I not tell you about yourselves?" They kept silent. Then al-Zubair said: "Say, despite our silence."
So he (Umar) said: "As far as you, O Zubair, are concerned, you are at your best when pleased and content, and you are at your worst when offended and angry. There is a day when you are a devil, and a day when you are a man. Tell me, who will be the Caliph on the day you turn to be a devil?
And you, O Talha, by Allah, the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, left this world displeased with you.
And you, O Ali, you are a man of inactivity and frivolity.
And you, O Abdul Rehman, you are best qualified for it if the position ever comes to you.
But surely among you there is a man whose faith encompasses the faith of the multitude, and he is Uthman."
Uthman and Banu Umayya
He said: Abul Hasan Ali b. Muhammad b. Habish al-katib reported to me from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Za'farani, who reported from Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Thaqafi, who reported from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Lu'Lui, who reported form Yahya b. al-Mughairah, who reported from Salmah b. al-Fadhl, from Ali b. Sabih al-Kindi, from Abu Yahya, the client of Muaz b. Afra' al-Ansari who said:
Uthman b. Affan once sent for al-Arqam b. Abdillah, who was the treasurer of the Baitul Mal of the Muslims, and said: "Advance me one hundred thousand Dirham." Al-Arqam said: "May I write a promissory note in favour of the Muslims for that?" He said: "What does that concern you, O motherless! You are but a safekeeper!" When Al-Arqam heard that he hastened towards the people and exclaimed: "O People, protect your wealth. I believed that I was a treasurer on your behalf and till today I never knew that I was Uthman's treasurer." Then he left and entered his house.
When Uthman learnt about that, he convened an assembly, climbed the Mimbar and said: "O people, Abu Bakr surely gave preference to Banu Teem over the people, and Umar gave preference to Banu Adi over the people and by Allah, I gave preference to Banu Umayyah over others. And if I were to sit at the gate of the Paradise, authorized to shove Banu Umayyah into it, I would surely do so. Indeed, their wealth is ours, and we will take from it if we need it inspite of the people."
Then Ammar b. Yasir, may Allah bless him with mercy, said: "O Muslim brethren! Be my witness that I do not approve that!" So Uthman said: "Oh, you are here!" Then he climbed down from the Mimbar and began kicking Ammar till he fainted and was carried away senseless to the house of Ummu Salimah. People found it very distressing. Ammar remained unconscious missing that day's noon and evening prayers. When he regained his senses, he said: "Praise be for Allah! From times old, I have been suffering in His way, and for this which has befallen me in my duty towards Allah, I seek justice between me and Uthman on the Day of Judgement from the Honourable Judge" (i.e. Allah).
When Uthman learnt that Ammar was at Ummu Salimah's place, he sent for her and said: "What are these people together with that transgressor (i.e. Ammar) doing at your house? Evict them." (She said): "By Allah, there is no one at my place except Ammar and his two daughters. O Uthman, leave us alone, and use your power wherever else you like. And this is a companion of the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, about to die because of what you have done to him."
He said: Upon hearing this, Uthman repented and sent for Talha and al-Zubair, asking them to go to Ammar and seek his forgiveness. They came (to Ammar) but he turned them down. So they returned (to Uthman) and informed him. Uthman said: "O, Banu Umayyah, O bed of fire, and flies of greed, was it by divine permission that you reviled me and ganged in on the companion of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny?"
When Ammar recovered from his illness, he proceeded towards the Prophet's mosque and there a person announced to Uthman the death of Abu Dharr at Rabzah. He said: "Abu Dharr at Rabzah met a lonely death, and was buried by the travellers." Uthman said: "To Him we belong, and unto Him shall we return." And then he added: "May Allah bless him with mercy." Then Ammar said: "May Allah bless Abu Dharr with mercy on behalf of everyone of us."
Uthman said: "Again you are here! May you chew your father's genital! Do you think I am repenting for having exiled him?" Ammar said: "No, By Allah, I do not think so!"
He (Uthman) said: "You join the place where Abu Dharr was and remain there as long as we live." Ammar said: "Do so, by Allah, I would love to be in the company of the wild animals, more than to be near you!" Then as Ammar prepared to leave, Banu Makhzum came to Amirul Mo'mineen Ali b. Abu Talib (AS) requesting him to intervene and to ask Uthman to cancel the order for Ammar's eviction. He intervened on their behalf till Uthman responded positively.
