Short History of Ray City
The historical city of Ray is located in the south-east of Tehran about 6 km away from it.In its antiquity it was the contemporary of ancient cities of Neinawa and Babel and was one of the most important Islamic countries during first centuries of Islam. No city in the Islamic world could compete with it, except Baghdad and Neyshabour. Ray should be considered rightfully, the mother of Tehran city.
The main center of this ancient city has been located around Cheshmeh(spring) Ali. There are hills near this spring, which are very ancient. As a result of achaeological excavations and findings, the hidden monuments among the mentioned hills indicate an ancient civilization. During achaeological excavations carried out in 1935 in southern side of Cheshmeh Ali mountain and lands over looking Safaiyah garden, some painted earthenware vessels were found which were related to four to six thousands years ago.It has been verified that civilized people lived near this old spring and these were the first ancient people of Ray area.
The Geography of Ray
The eastern longitude of Ray is 51 degrees and 25 minutes, and its latitude is 35 degrees and 38 minutes to the Greenwich origin. According to old zone division system, Ray was known as fourth zone which is a superior land. Historians and geographers have told some points which are as follows:
Istakhri says in "Al-Masalek wal Mamalik": it is a city with an area of 9 kms in 9 kms. And in another part he says: "The length of the city is 9 kms and its construction is made of clay" Ibn Khofel has written in "Surat al-Arz" the area of the city is 9 kms and half. And in another place, he has mentioned:Ray is the largest city in region of Daylam and Tabarestan and its length is measured 9 kms and half. He has mentioned in the same book that"And I say that Ray is in the form of a great square". This ancient part of Ray city was located in the south of Bibi Shahrbanu mountain.
Basically,the width of ancient city of Ray is divided into old and new parts,the ancient Ray city and the Ray city built in the Islamic era.The ancient or Ray city before Islam",is that part of Ray which was located in south of Cheshmeh Ali among huge and great rampart which had been built before Islam and was mentioned as "Ulya(upper)Ray" and gradually extended in the south-eastern part. The second part of Ray city built during the Islamic era,is that part which been founded in the south-east of the ancient part and south of Bibi Shahrbanu mountain and was called as "Barrin Ray"(Lower Ray) and a vast moat was dug around it.
Ray City Mentioned in the Religious Books
Torah(the Old Testment):Ibn Faghih has narrated about this subject that"in Torah it is written that Ray is one door of the Earth and the people of the world go there for their commercial affairs.
Avesta(Zoroastrians' holy book):Ray city was famous base of the Zoroastrian priests and the religious center of Zoroastrians before Islam.It was considered their holy city for some historians believed Zoroaster's mother was a native of Ray.The Ray city is mentioned in Avesta as "Reyeh". The name of Ray in Bistun epigraph has been written as "Reya" in second column,line 13 and in third column,first line.
The Historical Names of Ray
The name of Ray in Torah has been written as "Rax" and "Rajs","Reyeh"in Avesta and "Reya" in Bistun epigraph.In the Sasanid period it was called as Ray,Ray Ardeshir,Ram Ardeshir and also Ram Firooz. In Islamic period during the era of Mansur Davaniqi,the eastern half of Ray city was built in the south of Bibi Shahrbanu mountain by his son Mahdi.Mahdi dug a moat around it and built a grand mosque in 158 A.H. and also erected a fortress in the north of the city and called this complex as Muhammadiyah. It was also famous as "Madinah"(city).
The Climate of Ray
The water of the city is plentiful.Yaqubi has written in Mujam al- Baldan: "the drinking water of the city is supplied by numerous springs and great rivers." The climate of Ray is fine and pleasent in spring,warm in summer,evaporative in autumn and snowy in winter.
The fine spring weather of Ray was a proverb in old time,so that Ibn Faghih has mentioned in''Mokhtasar al-Baldan'' that it has been said one should spend the winter in Baghdad, the spring in Ray, the autumn in Hamadan and the summer in Isfahan".Because of fine spring season and moderate weather the Ashkanids chose Ray as their spring capital.
