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Hydrology or Water Cycle in the Holy Qur'an

 By:  Khaja Zakir Hussain M.Sc. B.Ed.
Raichur, Karnataka State, India

    Water is the basic component of each and every living organism the concept of its balance in the environment is the important point to be think. Certain old secular concepts and divine revelations are as follows:

   Secular Concepts:
1. “Water could have come from the infiltration of precipitations in the soil.”
2. Under the effect of winds oceans water were drive towards the interior of the   continents.        
3. According to Aristotle water vapour from the soil condensed in cool mountain cave     and formed underground reservoir that fed fountains.
4. In the year 1580 Palissy clarified the concept of water cycle he claimed that underground water came from rain water infiltrating into the soil, this is the most acceptable and confirmed concept.

 Quranic concepts:
 “ We (Allah) send down water from the sky in measure an lodged it in the ground and we certainly are able to withdraw it “ (Sura 23, 18-19 Verses) the above verses are explaining the complete water cycle i.e., water fall, penetration of water in the soil and evaporation phenomenon.
   “ Allah is the one who sends forth the winds which rised up the clouds he spreads them in the sky as he wills and breaks them into the fragments then thou seest raindrops issuing from within them (Sura 30, Verse 48) "
   The above verses clarify the processes of evaporation, condensation, fragmentation and rain-cycle.
   “ We send for the winds that fecundate. We cause the water to descend from the sky we provide you with the water you could not be the guardian of its reserves (Sura 15, 22 Verse) “
   The above Ayat gives two possible interpretations, fecundating winds may be wind pollination to fertilize the plants or role of winds which convert non-rain carrying cloud into shower of rain. With the help of above verses 18,19 and 48 we could conclude the following imaginery water cycle.
   (This cycle is based on verses 18,19 and 48)
   The Ayyat 18 & 22 of Sura 23 and Sura 15 respectively states that the water in the form of rain collects on earth and penetrates into the soil. We (Allah) certainly are able to withdraw it, here withdraw means evaporation of water and formation of clouds with the processes of condensation, this is carried out by winds, further water is fragemented into rain drops. With this dead land converts into living green plants. We (Allah) cause pure water to descend in order to revive a dead land (Sura 25, 48 & 49 Ayyat).
References:
1. The Holy Quran
2. Geology by Verma

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