Talha and al-Zubair
He said: Abul Hasan Ali b. Khalid al-Maraghi reported to me from Abul Qasim al Hasan b. Ali al-Kufi, who reported from Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Marwan, who reported from his father, who reported from Ishaq b. Yazid, who reported from Sulaiman b. Qaram, from Abu al-Jahhaf, from Ammar al-Duhni, who reported from Abu Uthman, the muezzin of Banu Afsa that he heard Ali b. Abi Talib say when Talha and al-Zubair advanced to fight him:
"What excuse can Talha and al-Zubair have! They swore allegiance to me of their own accord, without any coercion and they broke off without any event." Then he recited the verse: 'And if they break their oaths after their treaty and revile your religion, then fight the leaders of unbelief, for their oaths are worthless, so that you may restrain them.' (al-Taubah V:12)"
They dispute Prophethood and give away Caliphte!
He said: Abul Hasan Ali b. Muhammad al-Basari al-Bazzaz reported to me from Abu Bishr Ahmad b. Ibrahim, who reported from Zakariyya b. Yahya al-Saji, who reported from Abdul Ja'far, from Sufyan, from al-Waleed b. Katheer, from Ibn al-Sayyad, from Saeed b. al-Musayyab who said:
When the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, died, the whole Makkah was shaken with deep sorrow. Then Abu Qahafa said: "What is happening?" They told him: "The Prophet has departed." He said: "Who has assumed authority over people after him?" They told him: "Your son." He asked: "Did Banu Abd Shams and Banu al-Mughaira approve?" They said: "Yes."
He said: "No one can prevent that which Allah bestows and no one can give what Allah takes away. What a surprise! They dispute the Prophethood and easily give the Caliphate! Surely, this seems to have been destined."
Shaddad b. Aws and Mu'awiyah
He said: Abu al-Tayyib al-Husain b. Muhammad al-Tammar reported to me at the Great Mosque of Al-Mansoor during Muharram of 347 Hijra, from Abu Bakr Muhammad b. al-Qasim al-Anbari, who reported from Ahmed b. Yahya, who reported from Ibn al-A'arabi, from Habib b. Basshar, from his father, who reported from Ali b. Asim, from al-Sha'bi who said:
When Shaddad b. Aws called upon Muawiyah b. Abu Sufyan, he honoured and welcomed him, did not reprimand him for his past lapses and gave him good promises of reward. Then one day he invited Shaddad at a public assembly and said: "O Shaddad, stand before people and speak about Ali and revile his so that I know the measure of your love for me."
Shaddad said: "I beg to be excused, for Ali has already gone to his Maker and has been rewarded for his deeds. And you have been sufficiently relieved of your worry about him. Now, the affairs are under your full control because of your generosity, so do not seek from people things which do not behove your magnanimity."
Muawiyah said: "You shall indeed rise to speak, otherwise (our) suspicion about you is established."
Then Shaddad stood up and said: "Praise be to Allah Who made His obedience obligatory upon His servants and placed His Pleasure with the people of Taqwa, who preferred His pleasure over the pleasure of those He created; upon that path have the predecessors gone and upon that path shall the followers go.
O People, the next world is indeed a true promise, a Day on which the Omnipotent King shall judge; and this world has a limited tenure, where every pious and impious eats his share. He who listens and obeys the truth, fears no judgement against him and he who listens and disobeys, expects no judgement in his favour. Surely, when Allah intends good for His servants, He gives them the righteous people to govern them and the learned jurists to decide among them; and places wealth in the hands of the generous among them. And when intends evil for them, He causes the fools to rule over them and the ignorant to decide among them and places wealth in the hands of the misers and niggardly among them.
And for the rulers, the most befitting thing is to have the righteous companies around them. O Muawiyah, whoever displeases you for the truth, he is your good advisor and whoever seeks your pleasure by ways which are untrue, he deceives you. I have indeed, given you a good advice in whatever I have said already and I will not deceive you by saying to the contrary."
Muawiyah said: "Sit down O, Shaddad." So, he sat down. Then Muawiyah said: "I ordered for you enough wealth to make you self-sufficient. Am I not among those generous who Allah has blessed with abundance, for the sake of the welfare of His creation?" Shaddad said: "If the wealth you possess belongs to you, to the exclusion of what belongs to the Muslims and (if) you earned and spent it in legitimate ways, after having amassed it so that it may not be squandered, then, of course, yes. And if the wealth you have, belongs to you jointly with the Muslims and you deprived them from having access to it; amassing it in abundance and then spending it excessively, then Allah, Most High, says: 'Verily, the extravagants are the brothers of the Devils' (Al-Asra' V.27)." (Upon hearing this) Muawiyah said: "I believe you have gone mad, O Shaddad! (Then turning to his people, he said), "Give him what we have set aside for him, so that he may reach his people before he gets totally demented."
