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The Signs Which were Revealed Concerning His Prophethood, and Other Events of His Life Until He was Commanded to Fight.
Following these events, the people of Quraysh assembled in the House of Assembly (Daru'n-Nadwah), where forty of their notables were present. It was the custom that no one was allowed to enter that house until he was over forty years of age, except `Utbah ibn Rabi `ah, even though he was less than forty years old.
The accursed Satan came to them in the image of an old man. The door-keeper asked him: "Who are you?" "I am an old man of Najd", Satan replied. He asked permission to enter, and was permitted to do so. He then addressed the people saying: "I have come to know about your meeting regarding that man (that is, Muhammad) and have therefore come to advise you, so that you should not lose the opportunity of having my sound advice."
When they had all taken their seats, Abu Jahl spoke and said: "O people of Quraysh, there was once no one among the Arabs with more honour than we had - living as we were in the safety of Allah's sanctuary. The Arabs came to us from far and wide twice a year. No one coveted our fortunes until Muhammad grew up among us. Because of his goodness, we called him `al-Amin' (the Trustworthy). Then he claimed to be the Messenger of the Lord of all beings. He insulted our gods and mocked us as men of foolish mind. He corrupted our youth, and dissolved our unity. My opinion is that we should send a man secretly to assassinate him. If the people of Hashim demand the price of his blood, we will give them the blood price of ten men." Satan retorted: "This is bad advice, for the sons of Hashim would never allow Muhammad's assassin to walk on the earth. Wars would then be waged between you and them in your sanctuary."
Another man said: "We should rather imprison him in a house, which he would not be allowed to leave. We would provide him with essential food until he dies, as did Zuhayr and an-Nabighah. [43] Satan rejected this view: "The sons of Hashim would never agree to this course of action", he objected. He went on: "When the pilgrimage season of the Arabs comes, they would all gather against you until they release him. Then he would surely deceive them with his sorcery."
Another man suggested: "We should rather expel him from our lands, and thus be free to serve our gods." Satan again said: "This view is even worse than the two preceding. This is because you are dealing with one who is of the fairest countenance, and the most eloquent of the Arabs. You shall only be sending him out to the desert dwellings of the Arabs that he may deceive them with his magic and eloquence. You will not have long to wait until he overwhelms you with men and horses." Thus were they all bewildered.
Finally they asked Satan: "What do you advise?" He answered: "The only way is that you bring one notable from every clan of the Quraysh; one man of the sons of Hashim should also be included. They should each take an iron bar or a sword and rush at him, dealing him altogether one single blow! Then would the responsibility of his blood fall on all the people of Quraysh. The sons of Hashim would be unable to demand revenge for his blood, since they themselves would share in shedding it. Their only recourse would be to accept the blood price. Give them blood money for three - or even ten - men, if they so wish." Then with one voice, they all said: "The right opinion is that of the old man of Najd! "
They thus chose fifteen men, among whom was Abu Lahab (the uncle of the Prophet), and agreed that they would enter into the house of the Messenger of Allah and kill him. Allah then sent down to His Apostle: Remember when those who rejected faith plotted against you: to imprison, kill or drive you out. . . [Qur'an 8:30] . Thus agreed, they dispersed with the plan to attack the Prophet by night, keeping their plan secret. Abu Lahab suggested: "We should rather keep watch over him till the morning, then go in to attack him! " They thus spent the night around the Messenger of Allah's house.
The Messenger of Allah asked that a bed be spread out for him. Then he said to `Ali: "O 'Ali, would you defend me with your own soul?" "Yes, O Messenger of Allah", he readily agreed. The Prophet continued: "Sleep in my bed, and use my mantle as cover." 'Ali then slept in the bed of the Messenger of Allah and covered himself with his mantle. Gabriel came and said to the Messenger of Allah, "Depart!". The people gathered around the house, and seeing someone sleeping in his bed, they surmised that it was the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah went away reciting Surah Yasin till Allah's saying: thus have We enveloped them, so that they do not see [Qur'an 36:1-9]. He took a handful of dust and threw it at them while they slept, and went on his way. Then Gabriel (directing the Messenger of Allah) said to him: "O Muhammad, take the route of Thawr - a mountain located on the way to Mina, the shape of which resembles the hump of a bull (in Arabic: `thawr' ). Thus the Messenger of Allah continued on; Abu Bakr met him on the way and the Prophet took hold of his hand and went with him. Then when he reached the mountain of Thawr he entered the Cave.