Streams and Canals of Ray
As mentioned before, the water of Ray is plentiful but because it pushes through brooks, it becomes dirty and polluted. The water of the city had three sources: streams, canals and wells. The most important streams and canals are as follows, Surin stream or small river(present Cheshmah Ali) and this river passes through Ray Bazaar (Rood Bazaar). Jaylami or Gilan stream passes through ''Sarebanan''(camel-drivers) Bazaar and this stream reaches Jaylabad of Ray which is located in the east of the city presently called ''Aminabad''.
The Important Aqueducts of Ray
The Shahi,the Nasrabad,the Abdul-Wahhab and the Ghorshim aqueducts.
The Divisions of Ray City
The great historical city of Ray has divisions because of its development in different periods of history.
Ray is divided into two parts,the ancient old Ray and the Ray built in the Islamic period.Ray of the Islamic period was divided into three parts:
1-The downtown Madinah(city):This was applied to that part which Mahdi Abbasi had founded in the eastern side of the previous buildings in ''Barrin Ray''.The present Taqiabad and parts of Aminabad and also some parts of side lands are located in this area. The Mahdi mosque is in the north of downtown of the city.
2-The Kohandej(old fortress): It had been erected in the north of Madinah and the south of Ray mountain is connected to it.
3-Rebz Bazaar: Except Madinah and Kohandej all other places were included in ''Rebz'',which consisted of the Barrin Ray (the old city and present Ray city),Mardavich-Jaylabad(the present Aminabad) and also the southern parts of city.Transactions and dealings were done in Rebz Bazaar.
The Main Places of Ray
The quarters of Ray city are:Baton,Palangran,Jaylabad(or Gilabad),Dar Rashnan,Dar Shahrestan,Dar Abbas,Dar Kandeh,Dar Masslahyah,Dar Vazneh Jaroob Bandan,Dyrineh-Ghobeh,Rooyin,Zamehran, Zaafaran Juoy,Sarebanan,Sarayeh,Eyalateh Syzin,Shafeeieh Fakhrabad,Fellyyan(or Beliyan), Kolahdoozan,Kooyeh Isfahanian,Kooyeh Firoozeh,Mehdiabad,Nahak,Nasrabad and Mashhad Amir al-Muminin.
Alleys and Streets
The alleys and streets in Ray are Kuche Hanzaleh,Dynar,Sassan,Almavali,Soofi,Dar Bazzar-e-Roodeh(Hasan Sabbah's house was located here),the street of Serkeh was famous in the second and third centuries of Hijrah,the street of Sarebanan.
Bazaar of Bab al-Jabal,Bab al-Seen,Bab al-Usham,Balayan,Chahar Suq(or four markets), Bazaar of New Dehak,Bazaar of Roodeh which was more flourishing than the other markets.Bazaar of Sarebanan(camel-drivers),Bazaar of Narmeh which is attributed to Narmak Diyeh and Bazaar of Nasrabad.The bazaars were mostly open and without ceiling.
The Ahanin Darvazeh(the iron gate) through which people went to Iraq and Baghdad.Darvazeh Bliyan which was located some where around present Jawanmard Ghasab through which people went to Ghazvin city.Darvazeh Jaroob Bandan,Bab al-Harab,Hanzaleh, Khorasan,Dar Zamehran,Bab al-Seen,Bab al-Sabrin,Darb Abbas,Dar Ghanab,Dar Kandeh Darvazeh Kuhin through which people went to Tabarestan(present Mazandaran province), Bab al-Madinah or Dar Shahrestan,Dar Masslahgah and Darvazeh Qeshan where through which people went to Khorasan province.
The Mosques and Mosallas(Prayers Buildings)
The oldest mosque was located inside Fassil or Kohandej(old fortress)and Friday prayers was held there.Its place has been apparently near present Naghareh Khaneh mountain.The other mosques in Ray are:Jamea Roodeh,Jamea Sarhang Savotkin,Jamea -Tughril.This mosque of the Hanafite Sunni Muslims of Ray city and other buildings were erected by Seljukian Tughril.As narrated in the book: Al Naghs ''this mosque was so great that twenty thousands persons could listen the preachings there.'' The mosque of Abdul Rahmaneh Nayshaboori,the mosque of Hanzaleh,the mosque of Shajareh(al-Shajareh in old Ray) near the Shajareh cemetery were Hadrat Abdul Azim(A.S.) was buried and the Al-Ghoray mosque.