Shaddad rose on his feet saying: "Someone else, other than me, has lost his sanity to his desires." He then left, without taking anything from Muawiyah.
"How is that you are prone to disobedience after I have gone?"
He said: Abul Hasan Ahmed b. Muhammad al-Hasan b. al-Waleed reported to me from his father, from Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Saffar, from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa, from al-Hasan b. Mahboob, from Abu Jameelah, from Aban b. Taghlib, who reported that:
Abu Abdillah Ja'far b. Muhammad, peace be upon him said: The Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, learnt that a group among the Quraish was saying: "Muhammad thinks that he has firmly connected this matter (of succession after him) with his Ahlul Bait, but when he dies, we shall snatch it away from them and place it among others." The Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, came to them and addressed: "O people of Quraish, how is that you are prone to disobedience after I have gone? Do you wish to see me with a detachment of my companions hitting your faces and necks with the sword?"
Then Jibraeel, peace be upon him, descended and said: "O Muhammad! Your Sustainer sends you peaceful greetings and commands: "Say, Allah willing, and Ali b. Abi Talib." The Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, said: "Allah willing, and Ali b. Abi Talib, who will attend to that among you."
Miqdad and Uthman
He said: Abul Hasan Ali b. Bilal al-Mahlabi reported to me from Ali b. Abdillah al-Isfehani, who reported from Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Thaqafi who reported from Yusuf b. Saeed al-Arhabi, who reported from Ubaidullah b. Musa al-Abasi, from Kamil, from Habib b. Ibn Abi Thabit, who said:
When the people entered the house for consultation (al-Shura), al-Miqdad b. al-Aswad al-Kindi - may Allah bless him with mercy, said: "Allow me in with you for I am sincere and faithful to Allah and I have something good for you." They refused. Then he said: "Allow me to enter my head and listen to me." They refused even that. Then he said: "If you do not allow me, then (let me advise that) do not swear allegiance to the one who has not witnessed (the battle of) Badr, and who was not present at the allegiance of al-Ridhwan and was routed on the day of Uhud, when the two groups met."
Uthman said: "By Allah, if the authority is given to me, I shall indeed, send you back to your first lord." And when al-Miqdad was dying, he said: "Inform Uthman that I am being returned to my first and the last lord!" When Uthman learnt of his death, he came to his grave and said: "May Allah bless you with mercy, you were (good), in spite of what you were (i.e. my opponent)!" Then he praised him. (Upon hearing this) al-Zubair said (to Uthman): "I will let you know me (better) after death, when you lament over me, while during my lifetime, you did not allow me my subsintence."
He (i.e. Uthman) said: "O Zubair, you say this? Do you think I like to see such a companion of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, die while he is resentful against me?"
Uthman argues with Ayesha
He said: Abul Hasan Ali b. Muhammad al-Katib reported to me from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Za'farani, who reported from Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Thaqafi, who reported from al-Hasan b. al-Husain al-Ansari, who reported from Sufyan, from Fudhail b. al-Zubair, who reported from Farwah b. Majashe, from Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Ali, peace be upon him that:
Ayesha called upon Uthman and said: "Grant me what my father and Umar b. al-Khattab used to grant me." He (i.e. Uthman) said: "I do not see any status for you in the Book nor in the (Prophet's) Traditions. Surely, both your father and Umar b. al-Khattab, granted you (extra favours) because of their obliging nature, but I shall not do it."
She said: "Then give me my inheritance from the Prophet of Allah". He said: "Did you not come to me, with Malik b. Aws al-Nasri, to give witness that the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, does not bequeath; till you deprived Fatimah from her inheritance and nullified her right? How come you are claiming inheritance today from the Prophet?" She left him and went away.
And when Uthman appeared for the prayers, she raised the Prophet's shirt on a cane and exclaimed: "Surely, Uthman has contradicted the owner of this shirt and has abandoned his Tradition."