Next morning, at the break of dawn, the people of Quraysh rushed into the room and went for the bed. `Ali jumped up, and facing them, asked: "What do you want?" They demanded: "Where is your cousin Muhammad?" He answered: "Did you set me as a guard over him! Did you not tell him to depart your town? He is gone; what more do you want? " They rushed at `Ali, beating and reviling him. Abu Lahab, however, restrained them, saying: "It is you (`Ali) who have been deceiving us since last night."
They thus scattered themselves in the mountains (in search of the Prophet). There was a man among them called Abu Kurz, of the tribe of Khuza'ah, who was known for his ability in tracking. They said to him: "Today is your day!" He continued to track the Messenger of Allah until he stood with them at the door of his room. He said: "This is the footprint of Muhammad, for it is, by Allah, a match of his footprint which is in the Ka'bah. These also are the footprints of Abu Quhafah (that is, Abu Bakr's father) and his son. He then said: "The son of Abu Quhafah (that is, Abu Bakr) went this way!" He then went on with them until they came to the entrance of the Cave, whereupon he said to them: "They did not go beyond this spot. Either they went up to heaven, or went into the ground."
Allah, however, sent a spider which wove its web at the Cave's entrance (as we have already mentioned). It is reported that an angel came down in the image of a horseman and stood at the entrance of the Cave. He said to them: "Look for him around these ravines, for he is not here." They began to search around in the countryside, while the Messenger of Allah remained in the Cave for three days. Finally, Allah permitted him to migrate.
It was revealed to the Messenger of Allah: "O Muhammad, depart from Mecca, for there is no longer a supporter in it after Abu Talib." When the Messenger of Allah left the Cave, he met a shepherd who worked for a man of the Quraysh called `Abdullah ibn Urayqit. The Messenger of Allah called him and said: "O Ibn Urayqit, can I trust you with my life?" He answered: "If you do, I would guard you, keep your trust and never tell anyone of your whereabouts. Where do you wish to go, O Muhammad?" He answered: "To Yathrib." The shepherd exclaimed: "By Allah, I shall take you through a way that no one will ever be able to find." The Messenger of Allah said: "Go to 'Ali and tell him that Allah has permitted me to migrate, and that he should prepare for me provisions and a mount." Abu Bakr also said: "Go to my daughter Asma' and tell her to make ready for me provisions and two mounts. Also, inform `Amir ibn Fuhayrah of our decision." `Amir was one of Abu Bakr's clients who had accepted Islam. "Tell him", Abu Bakr directed, "to bring us, the provisions and two mounts." Ibn Urayqit went to 'Ali and told him what the Prophet had requested. 'Ali thus sent to the Messenger of Allah provisions and a mount, and `Amir ibn Fuhayrah sent provisions and two mounts.
The Messenger of Allah finally left the Cave and Ibn Urayqit took the road to Nakhlah, a tortuous road between mountains. They did not join the main road until they reached Qudayd, a place near Mecca. They came as guests to Umm Ma'bad, the story of whose ewe and its miracle has already been related. Likewise, the account of Suraqah ibn Malik ibn Ju'shum al-Mudliji and the sinking of the legs of his horse in the ground has been related; hence there is no need to repeat them.
After Suraqah had, however, left the Prophet, the people of Quraysh saw him. They asked if he knew where Muhammad was, and he answered: "I came to know that he had departed from you, and I combed this whole area for you, and saw no trace of anyone. Return, therefore; he is not here."
News of the coming of the Messenger of Allah reached the Ansar, who continued to expect his arrival. Men and women would go out every morning to meet him, but when the heat grew stronger, they would return. It is related on the authority of Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri that between the night of al-`Aqabah and the Migration of the Messenger of Allah there were three months. The pledge of allegiance (bay `ah) of the Ansar to the Messenger of Allah took place on the night of al-`Aqabah in the month of Dhi'l-Hijjah, and he arrived in Medina on the 12th of Rabi`u'l-Awwal, on Monday.