The Houses of Ray
According to the sourcess,the houses were built mainly with mud bricks and clay,and also stucco plaster and bricks.''the people of Ray built their houses underground and made their house entrances,dark and black and difficult to enter because their enemies use to infiltrate their houses by force.
Mawlana Jalaluddin Rumi(Moulavi) has mentioned this point in Divan-e-Shams: There be homes for homeless lovers in my town and those homes in the earth like ones in Ray.All those lovers built the houses of their own underground like the town of Ray.
The Schools and Libaries
Ray was the holy city of Zoroastrians before the advent of Islam.
In Islamic era,science and technology were current and prevalent in this city.It also became the capital city in the Buwayhid and Seljukian periods.The culture and knowledg reached its perfection in this city.
Many grand libraries and famous schools were founded and different sciences such as medicine,astronomy,philosophy,religious jurisprudence werew thaught at advanced levels.In Ray,the world famous library of Saheb al-Ibad had a great treasure of books and the number of books in this library was even more than the books present in all the libraries in Europe at that time.
The Schools of Ray
The school of Zahed Abul Futuh in place of Darvazeh Ahanin(the Shi'ites quarter) was established in the era of Malek Shah. The great school of Sayyid Taj al-Din Muhammad Kayki in place of Kolahdoozan(the Shi'ites quarter) has been built in the time of Tughril. The school of Shams al-Islam Babawaih,the school of Shaykh Haydar Makki,the school of Shah Ghazi,this school was been built in the quarter of Zamehran by King Ghazi Rustam and was one of the famous schools of the Shi'ites,the school of Khajah Moradi,the school of Khale Abul Jabbar Mufid,the school of Abul Jalil Razi(the owner of the book Al-Naghs) was built in last years of Seljukian period. The school of Faqih Ali Jasti,the school of Kooyeh Firoozeh,the school of Sultan Muhammad,the school of Mohammad Qutb Ravandi,the school of Vazanian which was one of the main schools of the Sunnis and the school of Zaydis who were living in Ray.
The Libraries of Ray:
The library of Sharf al-Din Muhammad,the library of Madrasa Rashideh Razi,the library of King Ghazi,the library of Saheb ibn Ibad. It is known that library of Saheb ibn Ibad was the one of the biggest library in the world during that time.Ibn Aseer has written about the great number of books present in this library while mentioning the events of the year 385 A.H.''He gathered so many books that no one except him had done before,and he needed four hundered camels to carry them. ''He has also described the number of the books in Saheb ibn Ibad's library as ''the master pieces of Iranian art''.Ibn Aseer quotes as follows. ''the number of the books available in personal library of a person like Saheb ibn Ibad was more than all books preserved in the libraries throughout Europe and it included a great number of excellent manuscripts and magnificient illuminated books. In the library of Saheb ibn Ibad 217000 volumes of books were preserved and all were hand written because the print industry had not been invented yet.
The Religion of People in Old Ray
A)Pre-Islam: Before the prevalence of religion of Zoroaster,the people of Ray followed the Magi rite.Ray was their central place and inhabited by them.
B)After Islam: The people of this city accepted Islam gradually after the city was liberated by Muslim warriors.In the beginning its inhabitants were Sunni Muslims but when schools of jurisprudence appeared they followed Shia Imamia,Hanafi and Shafaee schools of jurisprudence.
The Historical and Religious Places
These historical and religious places can be divided into two parts: The first parts are those which are still existing. The second parts are traces which have collapsed and nothing has been remained of them except some ruined walls and remains.
The First Part:Existing Places
1-The holy shrine of Hadrat Abdul Azim Hasani (A.S.).