Miqdad and Abdurahman b. Awf
He said: Abul Hasan Ali b. Muhammad al-Katib reported to me from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Za'farani, from Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Thaqafi, from Muhammad b. Ali, who reported from al-Husain b. Sufyan, from his father, who reported from Lut b. Yahya, who reported from Abdul Rehman b. Jandab, from his father who said:
When people swore loyalty to Uthman, I heard al-Miqdad b. al-Aswad al-Kindi - may Allah bless him with mercy, say to Abdul Rahman b. Awf: "O Abdul Rahman, I never saw the like of this befell the Ahlul Bait after their Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny)." So Abdul Rahman said: "O Miqdad, what does that concern you?"
He said: "By Allah, I love them because of the Prophet's love for them; and it pains me when I find myself unable to speak openly. The Quraish enjoyed superiority over others because of the nobility of Ahlul Bait and yet they have united to snatch away from them the authority of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny)". Abdul Rahman replied: "Woe unto you, by Allah! I tried my best for you!" Miqdad said to him: "By Allah, you have abandoned a man who is from among those who enjoin the truth and through that, they act with justice. By Allah, if I had some helpers against the Quraish, I would have fought them the way we fought at Badr and Uhod."
Abdul Rahman said: "May your mother mourn you, O Miqdad, let no one hear from you this talk; by Allah, I fear that you may become a perpetrator of factions and disturbance."
Jundab says: I called upon him after he had left the place and told him: "Miqdad, I am one of your helpers." He said: "May Allah bless you with mercy; what we need cannot be accomplished by two men or three." So I left him and came to Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be upon him, and related to him what Miqdad and I had said. He prayed for us.
The secret of Mo'awiyah
He said: Abu Ubaidullah Muhammad b. Imran al-Marzbani reported to me from Abu Abdillah Muhammad b. Ahmed al-Hakimi, who reported from Ismail b. Ishaq al-Qadhi, who reported from Saeed b. Yahya, from Muhammad b. Saeed, who reported from Abdul Malik b. Umair al-Lakhmi, that:
Once Jariya b. Qudamah al-Sa'di called upon Mo'awiyah; and upon the throne, there were al-Ahnaf b. Qais and al-Habbab al-Majashee sitting next to him. Mo'awiyah said: "Who are you?" He replied: "I am Jariya b. Qudamah. (And he was among the nobles). Mo'awiyah said: "May be so, but are you anything but a (stinging) bee?"
He said: "O Mo'awiyah, do not do that! You have compared me to a bee. By Allah, it has a strong sting, but a sweet spit. While, by Allah, Mo'awiyah is nothing but a female dog howling at other dogs! And Umayyah is nothing but a diminutive of Amah - a house maid."
Mo'awiyah said: "Do not do that!" He said: "You did it and so I did also."
Mo'awiyah said: "Come closer to me and sit with me on the throne." He said: "I will not do that." Moawiyah said: "Why?" He replied: "For I see that these two have occupied your seat and removed you from your place. I would not like to join them." Mo'awiyah said: "Come closer so that I may share with you a secret." So he drew closer, and Mo'awiyah told him, "O Jariya, I have bought from these two their faith." He said: "Then buy from me, O Mo'awiyah." Moawiyah said: "Do not speak loudly."
Mughairah and Ammar
He said: Abu Abdillah Muhammad b. Dawood al-Hatmi reported to me by way of authorization (to report from him) from Abu Bakr Abdullah b. Sulaiman b. al-Asha'th, who reported from Ahmad b. Muhammad Abdan, who reported from Ibrahim al-Harbi, who reported from Saeed b. Dawood b. (Abu) Zanbar who said:
Malik b. Anas reported to me from his uncle Abu Suhail b. Malik, from his father who said: When Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be upon him, rose to leave Madinah for Basrah, I was standing with al-Mughairah b. Sha'bah, when Ammar b. Yasir, may Allah be pleased with him, approached him and said: "O Mughaira, do you have an intention to do something for Allah, Most High?" He said: "And where is that for me, O Ammar?"
He (i.e. Ammar) said: "Join this call (to the war) so that you may be with those who have gone before you, and lead those who are behind you."
Al-Mughaira said: "O Abu Yaqdhan (i.e. Ammar), how about something better than that?" Ammar replied: "And what is that?"
He (i.e. Mughaira) said: "We enter the (privacy of) our homes and shut our doors, till the dust settles and the situation is clear. Then we come out and see. Let us not be like the one who broke the chain so that he may laugh (happily) and instead, he fell into anguish."
Ammar said: "Far from what you expect! Do you want to act ignorant after knowing the truth, and resort to blindness in spite of having discerned? But listen! by Allah, you will not see me, but at the forefront."
