The Spiritual Aspects of Hajj
By: Imam Khomeni
What has the experience of Hajj taught me? First one must ask - what does Hajj mean? In essence, Hajj is man's evolution toward Allah. It is a symbolic demonstration of the philosophy of Creation of Adam. To further illustrate this, it may be stated that the performance of Hajj is a simultaneous show of many things; it is a "show of creation", a "show of history", a "show of unity", a "show of the Islamic ideology" and a show of the Ummah.
What has the experience of Hajj taught me? First one must ask - what does Hajj mean?
In essence, Hajj is man's evolution toward Allah. It is a symbolic demonstration of the philosophy of Creation of Adam. To further illustrate this, it may be stated that the performance of Hajj is a simultaneous show of many things; it is a "show of creation", a "show of history", a "show of unity", a "show of the Islamic ideology" and a show of the Ummah.
The following conditions prevail in this "show". Allah (God) is the stage manager. The theme portrayed is the actions of the people involved. Adam, Ibrahim, Hajar, and Satan are the main characters. The scenes are Masjid-ul Haram, the Haram area, Masa, Arafat, Mashars and Mina. Important symbols are the Kaaba, Safa, Marwa, day, night, sunshine, sunset, idols and ritual of sacrifice. The clothing and make up are Ihram, Halgh and Taqseer. Lastly, the player of the roles in this "show" is only one; and that is YOU!
Regardless of whether you are a man or a woman, young or old, black or white, you are the main feature of the performance. The role of Adam, Ibrahim and Hajar in the confrontation between "Allah and Satan" is played by you. As a result, you, individually, are the hero of the "show".
Annually, Muslims from all over the world are encouraged to participate in this great "show" (Hajj). Everyone is considered equal. No discrimination on the basis of race, sex, or social status is made. In accordance to the teachings of Islam, ALL ARE ONE AND ONE IS ALL.
The one who restores somebody's life, has restored the life of all and the one who kills one, has killed all.
Yet the enemies of Islam continue to deliberately wage a campaign against Islam. They attack it by denying that Islam recognizes the human being as an individual endowed with special rights and values. In terms of the concept of Hajj, it is relegated to the status of a duty which has very little significance. As Imam Ali, the son of Kaaba says:
As if Islam is a lamb fur-coat that is put on inside out.
What have I personally learned from Hajj-me being so "little" and Hajj being so "great" in meaning? How far and what could I see from this experience? The following pages are the product of my humble efforts to answer these questions. My purpose is not to inform the reader what must be done during Hajj. This can be attained by referring to the book of rituals. Instead, I want to share with you my perceptions of the significance of Hajj. They should help you to understand why it is incumbent upon Muslims to perform this duty, or at least motivate you to think about Hajj.
Now that we are at the threshold of performing our auspicious religious precept of Hajj, it is necessary to consider its gnostic, spiritual, social, political and cultural aspects. Many dedicated friends have already discussed the merits of the various aspects of Hajj and now I wish to make a brief and quick mention of some of its aspects hoping to serve as a reminder. Since there are delicate gnostic and spiritual hints in these wonderful rituals, from the beginning of putting on a pilgrim's garb "EHRAM" through "TALBIYA" or "LABBEYK" (Lit, Here I am at Thy service), to the end, the details of which may not be explained in this discourse, I would only mention some indications of "TALBIYA". Such repeated words of "LABBEYK" are only true from those who have perceived God's call with their insight and, so, they respond to Almighty God's call in thoroughness. The real issue is our presence before God, and the contemplation of his beloved glory; so much so that, one would say, the utterer has been transported with ecstasy and thus, he is repeating his response to the divine call, and consequently, he negates idolatry in its absolute sense, in a way very well known to the pure-hearted believers. Although negation of an associate to God means negation of all degrees of association, including the negation of the universe, in the view of the clear-sighted, and includes all considerations of the commendables, as:
"Praise be to Thee and blessings are of Thee....", appropriates the praise and blessings to the most sacred Supreme Being and negates any associates, and this is the ultimate monotheism which means that every praise and blessing that is realized in the world of existence is praise to God and blessing of Him alone, and the same is true in every station, wit, intelligence, motion, repose and act and other than that is but idolatry in its general sense, and all of us, the inwardly blind, are afflicted with it.(1)
The Spiritual degrees of Hajj, being the assets for eternal life which bring man close to the horizons of monotheism and doxologies may not be attained unless the Hajj rituals are observed and performed properly and precisely and the honorable Hajjis and clergymen of the caravans must make their concerted efforts to teach and be taught the Hajj rituals and the learned men are bound to be watchful lest their companions violate the rules. The political and social aims of Hajj may not be achieved unless the spiritual and religious duties are fulfilled and your "LABBEYK" is true response to God's call; get attired in pilgrim's garb for access to the threshold of Almighty God; while repeating "LABBEYK", negate the existence of any associate to God, whatsoever, and depart from your own ego, which is the biggest origin of idolatry and polytheism and depart towards Him, the Almighty, The Glorified, and hopefully, the demise of the seekers of this degree will be after they have attained their departure, and gained what reward they are entitled to, from Allah. But if the spiritual aspects are ignored, you will hardly free yourselves from the clutches of the carnal desires of your ego, and as long as you are bound to your egotism, you will not be able to fight for the cause of God and defend God's sanctuary. You dear ones! beware! Look at those brave warriors of the Islamic Republic who obtained God pleasing victories for Islam and the Islamic country and now, a group of their "Living Martyrs" are accompanying you in the Hajj ritual, and you should learn your lesson from the tremendous change that has brought about so much self-sacrifice in them. The Muslims should know that, unless they experience such change, their inner satans (Devils) of carnal desires as well as outer satans (Devils) will not let them think of Muslim peoples and the wronged people of the world.(2)
Throughout the Divine MIQAT and at sacred stations, by the blessed House of Almighty God, observe the rites of attendance at the sacred presence of the Almighty God, and free your hearts from any bondage to other than God, and empty them out of other than the Friend and illuminate them with the rays of heavenly lights so that your rites and rituals in this pace towards God be adorned with the Abrahamian Hajj concepts and, afterwards, with the Mohommadan Hajj concepts. And relieved of natural acts, all of you, cleansed of selfishness and egotism, and fully loaded with cognizance of God and love of the Beloved, return to your homelands with your hands full of eternal souvenirs instead of the perishable material objects. Join your martyrdom-loving friends with your hands full of Islamic humane values for the cause of which, the grand prophets--from Abraham, God's friend (Khalilollah), to Muhammad, God's beloved (pbuh)--were assigned. It is these values and motives that can save man from bondage to malevolence and dependence on the West or East and lead him the blessed tree of "No EAST, NO WEST."(3)
Beware! the Hajj traverse is not an ordinary trip for trade and worldly purposes: it is a traverse towards Allah. You are departing for the House of God. All you do must be done divinely. Your traverse, from the point it starts, is a departure towards God (VAFD ELALLAH). Just as our saints traversed towards Allah, throughout their lives, and deviated no single step from that which was drawn up as the program for conjunction to Allah, you too, are now in the state of "VOFOUD ILALLAH". The Place where you go, at "MIQAT", you say (LABBEYK) to Allah that means: "We are responding to Your invitation". Beware, lest you do something to which, Allah says: "no, I do not accept you because you do not behave the Islamic way." Beware, lest you turn this journey into a trade journey; all of you, whether clergymen caravan heads or ordinary Hajjis; it is a journey towards Allah and not towards the world. Do not besmear it with worldly matters.(4)
Amongst the most important conditions of all devotional practices is sincerity in actions. Because if, God forbid, one does something for gaudiness and parade and tries to show to others the grace of his deeds, his actions will be marred. The honorable Hajjis must be circumspect not to seek non-God's gratification in their deeds. Spiritual aspects of Hajj are many and it is important that the Hajji discerns where he is going and whose invitation he is responding to, whose guest he is becoming and what the ordinance of this feast is. He should further understand that every sign of egotism contradicts devoutness and is in opposition to departure towards Allah and will blemish the spirituality of Hajj. But if this gnostic and spiritual aim is attained and the "LABBEYK" be in real conformity with the invitation of Almighty God, man will be triumphant in all political, social, cultural and even military arenas. For such a person, there will be no defeat. May God Almighty bless us all with a slight share of such a spiritual traverse and heavenly departure.(5)
Those who journey to Hajj must circumspect not to blemish their Hajj by perpetrating a sinful act. All they do must be Islamic and devotional. Processions must be devotional and unadulterated; slogans must be devotional and unadulterated; in a way that it be for the cause of God: not just be done arbitrarily, or one insults another at pleasure. Such issues must be properly programmed in advance and they must also be carefully taken care of.(6)
MAGNIFICENCE OF MECCA AND THE SANCTIFIED HOUSE OF GOD
Amongst the points the honorable Hajjis must take into consideration is the fact that the dignified Mecca and the exalted shrines are mirrors of illustrious events of the movements of the prophets and submission to God's will, and the prophetic mission of the most generous Prophet of Islam (pbuh). Spot by spot, this land has been the place of the glorious descending of the grand prophets and of Gabriel, the trustworthy, and reminder of the pains and afflictions the most generous Prophet (pbuh) has gone through, in the cause of Islam and humanity, and attending these sacred places and exalted shrines and considering the overwhelmingly hard conditions of the prophetic mission of our Prophet (pbuh) will make us better apprehend our responsibilities in safeguarding the achievements of our movement and divine mission, and appreciate how the Prophet (pbuh) and the infallible Imams persevered in the cause of God's religion and to efface the futile, and never feared the accusations, calumnies and insolences of Abu-Lahabs, Abu-Jahls and Abu-Sufyans, and not- withstanding the hardest conditions of siege, while being in "SHE'B AB1-TALEB", never abstained and surrendered and then endured the bitterness of migrations and hardships and participation in frequent wars of unequal forces and fighting against thousands of plots and sabotages, made efforts to guide and advance people, so much so that the hearts of the rocks and stones, deserts and mountains and streets and bazaars of Mecca and Medina are full of tumult of messages of their prophetic guidance, and if they could converse and disclose the secrets of "So go thou straight, as thou hast been commanded" what the pilgrims of the sanctified House of God would be able to realize sufferings had the Prophet (pbuh) experienced in the cause of our guidance and deliverance, and how heavy the responsibility of his followers is.
Our martyr-offering nation, though experienced tremendous pains and sacrificed dear ones in the cause of God, however, the extent of oppression that our infallible Imams have gone through, largely exceeds that of ours.(7)
Ka'ba, the sanctified, is the principal center for overthrowing the idol. Abraham, God's intimate (KHALILOLLAH), at the beginning, and Mohammad, God's beloved (HABIBOLLAH), and his dear descendant, Mahdi, may my soul be sacrificed to him, at the end of the epoch, promulgated monotheism from Ka'ba. Almighty God said to Abraham: "and proclaim among men the Pilgrimage, and they shall come unto thee on foot and upon every lean beast, they shall come from every deep ravine".
And He Further said: "And do thou purify My House for those that shall go about it and those that stand, for those that bow and prostrate themselves"; This cleaning is of all sordidness, above all of which stands polytheism, as is referred to, in the beginning of the noble verse. And as we read in Sura Al-Towbah:(8)
A proclamation, from God and His Messenger, unto mankind on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage: God and His Messenger disgust the idolaters. The sanctified House of God is the first House built for the public. It is a peoples' House. No personality, tribe or government enjoys the privilege of priority in it. Desert dwellers, rustic people and the homeless are considered equal in status, to the city dwellers, the statesmen or to those secluded in Ka'ba. This dignified House belongs to peoples and is appropriated for peoples' uprisings and movements and for public benefits.(9)
This sacred Mosque and all other mosques have been centers of war organizations, policy makings and social and political affairs. The Mosque of the Prophet (pbuh) was not only a place for discussing devotional issues , such as prayers and fasting, but more discussed were the political matters. Every time they wanted to dispatch people to a war they began from the mosques.(10)
Mecca is a place in which all prophets have performed their duties and now it is captured by a group of profane people who do not know what to do and do not understand what has been inflicted on them and the Muslims. It is a shame for all Muslims of the world that the sanctity of Mecca, the divine sanctuary, the most sacred divine station, be thus broken and the Muslims be just sitting and watching. But the Muslims are aware of their duties. the issue must be kept lively.(11)
You attained the honor of pilgrimage to the House that God allocated for people and which is the first House allocated for the public as He has said: "The first House established for the people was that at Becca, a place holy, and a guidance to all beings." This proves that Almighty God has summoned all to Islam and allocated this House for all the people of the world, from the very beginning of prophecy mission to the end. It is the House of people with no preference given to any person or persons, group or race in particular. All the people throughout the world, east or west, are required to become Muslims and make regular pilgrimage to this House which is allocated for human beings.(12)
How lucky you are, who were honored with the pilgrimage to the dignified Mecca, the center of divine revelation, and to the magnificent Medina, the center of prophecy. May God Almighty accept your pilgrimage meritoriously.(13)
THE PHILOSOPHY OF HAJJ RITES
Circumambulating the House of God denotes the fact that we should not be attracted to other than God; and the stoning at Aqabat means stoning the devils of both, humankind and Jinn. By stoning the devils you should pledge to God to expel the human devils and superpowers from the endeared Islamic countries. Nowadays the Islamic world is seized by America. You must convey God's message to the Muslims of different continents, to worship none but God.(14)
While repeating "LABBEYK" say "NO" to all idols and cry out "NO" to all the princes of the devils and the princekins of the devils; and while circumambulating God's sanctuary which denotes your love to God, disengage your hearts from the rest, and purge your soul from phobia of other than God, and along with your love to God, divulge your hatred of the little and big idols and the devils and their affiliates, as the Exalted God and His friends have expressed hatred of them, and all the liberated people of the world do hate them. And while touching the "Black Stone", pledge to God to turn into an enemy against the enemies of God, His messengers, the liberated and pious men and never yield to them, no matter who and where they might be, and wipe away phobia and inferiority from your hearts, for God's enemies and above them all, the arch Satan, are themselves helpless, though being superior in committing homicide and suppression and the implementation of crimes.
While perambulating between Safa and Marva, try, with all sincerity and righteousness to acquire the Beloved, as, by acquiring Him all the worldly woven webs shall be ruptured and all the doubts and mistrusts collapsed, all the carnal aspirations and desires expired, all the material bonds turn up and liberalities flourished and all the ties and attachments to the Devil and the despot will be detached. Proceed to Mash'arel-Haram and Arafat with state of cognition and gnosis, and at each station add on your confidence in God's promises of realization of the dominion of the deprived, and silently and serenely meditate on divine signs, determine to save the deprived and the dispossessed, from the grips of the world arrogant and pray to Almighty God, at these noble stations, to open up deliverance for all. Then proceed to Mena and perceive the righteous wishes, i.e. sacrificing your most beloved thing for the absolute Beloved's sake, and know that unless you abandon these beloved things, above which, stands your self-love--and worldliness is subject to it --you cannot gain accession to the Absolute Beloved. It is at this state that you must repel the devil and make him retreat. Observing divine decrees, repeat the act of repelling the devil and the devil kins and make them all retreat.(15)
On this heavenly journey you are going to stone the Devil. If, God forbid, you be one of devil's gang, then you will be stoning yourselves too. You must become God-like so that your stoning be Godly stoning of the Devil. You pause at noble stations. Beware lest your pauses at these noble stations are affected by a sinful act, an offence or something that ruins not only your honor before God, but also degrades, the prestige value of Islam. Nowadays the fame of Islam is dependent on your deeds, who are going on a collective journey to these noble stations and other Muslims meet and observe you.(16)
The Temple of Mecca and the dignified Ka'ba will embrace some dear pilgrims who have revived the Hajj ritual from political retreat and essential perversion and drawn it towards Abrahamian and Mohammadan Hajj, demolished the idols of East and West and demonstrated the meaning of public uprising and exclaiming disgust at the pagans. The heart of MIQAT beats, eagerly, to receive the pilgrims arriving from the country of "no east, no west" slogan to respond to God's invitation to the straight path of humanity by their repeating "LABBEYK", and by rejecting both the eastern and western schools and nationalistic perversions, eradicate clannishness and show the feelings of brotherhood, equality and sympathy to all nations without considering the color, nationality, milieu and zone, and attempt at strengthening unity among all Muslims, and fight against the enemies of humanity and the world mongers and despots, united.
And the JAMARAT is awaiting the self-sacrifices who come from a country whose brave nation has expelled all the big and small and medium size devils from their country and severed their filthy hands from its homeland treasures and at this sacred place, too, they will oust and expel the devils from the Mecca and its surroundings, being the whole world, by throwing their stones and sounding off their slogans.
And ARAFAT, MASH'AR and MENA will host those whose devout nation, possessing sound political conscience and gnosis has risen up to realize the Islamic ideals in its own country and in the other tyrannized countries and defame the false politicians who, by their fraud and trickery, have attacked the meek people of the world and pilfered their assets.(17)
You must know that the essential remedy lies in the unity of the Muslims in all, and their general congregation to cut the hands of the superpowers off the Islamic countries and actualize, the rites of the noble stations and exalted shrines in their own countries.(18)
THE NECESSITY OF ATTENDING TO QURAN DURING HAJJ
I would like to remind the dear pilgrims that during their journey to the dignified Mecca and the illuminated Medina and in all the sanctified stations, never neglect their sociability with the divine book of guidance, the exalted Quran, as, whatever the Muslims have achieved and will achieve is by the abundant blessings of this Holy Book. At the same time I should ask all the distinguished scholars, the children of Quranic teachings and the esteemed scientists not to neglect this sacred book which is "the pronouncer of everything" (TIBIAN KOLLE SHEI'), and has been issued from the All-Divine sanctuary. And flashed into the heart of the "First Light" and the revelation of the "All-in-All" (JAM'OL JAM').
This heavenly-divine book which contains the objective and scriptural feature of all heavenly Names and Attributes and proofs and evidence, to whose occult attainments we have no access, and of whose mysteries, none but the sacred wholesome being of its particular addressee (Lit., MAN KHOTEBA BEHI) is cognizant, and the chaste saints have perceived their cognizance by the grace of His blessings and through His teachings, and by the grace of their own heartily diligence, those of pure cognition, have been able to attain a sparkle of it, commensurate with their degrees of perception and spiritual attainment and now that the scriptural feature of it from revelation tongue, being descended through stages and degrees, has been placed in our hands, with no single letter diminution or addition, we must be careful, lest, God forbid, it is deserted, notwithstanding the fact that its various dimensions, and in each dimension, the various stages and degrees, are beyond the comprehension of ordinary man.
However, those of cognition and exploration can benefit by this endless treasury of theosophy and Muhammadan ocean of inquisition and pass it on to others. The people of philosophy and reasoning, by inquiring into the mysteries appertaining to this divine book, should reveal inklings of these profound issues, solve and disclose the theosophical problems and convey to those interested. And the pious men of self-discipline and self-consciousness should gift to the thirsty for this "KOWSAR", a fragrance and a draught of what their hearts have perceived from "ADDABANI RABBI" (God so trained me), and educate them with divine culture, as much as possible.
And those chaste, thirsty for guidance, should impart to those inflamed with love for divine guidance, a sparkle of what guidance they have achieved by the grace of their chastity, from the fountain-head of "guidance for the virtuous" (Lit., HODAN LEL-MOTTAQIN). And, lastly, every group of the elite scholars and honorable scientists should elaborately expound one of the heavenly dimensions of this holy book, make efforts to discourse upon the political, social, economical, martial and cultural enlightenments of the holy Quran as well as the know-how of peace and war management, in order to unveil to all, that this book is the fountain head of everything, from Gnosticism and philosophy to literature and politics so that the burning desire of the devotees of the holy Quran be calmed down and the ignorant no longer say that Gnosticism and philosophy are but some fabrications and asceticism and that such wayfaring are but the pastime of the calendar dervishes, or, what Islam has to do with politics and government and management of the state, as, this is the king's job and of the presidents and the worldly minded, or Islam is merely a religion of peace and reconciliation and detests war, even with the despots.
Then they deal with the holy Quran the same way the unenlightened Church and the demagogue political leaders did with the religion of the exalted Christ. O! religious seminaries, O! inquisitive academies! rise up and save the holy Quran from the evil of the ascetic ignorant and the impudent scholars who attack the holy Quran and Islam knowingly and deliberately. I, myself, admit, seriously, not out of modesty, that I regret for my life wasted on errors and mistakes, and you, dear children of Islam, awaken the seminaries and the universities to their sense of responsibility to heed the merits of the holy Quran and its numerous dimensions.
Make it your uppermost aim and point of view to teach the holy Quran, every scope of it. Beware, lest, God forbid, at old age, suffering from decrepitude, feel sorry for your deeds and regret your youth, like the author. We must know that, the reason why this everlasting Book has been descended for the guidance of man, of every race and color and at every land and region, up to the eternity, is to maintain the validity of the important and vital issues, and make it clear that the problems referred to in the Book, do not belong to one era or area and never suppose that Abraham, Moses and Mohammad (pbuh) meant to belong to one particular time.(19)
THE NECESSITY OF CAREFUL LEARNING OF THE HAJJ RITUALS
It is necessary for the Hajj pilgrims to learn the problems of Hajj, both the incumbent and interdicted, from the elite ulema, in order that no violations incur which will squander all their efforts, or may cause the pilgrims not become MOHEL and create problems for them.(20)
Amongst the significant matters necessary for the honorable pilgrims and clergymen of caravans to spend their worthy time on, is to teach and to learn the Hajj problems, as negligence in this duty may cause many burdensome problems such as nullification of the Hajj rituals, or, their halting in EHRAM status. The distinguished ulema of the caravans should invite the pilgrims of their supervised caravans to training sessions on Hajj rituals and the pilgrims are strongly required not to be remiss a moment, but try to learn the problems whole-heartedly and perform the rituals with full awareness.(21)
I would like to point out to the pilgrims of the sanctified House of God, to scrupulously learn the rites and rituals from the clergymen of the caravans and never proceed to the rituals without their guidance. Many a time, God forbid, your performance may be nullified, by negligence and you may not be able to compensate it to the end of your life and halt in EHRAM status, and return back home carrying problems for yourselves and your relatives. This is a canonical obligation not to be neglected. I further point out to the respectable clergymen that, in addition to expressly expounding problems to their supervised groups through various sessions, they must be careful to watch them during their performances and give them necessary guidance.(22)
I have to point out to the honorable ulema and clergymen of the caravans to convene sessions to discuss the canonical problems and humane responsibilities to the pilgrims, before their departure.(23) I would like to point out to our honorable sisters and brothers from other Muslim countries, before anything else, to perform the Hajj rituals--this lofty adoration--resplendently and as decreed, and try to learn its problems scrupulously, from the elite ulema, lest, God forbid, upon completion of performance and lapse of time, it becomes known that you have defaulted and your whole endeavors are squandered.(24)
The spiritual attainments of Hajj which are man's assets to eternal life and the cause for admittance to the horizons of monotheism and adoration, may not be achieved except by scrupulous performance of the devotional commandments. The honorable pilgrims and caravan clergymen must make determined efforts to learn and teach the Hajj rituals, and it is up to the learned to observe their companions, lest the commandments be violated by their companions.(25)
At any rate, the above duty is the responsibility of the caravan clergymen, I mean, it is one of their responsibilities. Another important duty is to familiarize people with Hajj problems. Many a time one sees Hajj pilgrims who make their efforts but are ignorant of Hajj problems and then they face difficulties there. A few years after they return, they ask: "We performed our rituals this way; is our Hajj performance acceptable?" or "We did not do such and such; are we right or not? are we, still, MOHREM or not?". The ulema must convene sessions to teach people, the Hajj rites and rituals; explain to them the compulsory rites and the forbidden acts, in daily sessions and people are required to attend such sessions, if they exist. They should go and learn the Hajj problems, so they will not be burdened later on, when they get back home, being doubtful about whether or not their rites have been perfectly performed.
Once you have learned the problems, your practices will be free from faults. This is also compulsory for all. The clergymen must discharge this responsibility and people must pursue to learn the Hajj problems. Not just say that: "We only want to make journey to Mecca, come what may". No. This is different from other places. Now, one goes on a pilgrimage to a shrine. It does not matter if his pilgrimage ends up to nothing. He will not face a serious problem then. But in this Place, he will face problems. He will remain MOHREM. He will have to make another Hajj pilgrimage, then. This kind of problems will arise, and pursue to learn them for your own sake, so that you will not default and fall into difficulties later on. This, too, is another matter of concern.(26)
PARTICIPATION IN MASS PRAYERS OF SUNNI BROTHERS
Perform the circumambulation rite ordinarily, as all the pilgrims do. Avoid what the ignorant ones do and what many disgrace the religion absolutely. During VOQUFEIN, observance of the decrees of the Sunni judges is necessary and allowed, even if deemed inappropriate.(27) It is necessary that our Iranian brothers as well as Shias of all other countries avoid any unwise actions that may create a schism within the Muslim lines. They are required to join the Sunni brothers¨ mass prayers. They should also avoid convening mass prayers inside their houses, and utilizing loud speakers inordinately, and they must abstain from throwing themselves on the holy tombs, or doing things that are sometimes against canon law.(28)
1- From Imam Khomeini's message to the world Muslims on the occasion of opening the great devotional-political Hajj Congress and Eid-e Qurban (Feast of Sacrifices) dated Aug. 28, 1984--Sahifah Noor, vol. 19, p. 42.
2- Ibid, p. 44.
3- From Imam Khomeini's message on the occasion of Eid-e-Qurban (Feast of Sacrifices), dated Sept. 19, 1982.
4- From the speech of Imam Khomeini's addressing a group of clerics and heads of Hajj caravans on Sept. 29, 1979--Sahifah Noor, vol. 9, p. 238.
5- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, dated Aug. 15, 1985--Sahifah Noor, vol. 19, p. 199.
6- From Imam Khomeini's speech, addressing a group of Hajj caravan clerics, personnel of Public Prosecutor's office, personnel of the Islamic Revolution courts and personnel of the Armed Forces Public Prosecutor's Office, on Aug. 21, 1982--Sahifah Noor, vol. 17, p. 30.
7- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, dated July 27, 1987--Sahifah Noor, vol. 20, p. 132.
8- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims and all Muslims of the world on the occasion of Eid-e-Qurban (Feast of Sacrifices) dated Sept. 2, 1983--Sahifah Noor, vol. 18, p. 87.
9- From Imam Khomeini's message to Muslims of the world on the occasion of Eid-e-Qurban (Feast of Sacrifices) dated Aug. 28, 1984--Sahifah Noor, vol. 19, p. 43.
10- From Imam Khomeini's speech addressing the minister and executives of the Ministry of Islamic Guidance, Hajj Organization Personnel and Imam's representative and supervisor of Iranian pilgrims and the caravan clerics on Aug. 16, 1983--Sahifah Noor, vol. 18, p. 67.
11- From Imam Khomeini's speech addressing the President, Prime Minister and the cabinet on the occasion of the government week, on Aug. 22, 1987--Sahifah Noor, vol. 20, p. 145.
12- From Imam Khomeini's speech addressing a group of Pakistani pilgrims on Nov. 6, 1980--Sahifah Noor, vol.
13, p. 163. 13- From Imam Khomeini's speech addressing a group of the Armed Forces officers upon their return from Hajj pilgrimage, on Nov. 3, 1979--Sahifah Noor, vol. 10, p. 223.
14- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, dated Sept. 28, 1979--Sahifah Noor, vol. 9, p. 226.
15- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, dated Aug. 6, 1986--Sahifah Noor, vol. 20, p. 8.
16- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, dated Aug. 15, 1985--Sahifah Noor, vol. 19, p. 197.
17- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, dated Aug. 15, 1985--Sahifah Noor, vol. 19, p. 197.
18- Ibid, p. 202.
19- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, dated Aug. 6, 1986--Sahifah Noor, vol. 20, p.19.
20- From Imam Khomeini's message on the occasion of Eid-e Qurban (Feast of Sacrifices), dated Sept. 19, 1982--Sahifah Noor, vol. 17, p. 28.
21- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, and the world Muslims on the occasion of Eid-e Qurban (Feast of Sacrifices), dated Sept. 2, 1983--Sahifah Noor, vol. 18, p. 88.
22- Ibid, dated Aug. 6, 1986, vol. 20, p. 19.
23- From Imam Khomeini's message regarding duties of the pilgrims, dated Sept. 19, 1979--Sahifah Noor, vol. 9, p. 176.
24- From Imam Khomeini's message to the pilgrims, dated Aug. 15, 1985--Sahifah Noor, vol. 19, p. 199.
25- From Imam Khomeini's message to the Muslims of the world on the occasion of the grand devotional-political congress of Hajj and Eid-e-Qurban (Feast of Sacrifices), dated Aug. 28, 1984--Sahifah Noor, vol. 19, p. 44.
26- From Imam Khomeini's speech, addressing the caravan clerics, personnel of Public Prosecutor's Office, personnel of the Islamic Revolutionary Courts and personnel of the Armed Forces Public Prosecutor's Office, dated Aug. 21, 1982--Sahifah Noor, vol. 16, p. 255.
27- From Imam Khomeini's message regarding the duties of the pilgrims, dated Sept. 19, 1979--Sahifah Noor, vol. 9, p. 177.
28- From Imam Khomeini's message regarding the duties of the pilgrims, dated Sept. 19, 1979--Sahifah Noor, vol. 9, p. 176.