Hadrat Abdul Azim Hasani(A.S.) was born in 173(A.H.) in the sacred city of Madinah and 79 years of his fruitful life was simultaneous with the periods of four infallible Holy Imams(A.S.) i.e Imam Musa al-Kazim(A.S.),Imam Reza(A.S.),Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad(A.S) and Imam Ali un-Naqi al-Hadi(A.S.).He enjoyed the holy presence of these Imams and narrated numerous hadiths(traditions) from them.
He was the great grandson of Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba(A.S.),the second holy Imam of the Shi'ites.He possessed complete knowledge of the religious sciences and the Holy Qur'an.He is considered as one of the leading Shi'ite theologian and the narrator of the traditions of the Infallible Imams(A.S).
The Infallible Imams(A.S.) has complemented and appreciated the scientific and trustworthy character of Hazrat Abdul Azim Hasani(A.S.).
The tenth holy Imam Hadrat Imam al-Hadi(A.S.) some times referred those who had questions and problems to Hadrat Abdul Azim(A.S.) who was known and introduced as a real friend and follower by His Holiness.
In the scientific works of prominent Shi'ite Ulama(theologians and traditionists) there are many complements and admirations about him.They addressed him as a devouted worshipper,a gnostic,pious and trusted personality who possessed clear beliefs and an illuminated heart and was one of the greatest narrator(Muhaddith) in the Shi'ite history.
In a tradition from Imam Ali un-Naqi al-Hadi(A.S.) it is stated by the Holy Imam(A.S.) that pilgrimage(Ziyarah) to the grave of Hadrat Abdul Azim Hasani(A.S.) in Ray has the heavenly reward as much as the Ziyarah of the holy grave of Hadrat Sayyid al-Shuhada Imam Husayn(A.S.).
The grounds for which Hazrat Abdul Azim(A.S.) had to take a flight from Madinah to Ray is to be figured out in political and social conditions of that era. The Abbasid caliphs were excessively cruel to the Holy Ahlul Bayt(A.S.) and the Shi'ites of the Holy Imams(A.S.). Mutawakkel, the cruel Abbasid caliph had an intense enimity and hostility towards the Holy Ahlul Bayt(A.S.) and during his period the holy shrine of Imam Husayn(A.S.) was entirely demolished and the pilgrimage to his holy shrine was completely banned.
The Sadaat[the descendants of the Holy Prophet of Islam(S.A.W.)] and the Shi'ites were in the worst situation during that era.Hadrat Abdul Azim(A.S.) was not safe in this situation either. The Abbasids attempted to kill him several times.At this critical condition Hadrat Abdul Azim(A.S.) visited Hadrat Imam Hadi(A.S.) and presented his beliefs and doctrines to him.His Holiness(A.S.) approved his beliefs and said:''You are a friend of ours''.
His visit to Samarrah was reported to Abbasid caliph and he ordered to arrest Hadrat Abdul Azim(A.S.).He decided to remain hidden for sometime.So he traveled to different cities.
The city of Ray was a important Muslim city since the arrival of Islam in Iran. Ray is endowed with such a fertile and rich land that Omar ibn Saad martyred Hadrat Imam Husayn(A.S.) in the tragic event of Karbala because he was promised to be appointed as the governor of Ray.
Both the Sunnis and the Shi'ites lived in Ray during that period.The southern and south-western parts were mainly resided by the Shi'ites. Hadrat Abdul Azim(A.S.) arrived in Ray as an unknown traveler and went to a Shi'ite's house in Sarebanan neighborhood.He lived in a basement for a while and rarely came out of his house.He fasted during the days and prayed at nights.
Only a few of the Shi'ites were informed of his presence in Ray and visited him secretly.They tried not to disclose this matter so that his life should not be endangered.After a while,more people came to know about him and his house became the center of Shi'ites, who took the advantage.of his knowledge and narrations and smelled the fragrance of Holy Ahlul Bayt(A.S.) from his holiness.
Hazrat Abdul Azim was very popular among the Shi'ites in Ray and replied to their religious queries and solved their problems. This shows the outstanding role of Hadrat Abdul Azim(A.S.) and his responsibility on behalf of Hadrat Imam Hadi(A.S) as the Holy Imam's representative.The Shi'ites accepted his sayings because he was the representative of the Holy Imam(A.S.)and the disciples of Holy Ahlul Bayt(A.S.) gathered around him.
In the last days of his fruitful life he suffered a serious illness which made him so weak that he was unable to meet the public.The constant sufferings of the Shi'ites enhanced his unbearable pain.
One of the faithful Shi'ite in Rayy had a dream in which he saw Holy Prophet of Islam(S.A.W.) revealing to him that''Tomorrow one of my sons will die in Sakeh al-Mowla [in Rayy] and the Shi'ites will bury him near the apple tree in the garden". Early morning he went to the garden and bought that piece of land and that garden was endowed as a burial place for the Shi'ites.
Abdul Jabbar who had the dream, found out the secret of the two dreams.In order to share this honor he endowed the whole garden and the apple tree as a grave-yard for Shi'ites and noble people. His holiness died the same day and the people heard of it and wore black clothes and rushed to Hazrat-e-Abdul Azim's premise crying and moaning.
They washed his body ceremoniously.Some of the historians say that there was a piece of a paper with his name with his antecedents. They prayed on the body then lifted and escorted it to the Abdul Jabbar's garden and buried his body close to the same apple tree as the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) predicted in the dream.That was how a member of Etrat(Family) of Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa(S.A.W.) was buried in Rayy as a memorial to spread the light of the Household of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) to their lovers and followers.
The holy shrine of Hadrat Imamzadeh Hamzah(A.S.).
Hazrat Imamzadeh Hamzah(A.S.) was one of Hazrat Imam Musa ibn Jafar's sons and his tomb was buried in the same garden before Hazrat Abdul Azim(A.S.).Hazrat Hamzah(A.S.) is one of the theologians and jurists of Shi'ite,and accompanied Imam Reza(A.S.) during his journey to Toos and was martyred by Mamoon's agents after the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Reza(A.S.).
Hazrat Abdul Azim(A.S.) went on a pilgrimage to his tomb several times to known it for the people and said:This is the tomb of one of the sons of Hazrat Imam Kazem(A.S.).
The holy shrine of Imamzadeh Taher (A.S.).
Hazrat Imamzadeh Taher(A.S.) was one of Imam Sajjad's grandsons and descends from him after eight generations. He was an renowned theologian whose tomb had been unknown through centuries and during the reconstruction of the cemetery his body was found entirely fresh and safe and he was identified by his tomb stone.During Qajar's era, Dhel al Sultan, the Qajari nobleman, who was blind,resorted to his holiness and was cured,therefore,he rebuilt the sacred tomb and shrine. The holy shrine have been recently renovated and is situated within the precincts of the holy shrine of Hazrat Abdul Azim(A.S.).
The tomb of Imamzadeh Abdullah(A.S.):
This shrine belongs to Hadrat Hasan ibn Abdullah(A.S.),one of the sons of Imam Zaynul Abedin(A.S.).His tomb is located in the northern part of the holy shrine of Hadrat Abdul Azim Hasani(A.S.) in the Fidaeyan-i Islam Avenue and formerly it was one of the main cemeteries of the city.
The tomb of Bibi Shahrbanu:
Hadrat Bibi Shahrbanu was the daughter of last Sasanid emperor of Iran Yazdgerd III and also the wife of Hadrat Imam Hussain(A.S.).This tomb was built in the ninth century Hijrah.
The tomb of Ibn Babawaih:
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Babawaih Qummi, who is also famous as Ibn Babawaih and Shaykh Sadukh.He was one of the leading jurisprudents of Shi'ite world and great narrator of ahadith(traditions) in the second half of fourth century of Hijrah.
The blessed tomb of Shaykh Sadukh is located by the side of Ray city near the garden of Tughril where the graves of great personalities such as Ghulam Reza Takhti,Mirzadeh Ishghi,Ali Akbar Dehkhuda, Behzad(the famous painter) and many famous personalities can be found.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Babawaih Qummi
Birth: Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Babawaih Qummi, also known as Ibn Babawaih and Shaykh Sadukh was one of the distinguished jurists of Shi'ites and also a great narrator of ahadith in the second half of the fourth century Hijrah.In the year 308 A.H.the second Nayeb(special deputy)of Imam Mahdi(A.S.) passed away and Shaykh Husain ibn Rooh Nubakhti was assigned as the third deputy of Imam Mahdi(A.S.).
Shaykh Sadukh's father,Ali ibn Babawaih who was one of Qum's leading theologians travelled to Baghdad.He was sad and feeling upset of not having any childeren.He took the occasion to wtite a letter to Husain ibn Rooh Nubakhti to forward his letter to Imam Mahdi(A.S.).He expressed his desire of having a son and Imam Mahdi (A.S.) responded and the holy Imam prayed for him and very soon Allah(SWT) gave him a jurisprudent son.He was granted a son with the prayers of Imam Mahdi(A.S.)in the year 311A.H.He was named Muhammad and who became famous as Shaykh Sadukh and Ibn Babawaih.This event is recorded in the book Kamal al-Din,Shaykh Toosi's book Ghaybat(page 195) and Shaykh Najashi's book Rijal (page 184).
Education: He as a young student completed learning fundamental Islamic sciences like hadith and jurisprudence with the most honourable scholars of Qum like his father Ali ibn Babawaih and Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Waleed,the renowned jurisprudents of Qum,Ahmed ibn Ali ibn Ibrahim Qummi,Hasan ibn Idris Qummi and others.He lived in era of Shi'ite Buwayhid rulers and they ruled the major parts of the Islamic world.He took a long journey to the other Islamic world to visit the other scholars.
Shaykh Sadukh studied hadith in Ray in the year 347A.H.with Abul Hasan Muhammad ibn Ali Asadi also known as Ibn Jaradeh Barde'i. Between the years 347-352 A.H., he studied hadith in Marv,Neyshabour,Kufa,Makkah,Baghdad,Balkh and Sarakhs from the great scholars of his age.
In 344 A.H. Rukn al-Dawlah Daylami requested Shaykh Sadukh to stay in Ray to took the role of scientific and religious leadership of the ummah.Due to his esteemed scientific and spiritual personality the Shi'ite jurisprudents and scholars recall his name with the most outstanding titles.The great jurisprudent Allamah Bahr al-Ulum called him as "the Master of the Narrators(Raes al-Muhadditheen).
His Teachers: Shaykh Sadukh studied from many teachers.The famous scholar the late Abd al-Rahim Rabbani Shirazi has named 252 teachers for Shaykh Sadukh.
His Works:Shaykh Toosi has mentioned that Shaykh Sadukh compiled 300 books and Shaykh Najashi has named 182 books written by Shaykh Sadukh.
Great Ulama's Praise for Shaykh Sadukh
The great Shi'ite scholar Shaykh Muhammad ibn Hasan Toosi who died in 460 A.H., was the ardent admirer of Shaykh Sadukh and said about him:"Shaykh Sadukh was as great scholar and narrator of ahadith and was very effective in protecting and disseminating the science of hadith among the scholars in Qum.He was unique in the science of hadith and compiled 300 volumes of valued books in this field."
The great genius Muhammad ibn Idris Hilli who died in the year 598 A.H. says in his valued book ''Sara'ir'':"Ibn Babawaih Qummi was a great theologian,specialist in hadith and Ilm al-Rijal(Science of Introducing the Personalities) and also a great memorizer of hadith."He addressed him as Wajh al-Tayefah(the Radiant face of the Islamic nation).
Ibn Shahrashub has called him great combatant in the cause of knowledge.
Fakh al-Muhaqqiqin, Allamah Hilli's son has named him as the Leader of the Shaykhs.
Allamah Bahr al-Ulum says: "Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn ibn Musa ibn Babawaih Qummi was the great leader of the Shi'ites.He was the Master of Narrators(Muhaddithin) and always narrated authentic ahadith of Shi'ite Imams(A.S.)."
His Death: Ibn Babawaih Qummi famous as Shaykh Sadukh passed away in 381 A.H.in Ray after more than 70 years of honourable and noble life and writing more than 300 volumes of highly valued books . His tomb is located in Ray and a great number of Muslims pay a visit to the tomb every day.
7-The tomb of Jawan Mard Ghassab
The historical remains of the tomb of Jawan Mard Ghassab is the ancient monument of Ray and has been built in the last decade of the sixth century of Hijrah. This tomb is located on Martyr Raja'ee highway at the Aliabad crossing.
Hamdullah Mostaufi in the year 240 A.H describes the building of this mausoleum: ''In Ray,many great personalities like Ibrahim Khawas,Muhammad bin Hasan al-Faqih, Hisham,Shaykh Jamal al-Din Abul Futuh and Jawan Mard Ghassab are buried''.Thus, at that time(240 A.H.),the tomb of Jawan Mard Ghassab existed.
During the Mongol invasion,the Ray city was devastated and lost its importance.The main building of this tomb is related to the pre-Mongol invasion era i-e the last decade of sixth century of Hijrah. It was rebuilt competely during the Fath Ali Shah Qajar period.
The great scholar Abul Jalil Qazvini has written that Jawan Mard Ghassab was a great Sunni Muslim in Ray and it proves that the Shia-Sunni unity prevailed in Ray during that time.This tomb has been rebuilt and renovated once again by the Cultural Heritage Organization in the year 1997 and registered as a national historical monument.
8-The tomb of Bibi Zubaidah
9-Burj(tower) of Tughril:
This tower which is considered as the masterpiece of Seljukian architecture, was erected by the order of Tughril when he transferred his capital from Nayshabour to Ray. This building is made of bricks and is famous as Tughril tower and was built during the Seljukian period.According to the historical traces this tower is related to the second half of sixth century of Hijrah (13th century A.D).
The height of the tower is about 20 meters and like other towers of the some period has conic dome.The thickness of parapet of the tower is between 1.75 to 2.75 meters and its inner and outer diameters are 11 and 16 meters respectively.The exterior of the tower is divided into 24 parts and gives it beauty and firmness.
There had been decorations and a Kufic epigraph at the top of the tower which has been destroyed during the past centuries.The tower which was dilapidated was rebuilt and renovated on the orders of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar in the year 1884 A.D.
10-The tomb of Tughril I:
Cheshmah-i(spring) Ali is one of the famous places in Ray is located at a distance of 6 kms from the east of Tehran.It was also called as Soorni stream in the past because it was related to the famous Soorni family who lived in Ashkanids and Sasanids period.The marvellous stone on the Cheshmah-i Ali was placed during the Qajari period. In the year 1248 Solar Hijrah,Fath Ali Shah Qajar ordered to engrave his and some of Qajari princes' portraits on the stone. The part of old rampart of Ray above this stream has been recently rebuilt by Cultural Heritage Organization of Tehran province.
The Second Part:the Ruined Places
1-The historical remains of the fire-temple of Ray is located 12 kms away from the south eastern side of the holy shrine of Hadrat Abdul Azim.
2-Some parts of the great rampart where the remains of ancient Ray city is located can be seen in the north of Cheshmah-i Ali and in the area of glycerine factory and near the Gabrha fortress.
3-The historical remains of Fakhr al-Dawlah or Fakhrabad place is located on a hill called as Sorsoreh(sliding) hill.
4-The historical remains of dome of Mardavich is located in the old quarter of Jaylabad.It is located in the east of Ray near the present Aminabad.
5-The historical remains of the dome of Eynanj is located on the Tabark mountain which is presently called as Naqqarah Khanah hill.
6-The historical remains of Estodam Bazarjomid is located on the
top of the Naqqarah Khanah hill.
7-Qila Gabrha [the fortress of Gabrha(Zoroastrians)]is located in the northern side of Ray mountain.The tomb of Bibi Shahrbanu is situated in the southern side of the mountain.
8-The fortress of Tobark is erected on the top of Tobark mountain.