He said: Then Amirul Mo'mineen, peace be upon him, appeared and he asked: "O Abu Yaqdhan! What does this one-eyed man tell you? Surely, he is always busily engaged in mixing the truth with untruth and misinforms. He has no relation with the religion except in matters, which conform with the worldly gians. Woe unto you, O Mughairah, this calls leads everyone who joins to Paradise."
Al-Mughairah said: "You are right, O Amirul Mo'mineen. But if I do not join you, I will never be against you."
Ibn Abbas on Khilafah
He said: Abul Mudhaffar Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Balkhi reported to me from Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Abul-Thalj, who reported from Abu Abdillah Ja'far b. Muhammad al-Hasani, who reported from Isa b. Mahran, who reported from Hafs b. Umar al-Farra, who reported from Abu Muaz al-Khazzaz, who reported from Yunus b. Abd al-Warith, from his father who said:
Once Ibn Abbas was addressing us from the pulpit at Basrah. When he turned his face towards the people and said: "O group of people, bewildered in their religious affairs! If you had given precedence to he who Allah had given precedence, and put back he who Allah had put back, and if you had kept the heritage and the authority where Allah had kept them, no part of divine determinate share would have been unfairly distributed, and no friend of Allah would have been humiliated, and no two persons would have differed on the law of Allah. So taste the evil consequence of your negligence about what you sent forth, and those who do wrong shall come to know what punishment awaits them."
Ubaidullah b. Abbas and Mo'awiyah
He said: Abul Hasan Ali b. Muhammad al-Katib reported to me from al-Hasan b. Abdul Karim al-Za'farani, who reported from Abu Ishaq b. Muhammad al-Thaqafi, who reported from Ja'far b. Muhammad al-Warraq, who reported from Abdullah b. al-Azraq al-Shaybani, who reported from Abu al-Jahhaf, from Mo'awiyah b. Tha'labah who said:
When Mo'awiyah found himself fully entrenched in his rule, he sent Busr b. Artat to Hejaz, to hunt for the Shias of Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be upon him. At that time, Ubaidullah b. al-Abbas governed Makkah. He (i.e. Busr) summoned him, but could not find him. Then he was informed that Ubaidullah had two infant sons. So he set out to reach them, and when he found them - they had two (tender) forelocks (shining) like pearls - he ordered to kill them. When their mother came to know this, her grief put her on the verge of death. At that moment, she said:
"Ah! Who has heard about my two dear sons,
who were like two pearls torn from their oyster!
Ah! Who has known about my two dear sons,
who are my ears, my eyes! My heart today feels wrenched.
I am informed that Busr (did it),
but I cannot believe what they thought (of us)
from (what I hear about) their speech and the falsehood they contrived.
So the sharp sword fell on the throat of my two little ones,
that indeed is tyranny and immoderation,
Who showed love to the two tormented
infants who had lost their progenitor."
He said: Then once Ubaidullah b. al-Abbas met Mo'awiyah while Busr b. Artat was present. Mo'awiyah said: "Do you recognize this old man who killed the two infants?" Busr said: "Yes, I killed them, so what?" Then Ubaidullah said: "I wish I had a sword." Busr said: "Here is my sword," pointing to his own sword. Mo'awiya scolded him saying: "Woe unto you! What makes you a fool in spite of your old age! You trust a man whose two sons you killed, and give him your sword? Perhaps you do not know the courage of Banu Hashim? By Allah, if you gave it to him, he could kill you first, and then I would be the next." Ubaidullah said: "On the contrary, by Allah, I would begin with you (O Mo'awiyah) and he (i.e. Busr) would be the next."
Admonitions by Ibn Al-Abbas
He said: Abul Hasan Ali b. Muhammad b. Hubaish al-Katib reported to me from al-Hasan Ibn Ali al-Za'farani, from Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Thaqafi, from Habib b. Nasr, from Ahmad b. Bashir b. Sulaiman, from Hisham b. Muhammad, from his father Muhammad b. al-Saeb, from Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Yamani, from Ikramah, who said:
I heard Abdullah b. Abbas telling his son Ali b. Abdillah that: "Let knowledge be the treasure you amass; and be more jubilant because of that, than treasuring pink gold. For I am entrusting to you an advice which if you heed, then Allah will combine for (the success in) your affairs in this world and the next.