The Ansar used to go out seeking news of him. When, however, they despaired of his arrival, they returned to their homes. Finally, the Apostle of Allah did arrive. When he reached Dhu'l-Hulayfah [a small village around six miles distance from Medina], he asked the way to the quarters of the people of `Amr ibn `Awf, and people directed him. The sun's glare showed his shadow clearly. A Jewish man sitting on a hillock in his land, when he saw three riders coming towards the quarter of Banu `Amr ibn `Awf, cried out: "O Muslims, here is your companion; he has arrived." A great clamour arose in Medina, and men, women and children came out to meet him, overtaking one another in their haste.
As soon as he arrived, the Messenger of Allah went straightway to the Mosque of Quba, where he dismounted. The people of `Amr ibn `Awf gathered around him rejoicing. He went as guest to the home of Kulthum ibn al-Hidm, an old and pious blind man. All the families of the Aws tribe gathered, but because there were old hostilities between the Aws and Khazraj tribes, they did not dare come to the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah looked carefully at the faces of the assembled people, but did not see among them any men of the Khazraj. A few men of the Immigrants (muhajirun) had already come to Medina and settled at the quarter of `Amr ibn `Awf. It is reported that when the Prophet arrived in Medina, women and children met him chanting:
The full moon has arisen over us from Thaniyyatu'l- Wada`.
Gratitude is due from us so long as there is someone who invites to Allah. [44]
Salman, the Persian [a well-known Companion and an important personality in Shi'i piety] was a slave of one of the Jews. He had left his home in Persia in search of the pure (hanif) religion of which the people of the scriptures (Jews and Christians) had informed him. He came one day upon a Christian monk in Syria with whom he stayed for a while and whom he questioned concerning this religion. The monk said: "Go look for him! In Mecca shall be his appearance, and to Yathrib (Medina) shall be his migration; seek him out there." Salman thus set out for Yathrib, where some Bedouins captured him and sold him to a Jew. He set him to work on his date-palm. As he was one day in the tree pruning it, another Jew came to his master and said: "O father of so-and-so, are you aware that the Prophet of these Muslims has come to them?" Salman exclaimed: "May I be a ransom for you what is it that you say?" "What is it to you" - his master retorted, "that you ask concerning this? Go on with your work!"
Salman climbed down and filled a tray with the dates of that palm and took it to the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah asked: "What is this?" "It is only a freewill gift (sadaqah) of our dates", Salman answered. He continued: "We heard that you people are strangers who have come to these lands. I wish, therefore, that you eat of our charitable gift." The Messenger of Allah said to his Companions: "Go ahead and eat." Salman said to himself in Persian and counted on his fingers, "This is one (test)." Later, he brought the Prophet another tray of dates. The Messenger of Allah again asked: "What is this?" Salman answered: "I see that you do not eat of a freewill gift. This is, therefore, a gift (hadiyyah), which I present to you." The Prophet said to his Companions: "Mention the name of Allah and eat." He too ate. Salman counted again on his fingers saying: "This is a second (test)", again muttering to himself in Persian.
Salman then went around to the back of the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah took down his shirt off his shoulders, and Salman saw the seal of Prophethood and the mole, which he began to kiss fervently. The Messenger of Allah asked: "Who are you?" He answered: "I am a man of the Persians. I left my home since such and such a time." He then recounted to him his long story.
Salman entered into Islam, and the Messenger of Allah gave him the glad tidings: "Be patient and of good cheer, for Allah shall find a way of relief from the yoke of this Jewish man."
That evening, Abu Bakr left the Prophet and went to Medina where he stayed with one of the Ansar. The Messenger of Allah, however, remained in Quba, in the house of Kulthum ibn al-Hidm. After the Messenger of Allah had offered the sunset and night prayers, As'ad ibn Zurarah came to him masked. He greeted the Messenger of Allah and was glad at his coming. As'ad then said: "O Messenger of Allah, I would not hear that you are in a place and stay so long away from you. It is rather because of the things you know which exist between us and our brothers of the Aws. For this reason, I did not wish to come to them. But I could no longer bear to stay away from you." The Messenger of Allah cried out to the people of Aws: "Who among you would give him protection?" They all answered: "O Messenger of Allah, our protection is yours to grant; you grant him protection! " "No", he replied, "rather let some of you take him into their protection." Then `Uwaym ibn Sa'idah and Sa'd ibn Khaythamah said: "We shall do so, O Messenger of Allah." They thus took As'ad into their protection, and he used to come daily to the Messenger of Allah, listening to his words and praying behind him.
The Messenger of Allah remained there fifteen days. Abu Bakr then came to him and said: "O Messenger of Allah, enter Medina, for the people are eager for you to dwell among them." He answered: "I shall not leave this place until my brother 'Ali joins me." The Messenger of Allah had already sent to him saying: "Bring the family and come." Abu Bakr said: "I do not think that `All would join you." "Yes", the Prophet said, "soon he shall come, if Allah wills."
After these fifteen days had passed, `Ali came with his family. When he arrived, Sa'd ibn ar-Rabi` and `Abdullah ibn Rawahah were busy smashing the idols of the Khazraj. Every man of high status had an idol in his house, which he cleaned and perfumed. As well, every clan of the Aws and Khazraj had their special idol in their house of assembly. They honored such idols, covering them with a special cloth and offering to them animal sacrifices. When, however, the twelve men of the Ansar (whom the Prophet had chosen) came to the city, they cast out the idols from their homes and the homes of those who heeded them. When later the seventy (chosen men) came, Islam spread rapidly among the people, who then began to break their own idols.
After `Ali's arrival, the Messenger of Allah remained (in Quba) for one or two days, after which he mounted his she-camel and prepared to depart. All the people of `Amr ibn `Awf came to him saying: "O Messenger of Allah, stay with us, for we are indeed a people of serious purpose and constant striving. We are a people of true alliance and protection." He answered: "Rather she (his mount) has been so commanded."
The tribes of the Aws and Khazraj heard of the coming of the Messenger of Allah, and they took up arms and came running around him and his she-camel. He did not pass by any quarter of the Ansar but that they jumped up before him and, taking hold of the rope of his she-camel, beseeched him to stay with them. All the while the Messenger of Allah would say: "Let her go, for she is so commanded." He went on until he arrived at the quarter of the tribe of Salim.
The Messenger of Allah left Quba on Friday, and arrived at the quarter of Banu Salim around noon. The men of the tribe of Salim came to him and exclaimed: "Come O Messenger of Allah to men of serious purpose, steadfastness, true allegiance and protection." His she-camel knelt down at the door of their mosque - they had in fact built a mosque before the arrival of the Messenger of Allah. He dismounted at their mosque and offered the noon prayer and delivered a sermon. This was the first mosque in which the Messenger of Allah delivered a Friday sermon. He prayed towards Jerusalem, and the number of those who prayed behind him on that day was around one hundred.
The Messenger of Allah rode his she-camel and let loose her rope, and she roamed freely until she halted at the dwelling of `Abdullah ibn Ubayy. The Prophet stopped, thinking that the latter would offer him hospitality. As dust rose, `Abdullah ibn Ubayy placed his sleeve over his nose and said: "Go you to those who have beguiled and deceived you, and brought you here. Go enjoy their hospitality, but do not impose yourself on us in our homes." Allah then sent against the people of Banu l-Hubla small ants which destroyed their houses, so that they had to beg hospitality of others. The people of Banul-Hubla were so called because the grandfather of `Abdullah ibn Ubayy was nicknamed `Ibnu'l-Hubla' (son of the pregnant woman).
Sa'd ibn `Ubadah (a well-known Companion of the Ansar) said: "O Messenger of Allah, let not your heart be troubled by anything which this man may say. For we had all agreed to set him up as king over us, but now he sees that you have despoiled him of an opportunity which was close at hand. Come and be my guest, O Messenger of Allah, for there is no one in the Aws or Khazraj who owns as many wells as I do. We are people of steadfastness and honour. Do not, therefore, bypass us, O Messenger of Allah."
The Messenger of Allah, however, let loose his she camel's rope, and she trotted until she halted in the spot of the Mosque of Medina, which was then not a mosque but a resting ground for animals, belong to two orphans called Sahl and Suhayl. The two boys were in the protection of As'ad ibn Zurarah. The she-camel knelt down at the door of Abu Ayyub Khalid ibn Yazid. The Messenger of Allah dismounted and immediately people gathered around him offering their hospitality. The mother of Abu Ayyub, however, quickly ran and removed the she-camel's saddle and took it into her home. As the men continued to insist, the Messenger of Allah asked: "Where is the saddle?", and was told that Abu Ayyub's mother had taken it into her home. The Prophet said: "A man should always be with his goods." As'ad took hold of the she-camel's rope and led her into his home. Abu Ayyub had a room over his house, and he did not wish to be higher than the Messenger of Allah. Thus he asked: "O Apostle of Allah, which is preferable to you, an elevated house, or one at ground level?" He answered: "Ground level is more suitable for us on account of the people who will come to see us." Abu Ayyub later recounted: "Thus my mother and I lived in the upper room. But I was afraid any time I brought in a pail full of water that a drop may fall on the Messenger of Allah. My mother and I, moreover, used to go up to the room carefully in order that he might not notice us, and we spoke in whispers. When he slept, we made no movement. Whenever we cooked in our room, we used to close the door for fear that the Messenger of Allah might be affected by the smoke. An earthenware jug of water fell one day so that the water was spilled. The mother of Abu Ayyub took a velvet garment which, by Allah, was the only one we had, and used it to mop the water for fear that it might drip down over the Messenger of Allah."
Muslims of the Aws, Khazraj and the Immigrants (muhajirin) used to come to have audience with the Messenger of Allah. Abu Umamah (the agnomen of) As'ad ibn Zurarah used to send every day to the Prophet a large dish of tharid (that is, of sopped bread with broth), covered by a large chunk of meat. All present would eat to satiation, but the dish would be returned as though untouched. Likewise, Sa'd ibn `Ubadah used to send to the Prophet supper every day which he would share with whomever was present. The dish was also returned full as it was brought. As'ad ibn Zurarah, Sa'd ibn Khaythamah, al-Mundhir ibn `Amr, Sa'd ibn ar-Rabi ` and Usayd ibn Hudayr used to take turns in sending lunch and supper to the Prophet. It is reported that one day Usayd cooked for him a large earthenware pot full of food, which he himself carried to him because he found no one else to do so. He was a noble man, chieftain.
He came to the Messenger of Allah just as the latter had returned from offering prayers. "Did you yourself carry it?" asked the Prophet. "Yes", answered Usayd, "I found no one else to carry it." The Prophet exclaimed: "Allah's blessings be upon such a household! "
It is reported in the book entitled Dala'ilu'n-Nubuwwah [45] on the authority of Anas ibn Malik who said: "The Messenger of Allah came to Medina; as soon as he entered it, the men and women of the Ansar came to him begging, `Come stay with us, O Messenger of Allah!' He answered: `Let the she-camel go, for she is so commanded." The she camel finally knelt down at the door of Abu Ayyub. Thereupon, a few maidens of the tribe of Banu'n-Najjar came forth with tambourines which they beat as they chanted: `We are maidens of Banu'n-Najjar! How we would love to have Muhammad as a guest in our protection.' The Messenger of Allah came out to them and asked, `Do you love me?' They answered: `Yes, by Allah, O Messenger of Allah!' He repeated three times: `I too love you O Banu'n-Najjar.' "
'Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim reported that the Jews of the Qurayzah, an-Nadir and Qaynuqa` tribes came to the Prophet and asked: "O Muhammad, to what are you inviting people?" He answered: "I call men to bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that I am the Apostle of Allah, whom you find described in the Torah [46] and of whom your own learned men have already informed you - my appearance shall be in Mecca, and my migration shall be to this land. One of your own learned men who came from Syria also spoke to you saying: `I left both wine and leavened bread and came to privation and a diet of dates, seeking a prophet who shall be sent forth in this plain (that is, Medina). His appearance shall be in Mecca and his migration to this city. He is the last of the prophets and the most excellent of them. He shall ride a donkey, wrap himself in an outer garment, and will be satisfied with a piece of dry bread. In his eyes there is redness, and between his shoulders is the seal of Prophethood. He shall carry his sword upon his shoulder, and will not be dismayed by anyone he confronts. He shall be a smiling man, but also a slayer. His authority shall spread to the furthest regions that can be reached by the hoof of a camel or that of a horse.' "
They answered: "We have heard what you have to say, and have come to ask for a truce between us, that we shall be neither with you, nor against you. We would not support anyone against you. In return, you shall neither trouble us, nor anyone of our coreligionists until we see how it shall be with you and your people." The Messenger of Allah. agreed with them on these conditions. Thus, they drew up a written agreement that they would not support anyone against the Messenger of Allah or anyone of his Companions, be it with the tongue or hand, with arms or horses, neither openly nor in secret, neither by night nor by day. "To all this, Allah shall be an All-knowing Witness. If they revoke this covenant, then it shall be lawful for the Messenger of Allah to shed their blood, capture their children and women and seize their wealth." The Messenger of Allah then wrote a pledge to each tribe separately.
The man who represented the tribe of Banu'n-Nadir was Huyayy ibn Akhtab. When he returned to his home, his brothers Judayy ibn Akhtab and Abu Yasir ibn Akhtab asked: "What do you say?" He answered: "He is indeed the one whom we find described in the Torah, and of whom our learned men had informed us. Yet I shall continue to be his enemy, because Prophethood has ceased to be in the progeny of Isaac and has instead been established in the line of Ishmael. Nor should we ever become followers of the descendants of Ishmael."
The man who represented the tribe of Qurayzah was Ka'b ibn Asad. A man called Mukhayriq represented the tribe of Banu Qaynuqa`. He-was the wealthiest man among them, possessing much wealth and orchards. He said to his people: "If you know for certain that he is the Prophet sent by Allah, then let us believe in him. In this way, we would possess both scriptures." But the tribe of Qaynuqa` did not agree with him on the matter.
It is reported that the Messenger of Allah continued to pray with his Companions in the animal fold. He said one day to As'ad ibn Zurarah: "Go and buy this animal fold from its owners!" He thus went to purchase it from the two orphans, .but they said: "Rather, we give 'it to the Messenger of Allah." The Messenger of Allah objected saying: "No, only if you accept its price." He bought it for ten dinars. There was a swamp .of stagnant water in it which the Messenger of Allah ordered drained. Then the Messenger of Allah had baked mud bricks prepared, which he used to build it into a mosque. He dug the foundations and had stones carried from al-Harrah (at the outskirts of Medina). As the Muslims were carrying them, the Messenger of Allah came carrying a stone on his chest. Usayd ibn Hudayr met him and said: "O Messenger of Allah, give it to me that I may carry it for you! " "No", he answered, "go and carry another one."
In this way, they carried the stones which they used to build the foundations, until they reached ground level. The Prophet first used regular mud bricks, one over the other. He then used samit, that is, bricks equalling one and a half bricks each. Finally, he used two alternate bricks at a time which fit into one another. Thus he raised up the walls to the height of a man. The width of the Mosque in the back was 100 cubits.
As the heat became intolerable, the people made a request of the Prophet, saying: "O Messenger of Allah, would that you raise up some shade over us! " He thus raised up columns of wood as far as the vestibule, over which he laid palm branches. They were then able to stay in it. The people again suggested: "O Apostle of Allah, would that you build an actual roof!" "No", he replied, "rather an awning made of branches like the booths of Moses. Matters are too urgent for all that."
The Messenger of Allah then built his houses and those of his Companions around the mosque. He plotted a space for his Companions wherein they built their houses. Every one of them opened a door of his house into the mosque. He plotted a space for Hamzah and had the door of his house opened into the mosque. He plotted a similar space for `All ibn Abi Talib. They were all able to come out of their homes directly into the mosque. Gabriel, however, came down to him and said: "O Muhammad, Allah commands you to order everyone whose house opens out into the mosque to close that door. Let no one have a door which opens out into the mosque except you and `All. This is because whatever is made lawful for you in this matter, is also made lawful for `Ali."
The Prophet's Companions became angry because of this. Hamzah angrily complained: "I am his uncle, yet he orders that my door be closed, and leaves open the door of my nephew who is younger than me." The Prophet came to him and said: "O uncle, be not dismayed because your door was closed, while 'Ali's door was left open. By Allah, it was not I who ordered that; rather Allah commanded that all your doors be closed but that `All's door be left open." Hamzah answered: "O Apostle of Allah, I accept and willingly submit to Allah and His Apostle."
It is reported that when the Messenger of Allah built his houses Fatimah was with him; and that Abu Bakr asked for her hand in marriage, upon which the Messenger of Allah said to him, "Wait for the command of Allah, glorified and exalted be He." Then `Umar asked for her hand, and the Prophet replied in a similar manner. It was asked of 'Ali, "Why do you not ask for Fatimah's hand? ", he answered, "By Allah, I have nothing! " He was told, "The Messenger of Allah will not ask for anything." He then came to the Prophet, but found himself shy to ask him and thus left. He came another time the next day, but again was too shy and left. Again he came a third day, and the Messenger of Allah said to him, " 'Ali, is there something you want?" "Yes, O Messenger of Allah", he answered. The Messenger of Allah said: "Perhaps you come as a suitor?", and 'Ali replied, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." The Prophet then asked, "Do you have anything, `All?" "I have nothing", 'Ali replied, "save my armour."
Thus the Messenger of Allah married him for twelve and one-half awqiyyahs (that is, two hundred and fifty dirhams), for which `All sold his armour. Then the Messenger of Allah said to him, "Prepare a house so that Fatimah can move into it", to which 'Ali replied, "O Messenger of Allah, there is no house here except a house of Harithah ibn an-Nu'man. And on the day the Commander of the Faithful consummated his marriage with Fatimah she was nine years of age. But the Messenger of Allah said, "By Allah, we are ashamed before Harithah, for we have already taken almost all of his houses!" News of this reached Harithah, and he came to the Messenger of Allah and said, "O Messenger of Allah, I and my wealth belong to Allah and His Messenger, and by Allah there is nothing which I would like more than that you take it (the house), for what you take from me is then more dear than that which you leave." The Messenger of Allah thus blessed him and sent Fatimah to 'Ali in the house of Harithah. And their bed was of the skin of a ram, the fleece of which they placed facing up under them.
It is reported that the Messenger of Allah used to pray toward Jerusalem during his stay in Mecca, and also during his Migration (to Medina) for a period of seven months. When he had passed seven months there, however, the Jews reproached him, saying, "You are our follower, praying toward our qiblah (direction of pray) and we precede you in prayer!"
The Messenger of Allah was greatly troubled by this, and wished that Allah would change his qiblah to the Ka'bah. He went out in the middle of the night and gazed at the horizons of heaven, awaiting the command of Allah. The next day he went to the Mosque of the Banu Salim, in which the first commual Friday prayers in Medina had been held, and there he prayed the afternoon (zuhr) prayers with them, two rak'ahs toward Jerusalem and two toward Mecca. Thus was sent down: We have seen you turning your face to the heavens, and We shall surely give you a qiblah with which you shall be pleased [Qur'an 2 :144] . Then the Verse of Fighting (ayatu'l-qital) was sent down to the Messenger of Allah permitting him to fight against the Quraysh, as He says: Sanction is given to those who fight because they have been wronged, and Allah is well able to give them victory [Qur'an 22:39] , and to those who have been driven unjustly from their homes only because they say, "Our Lord is Allah". . . [Qur'an 22:40].
[31] See al-Bayhaqi, vol. 1, p. 409.
[32] ibid., vol.1, pp. 418 - 9.
[33] See for a detailed account of the migration to Abyssinia, Ibn Hisham, vol.1, pp. 343 - 63, and Guillaume, pp. 146 - 55.
[34] See al-Bayhaqi, vol. 2, pp. 53 - 54.
[35] See the previous footnote. See also al-Bukhari, vol. 5, pp. 8- 9.
[36] See al-Bukhari, vol. 4, pp. 238 - 9.
[37] See Ibn Hisham, vol. 1, p. 25, and Guillaume, p.191.
[38] That is, the Kitab Ma`rifatu's-Sahabah of the traditionist Ibn Mandah, Abu `Abdillah Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya al-`Abdi al-Isfahani (d. 395/ 1005). The work remains in manuscript. See Sezgin, Band I, pp. 214 - 5.
[39] See al-Bayhaqi, vol. 2, p. 158.
[40] Bu'ath was a fortress belonging to the Aws tribe. The Battle of Bu'ath took place between the warring tribes of al-Aws and al-Khazraj some years before the Migration.
[41] See Qur'an 6 :151 - 2.
[42] See Qur'an 5:12.
[43] This apparently refers to the two well-known poets: an-Nabighah adh-Dhubyani and Zuhayr as-Sulami. Kitabu'l-Aghani of al-Isfahani, and other sources consulted, do not corroborate the incident alluded to in this account.
[44] This poem has become a favorite chant in Muslim piety. Two more lines have been added, which read:
You who have been sent as a Messenger from God to us, you come with a command worthy of obedience! You have come honoring Medina, welcome to you, O best of those who invite to God!
[45] See al-Bayhaqi, vol. 2, p. 234.
[46] See Qur'an 7:157.

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