Allama Muhammad Taqi Qummi
Muhammad Taqi Qummi was born in 1910 in a religious family in the holy city of Qum.
His father was an Islamic Judge, Agha Seyyed Ahamd Qummi, who was proverbial among all with respect to good name. From his childhood his genius was distinguished. He passed the educations prevalent in that era and reached to the degree of mastery. He was conversant in the religious texts as he perfectly knew the languages such as Arabic, English and French. He had accessibility to the vast resources and he was conversant in them, He wanted to redeem the Islamic societies from the destructive discrepancies, colonialism and slavery.
The moral ethos:
1- The thought: In spite of the fact that he was not a politician but he had an specific attention to the daily issues of the world and he was very disturbed about the circumstances of the Islamic nations. Allama Muhammad Taqi Qummi says: “In the presence of the world of Islam there have been the opportunity in two fields including the politics field and the moral field.” He believed that the scientist who have profound knowledge and thought as well as the clear wisdom, are making the deadly weapons and they are proud of them. This is reason that the era of the humanitarian ethic has come to an end. Now the thinkers are seeking the way of redemption from this savage circumstance, the Muslims should present the Divine Law of Islam to the world because it insures the human's progress.
2- Reliance: In his era the Shias used to call the four followers of Sunnis as Nassebi and they used to call Shias as Heretic mutually. In such a circumstance the only factor that maintained the hope alive in the heart of Allama Qummi was reliance on God, the Almighty. Based on the teachings of holy Quran, Allama Qummi placed reliance on God, the Almighty and God also responded to him.
3- Liberality: Allama Qummi tolerated the entire pressures with the patience and forbearance and he was steadfast pertaining the approach that he had chosen.
4- Self-sacrifice: he was never seeking reputation and position which due to it he is unknown. He never wanted to mention the services that he had performed, so that a number of the profiteers benefited from the mentioned ethos of Allama and recorded his works under the names of themselves but Allama Qummi never attempted to respond them.
5- Prudence: The prudence characteristic is one of the ethos of the world reformist that Allama Qummi also could be placed among them. He used to look at the beyond of the time which its imagination is impossible by the people. God, the Almighty bestowed his grace upon him so that he witnessed the consequence of his attempts.
The Thoughts of Allama Muhammad Taqi Qummi:
a- The Unitarian Thought: Allama Muhammad Taqhi Qummi is a reformist who devoted all of his life and powers in the way of his sublime goal which means the world of Islam's unity.
In his invitation to unity he refrained from two affairs. Firstly instead of promoting his reformist opinions among the populaces he went among the religious ulama (scholars) and attracted their attention towards himself. Secondly, he prevented from the contamination of his solidarity theory with the politics.
b- Proximity: Through organizing the community of Dar-al-Taghrib, Muhammad Taqi Qumi put the burden of responsibility on the shoulders of the Islamic dignitaries and did not put the burden of responsibility of reformist movement on the shoulder of an specific individual.
c- Attention to the solidarity: Allama believed that the Muslims in the early era of Islam established the palace of the Islamic culture, the entire Muslims have common denominator in the principles because it was based on the Divine wisdom.
The religious leaders in the early era of Islam through realistic understanding of this reality that the difference in the Jurisprudence opinions is stemmed from the kind of concept from the holy Quranic verses and narrations, not only were not at enmity with one another but also they used to respect the view points of the other religions and they did not attempt to impose their opinions to the others.
Allameh Qummi never attempted to merge the Islamic schools of thought with one another, but he believed that the entire Islamic schools of thought including Shia and Sunni have been shared in the creation of the Islamic culture and its development and growth as well as its sublimity. Allameh always acknowledged that if we seek the past honor and exaltation, the only way facing the Muslims is the unity of the Islamic schools of thought.
d- Utilizing the opportunities: in spite of the fact that he believed that the reformist movements and the unity of the Islamic schools of thought should not be contaminated with the policies of the rulers of the time, he never neglected the political incidents of that era of history and such as a prudent politician he was looking for the social opportunities. But he used to take advantages from the opportunity unities in the way of exaltation of Islam and the Muslims not in the way of his personal interests.
e- In the field of politics: with respect to encountering with the anti- islamic political movements he believed that the best kind of utilizing the opportunities is the reflection of the religion in the curriculum of the educational institutes. He never said that because the world has been converted in two poles we should be allied either with East or West but he said that we should benefit from this opportunity to strengthen the view points and insights of the new generation. Allamah Qummi constantly used to indicate to the three following points:
1- He speaks about the spirit of Islam, through this expression he made to understand that the human beings have ignored the truth of Islam and they don’t know the real meaning of Islam.
2- He wants the spirit of Islam in the hearts not superficially and verbally.
3- Allama believed that the countries same as the hearts are able to understand and conceive the spirit of Islam. Thus the Islamic countries should be ruled through the precise consideration of the Islamic commands.
f- Science and religion: Allama Qumi believed that through the ruling of the religion there will be created a safe society with spiritual and literary spirit in such a society the hearts will find tranquility and the knowledge will be crystallized and the tranquility of the spirits and blooming of the wisdom will open the road of science and knowledge. In this way the religious society will pure the way and prepare the situation for the entrance of science in the society.
Allameh believed if the science in its rapid changes takes-away from the circle of ethic, religion and science will be in contradiction with one another. He believed that the scientific durations should be accompanied by the religious teachings otherwise the religion and science both will be more towards nothingness.
The Founder of Egyptian Dar-al-Taghrib:
By reason and argument, Mohammad Taghi Qummi went to the Ulama of Al-Azhar University and asked them in collaboration with him to establish the community of Dar-al-Taghrib and they accepted his reasons and agreed with his request. According to the existing resources and the documents, in spite of the existing hesitates certainly and undoubtedly the initiator of inviting towards the reformist movement of Taghrib is Mohammad Taghi Qumi.
Taking step in the way of Taghrib (proximity):
He and his entourage have passed the three fold stages of Taghrib (proximity) which are as Follows:
1- The stage of arrangement: This stage began in 1938 and Allamah with the purpose of in voting towards solidarity and Fraternity among the Islamic ummah took a trip to Egypt to visit Mohammad Moustafa Maraghi, the then Dean of Al-Azhar University. In his first visit with Shaikh Mareghi he recognized his agreement with the thought of unity and solidarity.
2- Stage of bringing into existence: The term of survival and enduringness of any thought and invitation is taking-away of it from the responsibility of an individual and putting the responsibility on the shoulders of a community.
3- The stage of confirmation: In this stage there was opened a new chapter in connection with the relationships among the ulama (scholars) of Shia and Sunni Shaikh Abdul Majid Salim began to correspond with Shia ulama including the Grand Ayatollah Broujerdi. The other man that could be reminded is Shaikh Mahmoud Shaltoot who joined to Dar-al- Taghrib and from his first day of joining it till the last day of his life he remained there active.
In step with the grand ulama of Shia and Sunni, Allama also opened of dialogue between the two Islamic schools of thought.
The basis of the constitution of the community of Taghrib:
One of the luminous epitomes of the thought of Allama and his entourage's attitude towards solidarity was the compilation of a law under the title of the constitution for the community of Taghrib that he and his sympathetic attempted their general principles which were agreed with all of them unanimously with respect to solidarity be ruling on Dar-al-Taghrib as an enduring law. In this way they attempted to prevent the application of the personal views as well as relying upon the individuals pertaining to the constitution of Dar-al- Taghrib.
The Achievements of Dar-al-Taghrib:
If we know the consequences of the institute of Dar-al- Taghrib, undoubtedly we will become aware from the Characteristics and ethos of its founder. Now we reckon briefly achievements that are as follows:
1- One of the fruitions of the acts taken by Dar-al-Taghrib is the creation of the chair of Simultaneous Jurisprudence in the Al-Azhar University and opening the door of ijtihad and issuing the authorization of following the other Islamic schools of thought and enacting the laws of marriage and divorce according to the Twelver Shia School of thought.
2- Among the other fruitions of Dar-al-Taghrib there could be named the creation of solidarity and relationships among the grand ulama of Shia and Sunni.
3- One of the acts taken by Dar-al-Taghrib was the dispatch of the representative to the Islamic Congresses throughout the world. Those representatives by their presence in the general assemblies attempted to remove the problems and regional misunderstandings.
4-one of the shining and useful activities of Dar-al-Taghrib was the introduction of Shia as “one of the Islamic Schools of Thought” which it is one of the most important achievements of Dar-al-Taghrib.
5- One of the other benefits of Dar- al-Taghrib is its influence upon the other Islamic councils of that era. For instance the Supreme Council of Egyptian Islamic Affairs fell into this thought to collect the authentic traditions of Shia.
Also it attempted to collect the common traditions (Ahadith) among Sunni and Shia.
The fruitions of Allama Mohammad Taqi Qummi movement:
The movement that Allama Qummi initiated in1938 in line with the proximity of Islamic schools of thought led to the intellectual and amendment of insight revelation in the world of Islam. In addition to the ulama of Islamic schools of thought, the ulama of the other religions also though to amend the discrepancies existing among the religions and their writers tried to refrain from writing the topics in their writings which would lead to flaming up the fire of spite among the followers of the religions.
1- the strategy of unity in the Islamic political thought, Mir Ahmad Movaseghi
2- Al-Eteghadat Shaikh Sadoq
3- The solidarity of the Islamic schools of thought, Dr. Abdul-Karim BiAzar Shirazi
4- Hojjat-ul Balegheh Dehlavi
5- Ghessat-ul-Taghrib by Dar-al-Taghrib Bain-ul-Mazaleb-al-Islamieh
6- The Journal of Resalat- al- Islam.