Do not be of those who hope for the hereafter without any deeds, and procrastinated seeking repentance because of prolonged hope. He speaks in this world like an ascetic, but acts like the one inclined. If given something in it, he is never content, and if favoured, he is never satisfied. He is unable to thank for what has been given, and desires to get from what is remaining. He enjoins but does not practice it, claims to love the righteous, but does not act the way they do, and pretends to hate the ignorant, while he is one of them. He says: 'I do not act and suffer hard work, why should I not rest and hope?' So he hopes to be forgiven while he is engaged in disobedience (to Allah).
He has lived in it (i.e. the world) long enough to remember the admonitions. And for the bygone, he says: 'Had I worked and built, it would have been my asset'; and as for the remaining days, he goes on disobeying his Lord without any scruple. If struck by illness, he does not repent for not having acted, and if recovers, he feels secure and conceited and then delays further to act. He is self-conceited when healthy, and despondent when afflicted. If favoured, be becomes insolent, and when granted in plenty, he ruins (himself). His mind deludes him in matters which are doubtful (i.e. the worldly affairs), and does not overcome him in matters which he knows as certain (i.e. death and hereafter). He has no trust in the sustenance, which has been guaranteed for him and is not content with his share. He does not show willingness before he toils, and does not toil for which he is inclined. If he finds himself self-sufficient he becomes wanton and arrogant, and if he becomes poor he loses hope. He hopes for more without being content, and wastes from himself that which is more. He fears death because of his own evil deeds yet does not abandon the evil in his life. When desires tempt him, he falls into sins and then hopes for forgiveness, and when told to act for the hereafter he resists. When supplicating, he exaggerates his keenness, but when it comes to act, he is remiss. He is insistent when seeking favours, and is deficient when it comes to act. Rushes into the worldly affairs tiring himself to indisposition, and when he recovers, engages in errors with negligence.
He fears death, but does not care about the missed opportunity. When he sees the little sins of others, he feel concerned about it, but for himself, he is hopeful without any deeds. He censures others, and at the same is self-congratulating. He prefers to be trusted when pleased, and adopts dishonesty when displeased. If he is healthy or recovers from illness, he believes he has been pardoned and if he is taken ill, he covets health and then repeats (his evil deeds). He neither stands at night (for prayers) nor does he pass his day fasting. A day breaks and he worries about his lunch, and an evening falls and he thinks of dinner. Those above him seek refuge with Allah from his evil (intentions) and those below him are not safe from him in spite of the refuge. When he hates, he ruins himself in going to its extreme, and does not fall short when he loves. Little things upset him, and on having plentiful, he transgresses. He wants to be obeyed, while he remains disobedient. May we turn to Allah for help!"
A letter from Ibn Hanafiyyah to Ibn Abbas
He said: Abu Ubaidullah Muhammad b. Imran al-Marzbani reported to me form Abul Hasan Ali b. Abdul Rahim al-Sajistani, from his father, from al-Hasan b. Ibrahim, from Abdullah b. Asim, from Muhammad b. Bishr, who said:
When Ibn al-Zubair expelled Ibn Abbas - may Allah bless him with mercy, to al-Taif, Muhammad b.al-Hanafiyyah, may Allah bless him with mercy, wrote to him: "I am informed that Ibn al-Kahiliyya has driven you out to al-Taif. That way Allah, Most High may exalt your name, and grant you great reward, and lift from you the burden. O brother, (in this world) the trials are for the righteous, and blessings of honour are conferred upon the virtuous. If your reward were to be only in the things you like, then your rewards would be be too few. For Allah says (in the Qur'an): '... and you may dislike a thing which is good for you.' (2:216). And I have no doubt that the situation you are in is good for you in the sight of Allah. May Allah grant you great patience in this adversity, and enable you to be grateful for (His) bounties. Surely, He has power over all other things."
When the letter reached Ibn Abbas, he replied: "Your letter has reached me, in which you consoled me on whatever has happened to me, seeking your Lord to exalt my name. Surely, He has power to augment the reward, and to benefit by His favours and to grant more of goodness. I do not like the treatment meted to me by Ibn al-Zubair any more than had it been perpetrated by the enemies of mankind, and thus increase my reward. Nor did I expect to earn my Lord's pleausre through his efforts.
O my brother! The world has indeed turned its back and the hereinafter has shadowed. So perform good deeds. May Allah count you and me among those who fear Him, the Unseen, and who act to earn His pleausre, publicly or in privacy. Surely, He has power over all."
Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid